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Beverly J. SeminaraLINKS:
H.E. LINKS - ARTICLE, FAQ's and THYROID DISEASE INFORMATION
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Directory and Search Engine for KIDS
Date: 2002-2003 – Present: 2005
Web Site Description:
MeSoFun Directory and Search Engine for Kids
Directory within Site:
Directory - Search: Condition Disease Disorder Rare
MeSoFun H.E. Page Links:
Link - H.E. Article:
“Information on Hashimoto's
Encephalopathy: A rare neuroendocrine disorder
related to Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, from
Directory and Search Engine for Psychological Sciences -
Date: 2003-2004 – Present: 2005
Web Site Description:
PsychNet – Clinical Psychology Links
PsychNet is an independent private web site
which was conceived, developed and is run for the benefit of mental health
professionals or those interested in mental health practices. Our goal is to
become the preferred
PsychNet-UK is an independent web site and has no association with PsychNET.org, the American Psychological Association or the British Psychological Society.
PsychNet Site Link:
PsychNet Page to H.E. Links 1 and 2:
Link 1 – H.E. Article:
PsychNet H.E. Description Listed:
“...Hashimoto's Encephalopathy: A Neuroendocrine Disorder - Hashimoto's Encephalopathy: A
Neuroendocrine Disorder By
Link 2 – H.E. Introduction:
PsychNet H.E. Description Listed:
“Hashimoto's Encephalopathy by Mary J. Shomon Hashimoto's Thyroiditis is the autoimmune thyroid disease that is the most common cause of hypothyroidism. 3/5
“Hashimoto's Encephalopathy: A Brief Introduction - Hashimoto's Encephalopathy by Mary J. Shomon…”
Directory and Search Engine: “Google”
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Google Answers is a way to get that help from Researchers with expertise in online searching.
A Researcher will search for the information you want. When they find it, they will post it to Google Answers. Google Answers Researchers are experts at locating hard-to-find information on the web, and through offline resources as well. Researchers must go through an application process that tests their research skills and the quality of their answers. All Google Researchers are tested to ensure that they are expert searchers with excellent communication skills. Some of them also have expertise in various fields. Your question may be answered by an expert in a particular field or by an expert searcher.
Google Answers Site Link:
Link to Answer about HASHIMOTO’S ENCEPHALOPATHY by Researcher:
Question Asked: “Subject: Hashimoto Enzephalopathie”
Health/Medicine: “Diagnostics and Therapy of the Hashimoto Encephalopathy”
“Google Answers” H.E. Page Link:
“Descriptions of diagnosis and treatment of the rare Hashimoto's Encephalopathy are very hard to find. Finally, I was able to locate
two texts - one from a Hashimoto's Encephalopathy patient, one from a collection of medical essays - providing overviews. I have combined elements from both texts for you. In case you would like to read the original essays including their bibliographies and references, you will find links to the respective websites below.”
“- Hashimoto's Encephalopathy –“
“Hashimoto's Encephalopathy is a subacute condition associated with autoimmune thyroiditis. It is a severe and rather infrequent clinical condition initially described in patients suffering from chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. Its origin is still controversial but it can be agreed to have an autoimmune etiology. In fact, its most characteristic finding is the high titre of antithyroid antibodies,
especially antimicrosomal. Its presentation varies from focal neurologic deficits to global confusion. Unlike encephalopathy associated with hypothyroidism, Hashimoto's Encephalopathy responds to steroid therapy and not thyroxine replacement.
“There are some conflicting views by researchers as to Hashimoto's Encephalopathy being a type of autoimmune cerebral vasculitis, a neuroimmunological syndrome, a neurological encephalopathy, a condition that develops due to Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, or perhaps a disorder that should be classified separately. What is known is that it is a neuroendocrine disorder -meaning it affects both the endocrine system, and the neurological (nervous) system.
“The neurological symptoms frequently lead to mistaken neurological diagnoses; furthermore, Hashimoto's Encephalopathy, while rare, may have been underrecognized, since its clinical presentation overlaps several more common disorders, such as depression, seizures, or anxiety - it is likely that more cases exist than are actually properly diagnosed. Hashimoto's Encephalopathy typically have high antithyroid antibody titers as do patients with Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, and all patients with Hashimoto's Encephalopathy eventually are diagnosed with Hashimoto's Thyroiditis as well.
“The average age of onset in reported cases is 47 years (range, 14 to 78 years). Approximately 85% of the patients are women. Two types of clinical presentation can be observed. The first type is characterized by acute stroke-like episodes with transient focal neurologic deficits and even epileptic seizures. The second form has a more insidious onset, progressing to dementia, psychosis, and coma over several weeks. No focal neurologic deficits are seen in the latter type, but neuropsychologic testing reveals severe cognitive deficits.
“No specific diagnostic test exists for Hashimoto's Encephalopathy. Thyrotropin and FT4 levels should be relatively normal. A positive antithyroid antibody titer is necessary but not sufficient in making the diagnosis of Hashimoto's Encephalopathy. The presence of other autoantibodies, such as anti-parietal cell antibody or anti-intrinsic factor antibody, has been reported. Although nondiagnostic, these additional autoantibodies can signify an increased likelihood of an immune-mediated form of encephalopathy.
“In about 75% of reported cases, the cerebrospinal fluid reveals an elevated protein level (range, 0.48 to 2.98 g/L [48 to 298 mg/dL]). Of these, 25% also have mononuclear pleocytosis (range, 8 to 169 cells). Oligoclonal bands are detected in 4 of 15 patients for whom such a result is reported. Glucose level is always normal. Therefore, while cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities are usually seen in Hashimoto's Encephalopathy, a normal examination may be present in up to 25% of cases and does not rule out the condition.
“Electroencephalography is abnormal in more than 90% of cases. Typically, the EEG shows nonspecific, intermittent slow wave activity. Epileptic activity has been documented in several cases. These abnormalities do not improve and even worsen after the initiation of anticonvulsant therapy.
“Neuroradiology studies frequently reveal nonspecific findings, such as bilateral subcortical high signal lesions on T2-weighted images, or mild cerebral atrophy with temporal predominance. Cerebral angiograms (reported in 10 cases) and Doppler sonograms of cerebral vasculatures (reported in 5 cases) are normal.
“Many symptoms can occur. Some patients experience many of these symptoms, others may show some but not all of the symptoms listed here. Symptoms include:
-Attention Span Problems
-Difficulty Retaining Information
-Short Term Memory Problems
-Monoclonal Jerks - Involuntary Muscle Jerks
-Episodes of Stroke
-Episodes of Stroke-Like Deterioration
-Right Sided Hemiparesis - Right Sided Partial Paralysis
-Aphasia - Speech Difficulties
-Word Finding Difficulties
-Fine Motor Movement Problems - Coordination of arms, hands, fingers.
“Though it is not curable, Hashimoto's Encephalopathy is treatable. Patients with Hashimoto's Encephalopathy respond dramatically to steroid therapy. The initial dose of steroids varies between 50 mg and 150 mg of prednisone daily, usually slowly decreased over weeks to months, depending on the clinical course. While rapid improvement can be observed within 1 to 3 days, the average time from start of therapy to significant clinical improvement is 4 to 6 weeks. Most patients (90%) stay in remission even after treatment has been discontinued (with follow-up periods of up to 10 years). Hashimoto's Encephalopathy is a relapsing condition, but the use of oral corticosteroid can keep the condition manageable for many patients.”
“The above text was composed mainly from elements from:
Original text available on Thyroid-Info…”
Thyroid Forum Web Site –
Web Site Description: Schilddruesenforum
English Translation: Thyroid Forum
Schilddruesenforum (Thyroid Forum) H.E. Page Link:
In German: “Zurück zur Übersicht”
English Translation: “Back to the overview”
In German: “zum Thema: Hashimoto-assoziierte Enzephalopathie Kann das jemand sinngemäß zusammenfassen - auf Deutsch? Das wäre nett....”
English Translation: “To the topic: Hashimoto associated Enzephalopathie can summarize that in a general manner someone - on German? That would be nice....”
(Date) “23.09.2004 MWG zum Thema: Hashimoto-assoziierte Enzephalopathie leider nur in Englisch Quelle:
Schilddruesenforum (Thyroid Forum) – H.E. Article Link:
“Thyroid-Info Latest Update:
“SEARCH SITE Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy A Neuroendocrine
“ * * * Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy is a very rare and potentially deadly autoimmune disease with symptoms that can mimic many different neurological disorders. It is a treatable disorder -- if doctors figure out what it is in time and begin treating it. It is critical for the patient that doctors, neurologists and endocrinologists recognize this disease as soon as possible. When properly diagnosed and treated, patients begin positively responding within two weeks from the horrifying and most frightening symptoms.
“Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy is a disease that may have a connection to Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis. However, many patients were euthyroid (normal thyroid range) or hypothyroid upon onset. It must be made absolutely clear that just because someone is has Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis or another thyroid problem, that does not mean that the individual is destined to develop Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy - this condition is quite rare.
“Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis was
named after the Japanese physician Dr. Hakaru Hashimoto, who first described
this condition in 1912. Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis is the most common cause of
hypothyroidism in the
“Treatment is basically the treatment for hypothyroidisim - thyroid hormone replacement drugs. Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy is quite a different situation. There are some conflicting views by researchers as to Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy being a type of autoimmune cerebral vasculitis, a neuroimmunological syndrome, a neurological encephalopathy, a condition that develops due to Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis, or perhaps a disorder that should be classified separately.
“What is known is that it is a neuroendocrine disorder - meaning it affects both the endocrine system, and the neurological (nervous) system. Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy is underdiagnosed - it is likely that more cases exist than are actually properly diagnosed. It is also a treatable condition, but not curable, however, long term prognosis is good with proper treatment.
“It is also a relapsing condition, and a steroid responsive disorder, treatable with oral corticosteroids (Prednisone or its derivatives.) Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy typically have high antithyroid antibody titers as do patients with Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis, and all patients with Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy eventually are diagnosed with Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis as well.
“As with Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis, antibodies attack the thyroid gland, but with Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy, antibodies also attack neurons in the brain. The neurological symptoms frequently lead to mistaken neurological diagnoses. Many symptoms can occur.
“Some patients experience many of these symptoms, others may show some but not all of the symptoms listed here. Symptoms include: Confusion Disorientation Psychosis Coma Tremors Convulsions Concentration Problems Attention Span Problems Difficulty Retaining Information Short Term Memory Problems Seizure Activity Monoclonal Jerks - Involuntary Muscle Jerks Dementia Fatigue Coordination Difficulties Headaches Episodes of Stroke Episodes of Stroke-Like Deterioration Right Sided Hemiparesis - Right Sided Partial Paralysis Aphasia - Speech Difficulties Articulation Difficulties Word Finding Difficulties Fine Motor Movement Problems - Coordination of arms, hands, fingers. It’s easy to see how, with these types of symptoms, a patient could easily be misdiagnosed with many other neurological disorders…”
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