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Sarvajan Hitaya Sarvajan Sukhaya-U.P. Government's concern for welfare of Schedule castes/Schedule tribes -Procurin 


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U.P. Government's concern for welfare of Schedule castes/Schedule tribes

In a Cabinet meeting held here today under the Chairmanship of U.P. Chief Minister, Km. Mayawati several points were presented regarding the betterment and welfare of schedule castes and scheduled tribes. The Uttar Pradesh Government has given the top priority to establish the ''rule of law by law'' through creating the atmosphere for development and establishing the society free from injustice, crime, terror and corruption. In the year of 2005 and 2006 the incidents regarding the harassment of scheduled castes/scheduled tribes increased tremendously. The cases of murder increased 16.9 per cent, rape 15 per cent, arson 41.7 per cent, serious injuries 49 per cent, other cognisable offences 47.3 per cent, crimes under anusuchit jati/janjati atyachar nivaran adhiniyam 43.3 per cent. The law and order situation has improved remarkably during the four months regime of present government. Due the policies of the government the crime against scheduled castes/scheduled tribes people has decreased in 2007 in comparison to the year of 2006. The incidents of murder have decreased 26 per cent, arson 23.5 per cent, rape 16.3 per cent, serious injuries 37.8 per cent and the crimes under anusuchit jati/janjati atyachar nivaran adhiniyam decreased 1.6 per cent and Nagrik Suraksha Adhiniyam 40 per cent. The government ensured action after inquiry in the registered cases scheduled castes/scheduled tribes harassment including murder and rape from May 13, 2007 to Aug. 31, 2007. There is no slackness in the implementation of anusuchit jati/janjati atyachar nivaran adhiniyam and it is being ensured that this act could not be misused in any way. Cases are being registered under the act in the serious matters including murder and rape after the confirmation of crimes. Earlier, the people were being harassed and did not get justice even their F.I.Rs were not being lodged. Directives have been issued to police for registering F.I.Rs for one month after issuing of government order in these cases after the formation of government. 7,057 F.I.Rs have been lodged so far. The Uttar Pradesh Government is also ensuring that F.I.R. could not be lodged on the basis of caste, religion and political enmity. Arrangement has been made for appointing the police officers on the posts of police station officers, in charge inspectors 23 per cent from scheduled castes/scheduled tribes and 27 per cent from OBCs. Several muslim community people are also included in the category of OBCs. The Uttar Pradesh Government has given the top priority for providing land to the patta land holders and removing the illegal possessions on this land through effective action. Special campaign has been launched for it under which 50,000 patta holders have got the possession during the short period of three months, while in the year of 2005-06, 27,435 scheduled caste people and 77 scheduled tribe people got the possession. Likewise, in the year of 2006-07, 21,396 scheduled caste people and 210 scheduled tribe people got possessions. The present government has also decided to regularise the illegal possessions on gram sabha land till May 13, 2007 of scheduled castes/ scheduled tribes agriculture labourers. In the year of 2004 the government has changed the law regarding patta allotment under which scheduled caste/ scheduled tribe people were removed from the first priority though this arrangement was there for a very long time. After coming into the power the present government amended the priority order in patta allotment law under which scheduled castes/ scheduled tribes would get first priority, OBCs will be on the second number and the people belonging to upper caste living below the poverty line would be on third priority. The present government is fulfilling its responsibility for betterment and welfare of scheduled caste/ scheduled tribe people with full honesty. The special recruitment campaign for filling the backlog posts in government services is in its last phased. The Uttar Pradesh Government has also requested to the Centre to fill up the backlog quota at national level, but the Union Government has not taken any initiative in this regard, so far. It has also requested to the Centre to implement the reservation system in private sector jobs in view of the disinvestment in public sector, but the Union Government has not taken positive steps in this direction. The U.P. Government has decided to make arrangements regarding 10 per cent scheduled castes, 10 per cent OBCs and backward religious minorities and 10 per cent upper caste poor people reservation in the industrial units, projects and establishment that receive facilities from the government. 16 backward castes were included in the list of scheduled castes in the year of 2004. The present government has cancelled this because it was not accordance with the law and State Government has not right to take such decision. The Uttar Pradesh Government has taken the decision to construct two lakh houses costing Rs. 500 crore with a view to provide shelter to the scheduled caste/scheduled tribe people. The U.P. Government has constituted a high powered State level vigilance and monitoring committee for the effective implementation of anusuchit jati/janjati atyachar nivaran adhiniyam provisions. This committee comprising MLAs, MPs and other representatives has been constituted after 15 years. During the review of economic assistance being provided to the poor and unemployed scheduled caste people through Rashtriya Anusuchit Jati Vitta Evam Vikas Nigam (Anuvini), it was found that an amount of Rs. 22,222.20 lakh was demanded from Rashtriya Nigam against the notional allotment of Rs. 15,707.41 lakh during last five years, but the Rashtriya Nigam has made available Rs. 9,113.49 lakh only, which is 41.01 per cent of the amount demanded. The Chief Minister has written a letter in this connection on September 19, 2007 requesting the Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to provide proper amount of money as soon as possible. With the view to ensure participation of all sections of the society in public distribution system, it has been decided to implement the reservation system in the vacancies of of fair price shops allotment 21 per cent scheduled castes, 02 per cent scheduled tribes and 27 per cent belonging to OBC people with immediate effect. The Chief Minister has requested to the Prime Minister to make available the due total amount of Rs. 529.53 crore for distribution of free books under book bank scheme to the students of vocational courses, scholarships to scheduled caste students. Giving details the Chief Minister has written that U.P. Government has not received the amount of Rs. 90.05 crore in the year of 2003-04, Rs. 92.47 crore of 2004-05, Rs. 78.88 crore of 2005-06, Rs. 112.46 crore of 2006-07, Rs. 149.88 crore of 2007-08 and Rs. 5.79 crore under the book bank scheme for vocational courses. ***********

Modis Political Days Numbered!

By TMO | September 20, 2007

By Nilofar Suhrawardy, Muslim Media News Service (MMNS)

AHMEDABADWith his party members refusing to support him- Narendra Modi, during the forthcoming assembly elections in Gujarat, political situation was never ever so complex and confusing for him and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). The BJP central leadership has even been asked to decide between the party and Modi. If BJP senior leaders insist on supporting Modi, several BJP dissidents have signaled that they would rather align with Congress than remain in the party.

The Gujarat assembly elections are due in November. Oust Narendra Modi at all costs was the cry of BJP dissidents gathered last week along with several Congress leaders at a major farmers rally held at Race Course ground in Rajkot under the banner of Sardar Patel Utkarsh Sewa Mandal. More than 150,000 people, primarily from Kutch and Saurashtra turned up for the convention, with two farmer communities Patel and Koli present in significant number. Among the prominent leaders present at the convention were Vithal Radadia, Congress MLA (Member of Legislative Assembly) and BJP MPs (Members of Parliament) Somabhai Patel and Valabh Kataria.

Radadia, who played a crucial role in organizing the farmers convention, the mahasammelan (mega-meet), said: All the farmers have come here on their own because they are frustrated and fed up with Modi and his governments anti-farmer policies and stands. The state government doesnt have even a piece of land to give to a poor farmer. But it magnanimously gives acres to industrialists, he said.

With BJP dissidents mincing no words in criticizing Modi, home minister in the previous BJP government Gordhan Zadaphia said: Modi has committed so many sins on the hallowed land of Mahatma Gandhis origins that all those who vote against him in the coming assembly elections will earn a lot of punya (morals). Women are raped and killed by the day while he keeps boasting that they are the most protected lot in Gujarat. Describing Modi as the the biggest terrorist in the country, BJP dissident Dhiru Gajera said: There is just no limit to mans crimes. He will go to any level to win to coming polls. But we farmers and others will defeat his deadly designs.

What was unique about this convention, unlike other rebel gatherings, was that for the first time the BJP dissidents called on the people to vote for the Congress and defeat the BJP. Shouting anti-Modi slogans, they adopted a resolution to defeat the autocratic and dictatorial chief minister in the polls. The conclave also hit out at Modis mentor, L.K. Advani. Claiming that there was no BJP in Gujarat, Gajera said: It is Modis private limited company. There are only two parties, the Congress and Modi.

Though the BJP dissident leaders did not refrain from urging the farmers to crush the lotus, the BJP symbol, they did not reveal as to what were their political plans, that of joining Congress, forming a separate party or otherwise. As expressed by Kataria: We have not decided upon our final strategy as yet. For now, we are mobilizing people against Modis autocracy. Emphasizing that their stand was against Modi and not against BJP, Soma Patel and Kataria even challenged the party to suspend them for having adopted this approach.

Against this backdrop, while Modis return to power seems unlikely, it is still too early to speculate whether this development signals favorable chances for the Congress or not. If the BJP decides on selecting former chief minister Keshubhai Patel, in place of Modi, party dissidents may be won over. Though Patel was not present at the farmers gathering, Zadaphia claimed: We have not invited him to this convention. But we have his blessings.

Going forward, the political drama in Gujarat has ceased to be a battle between only the Congress and BJP, as Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) aims to gain power here. Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Mayawati began BSPs campaign in Gujarat by addressing a rally in Vadodara (September 16). Signaling her partys aim to repeat its UP-success in Gujarat, BSP-supremo said that if her party could form the UP government on its own strength, it was possible for it to do so in Gujarat also. Mayawati said: If this could happen in UP, why cant we do it in Gujarat? Outlining BSPs electoral strategy, she said: Whether we are weak or strong in any part of Gujarat, we will field all candidates in all 182 assembly constituencies in the state and will be successful as we were in UP elections. Lashing at both the Congress and BJP, Mayawati appealed to people of Gujarat to vote for her party to remove Modi-led government. With BJP dividing people on basis of religions and Congress on basis of castes, only BSP unites people of all communities on basis of bhaichara (brotherhood), she asserted. So people of Gujarat must vote for BSP, Mayawati said.

Irrespective of which party/alliance assumes power in Gujarat, it seems clear that Modi is unlikely to be chief minister!

9-39

Online edition of India's National Newspaper Friday, Sep 21, 2007

Archaeologists discover 4,000-year-old copper hoard

It was hidden in a house in Udaipurwa village for melting

Lucknow: Archaeologists have discovered a copper hoard believed to be nearly 4,000-years-old near a village in Auraiya district of Uttar Pradesh, raising hopes of its radiocarbon dating and understanding the culture and chronology of that period.

The hoard, weighing about 25 kilograms and consisting of various types of artifacts, including a barbed spearhead, an anthropomorphic figure, flat shouldered axes, chisels and rings, was discovered quite accidentally, director, UP Directorate of Archeology, Rakesh Tewari, said.

He said the hoard, which was accidentally discovered by a villager in the fields on August 31 last, was hidden in a house in Udaipurwa village for melting.

The local police, however, came to know of the discovery and raided the house and recovered the hoard, Tewari said.

It was later examined by the archaeologists of the Directorate, he said, adding that the exploration of the area showed that it was part of an ancient site which comprised a thick cultural deposit.

The site was located to the south of Udaipurwa village near the Rind river, which was a tributary of Yamuna and extended roughly in an area of 1.5 to 2 acres, he said.

Cultivation

Presently, this piece of land is under cultivation, Mr. Tewari added.

The exposed sections indicate that the site may be containing about 1.5 to 2 metre thick cultural deposit, the director said. - PTI

Abducted Delhi boy found in Hardoi

Hardoi: An eight-year-old boy, kidnapped from Delhi two days ago, was found on Thursday near Shahabad railway station in Hardoi district of Uttar Pradesh.

According to police sources, young Rahul Shukla was found by a district police team patrolling near rail tracks. He was kidnapped from Delhis Jehangirpuri area on Tuesday and the abductors were demanding a ransom of Rs. 5 lakh.

Police said the kidnappers had released the boy for fear of being nabbed.

Fossil discovery a challenging job: Misra

Special Correspondent

LUCKNOW: Earth scientist S.B. Misra, who discovered a fossil 565 million years of age in Mistaken Point in the Avalon Peninsula in Newfoundland (Canada) 40 yeas ago, says he was the first person who conducted geological mapping of the remote area.

The fossil has been named after him, Fractofusus misrai.Talking to The Hindu at his Gomtinagar residence here, the retired earth scientist recalled that the discovery of the fossil was a challenging job entrusted to him by W.D. Brueckner, Head of Department at the Memorial University, Newfoundland, St Johns. The Avalon Peninsula was a remote area and the Mistaken Point area juts out into the Atlantic Ocean. Around 50 ships were said to have crashed into Mistaken Point.

It was during the course of mapping that Dr. Misra discovered in 1967 imprints of organisms 565 million years old. This was the first convincing and oldest discovery from North America, although a similar discovery had been made in England in 1958, he said.

Dr. Misra, who retired after teaching in Kumaon University, Nainital (Uttarakhand), has settled down in Lucknow. He runs a school in his village, Kunaura, about 40 km from here. It is now being managed by his wife. It was his love for promoting rural education that led him to open the school in 1972, shortly after he returned from Canada.

The Awakened One

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AN 11.12

Mahanama Sutta

To Mahanama (1)

Translated from the Pali by

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying among the Sakyans at Kapilavatthu in the Banyan Park. Now at that time many monks were at work making robes for the Blessed One, [thinking], "When the robes are finished, at the end of the three months,1 the Blessed One will set out wandering." Mahanama the Sakyan heard that many monks were at work making robes for the Blessed One, [thinking], "When the robes are finished, at the end of the three months, the Blessed One will set out wandering." So he approached the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down, sat to one side. As he was sitting there he said to the Blessed One: "I have heard that many monks are at work making robes for the Blessed One, [thinking], 'When the robes are finished, at the end of the three months, the Blessed One will set out wandering.' For those of us living by means of various dwelling places [for the mind], by means of which dwelling place should we live?"

"Excellent, Mahanama, excellent! It is fitting for clansmen like you to approach the Tathagata and ask, 'For those of us living by means of various dwelling places [for the mind], by means of which dwelling place should we live?'

"One who is aroused to practice is one of conviction, not without conviction. One aroused to practice is one with persistence aroused, not lazy. One aroused to practice is one of established mindfulness, not muddled mindfulness. One aroused to practice is centered in concentration, not uncentered. One aroused to practice is discerning, not undiscerning.

"Established in these five qualities, you should further develop six qualities:

[1] "There is the case where you recollect the Tathagata: 'Indeed, the Blessed One is worthy and rightly self-awakened, consummate in knowledge & conduct, well-gone, an expert with regard to the world, unexcelled as a trainer for those people fit to be tamed, the Teacher of divine & human beings, awakened, blessed.' At any time when a disciple of the noble ones is recollecting the Tathagata, his mind is not overcome with passion, not overcome with aversion, not overcome with delusion. His mind heads straight, based on the Tathagata. And when the mind is headed straight, the disciple of the noble ones gains a sense of the goal, gains a sense of the Dhamma, gains joy connected with the Dhamma. In one who is joyful, rapture arises. In one who is rapturous, the body grows calm. One whose body is calmed experiences ease. In one at ease, the mind becomes concentrated.

"Of one who does this, Mahanama, it is said: 'Among those who are out of tune, the disciple of the noble ones dwells in tune; among those who are malicious, he dwells without malice; having attained the stream of Dhamma, he develops the recollection of the Buddha.'

[2] "Furthermore, there is the case where you recollect the Dhamma: 'The Dhamma is well-expounded by the Blessed One, to be seen here & now, timeless, inviting verification, pertinent, to be realized by the wise for themselves.' At any time when a disciple of the noble ones is recollecting the Dhamma, his mind is not overcome with passion, not overcome with aversion, not overcome with delusion. His mind heads straight, based on the Dhamma. And when the mind is headed straight, the disciple of the noble ones gains a sense of the goal, gains a sense of the Dhamma, gains joy connected with the Dhamma. In one who is joyful, rapture arises. In one who is rapturous, the body grows calm. One whose body is calmed experiences ease. In one at ease, the mind becomes concentrated.

"Of one who does this, Mahanama, it is said: 'Among those who are out of tune, the disciple of the noble ones dwells in tune; among those who are malicious, he dwells without malice; having attained the stream of Dhamma, he develops the recollection of the Dhamma.'

[3] "Furthermore, there is the case where you recollect the Sangha: 'The Sangha of the Blessed One's disciples who have practiced well... who have practiced straight-forwardly... who have practiced methodically... who have practiced masterfully in other words, the four types [of noble disciples] when taken as pairs, the eight when taken as individual types they are the Sangha of the Blessed One's disciples: worthy of gifts, worthy of hospitality, worthy of offerings, worthy of respect, the incomparable field of merit for the world.' At any time when a disciple of the noble ones is recollecting the Sangha, his mind is not overcome with passion, not overcome with aversion, not overcome with delusion. His mind heads straight, based on the Sangha. And when the mind is headed straight, the disciple of the noble ones gains a sense of the goal, gains a sense of the Dhamma, gains joy connected with the Dhamma. In one who is joyful, rapture arises. In one who is rapturous, the body grows calm. One whose body is calmed experiences ease. In one at ease, the mind becomes concentrated.

"Of one who does this, Mahanama, it is said: 'Among those who are out of tune, the disciple of the noble ones dwells in tune; among those who are malicious, he dwells without malice; having attained the stream of Dhamma, he develops the recollection of the Sangha.'

[4] "Furthermore, there is the case where you recollect your own virtues: '[They are] untorn, unbroken, unspotted, unsplattered, liberating, praised by the wise, untarnished, conducive to concentration.' At any time when a disciple of the noble ones is recollecting virtue, his mind is not overcome with passion, not overcome with aversion, not overcome with delusion. His mind heads straight, based on virtue. And when the mind is headed straight, the disciple of the noble ones gains a sense of the goal, gains a sense of the Dhamma, gains joy connected with the Dhamma. In one who is joyful, rapture arises. In one who is rapturous, the body grows calm. One whose body is calmed experiences ease. In one at ease, the mind becomes concentrated.

"Of one who does this, Mahanama, it is said: 'Among those who are out of tune, the disciple of the noble ones dwells in tune; among those who are malicious, he dwells without malice; having attained the stream of Dhamma, he develops the recollection of virtue.'

[5] "Furthermore, there is the case where you recollect your own generosity: 'It is a gain, a great gain for me, that among people overcome with the stain of possessiveness I live at home, my awareness cleansed of the stain of possessiveness, freely generous, openhanded, delighting in being magnanimous, responsive to requests, delighting in the distribution of alms.' At any time when a disciple of the noble ones is recollecting generosity, his mind is not overcome with passion, not overcome with aversion, not overcome with delusion. His mind heads straight, based on generosity. And when the mind is headed straight, the disciple of the noble ones gains a sense of the goal, gains a sense of the Dhamma, gains joy connected with the Dhamma. In one who is joyful, rapture arises. In one who is rapturous, the body grows calm. One whose body is calmed experiences ease. In one at ease, the mind becomes concentrated.

"Of one who does this, Mahanama, it is said: 'Among those who are out of tune, the disciple of the noble ones dwells in tune; among those who are malicious, he dwells without malice; having attained the stream of Dhamma, he develops the recollection of generosity.'

[6] "Furthermore, you should recollect the devas: 'There are the devas of the Four Great Kings, the devas of the Thirty-three, the devas of the Hours, the Contented Devas, the devas who delight in creation, the devas who have power over the creations of others, the devas of Brahma's retinue, the devas beyond them. Whatever conviction they were endowed with that when falling away from this life they re-arose there, the same sort of conviction is present in me as well. Whatever virtue they were endowed with that when falling away from this life they re-arose there, the same sort of virtue is present in me as well. Whatever learning they were endowed with that when falling away from this life they re-arose there, the same sort of learning is present in me as well. Whatever generosity they were endowed with that when falling away from this life they re-arose there, the same sort of generosity is present in me as well. Whatever discernment they were endowed with that when falling away from this life they re-arose there, the same sort of discernment is present in me as well.' At any time when a disciple of the noble ones is recollecting the conviction, virtue, learning, generosity, and discernment found both in himself and the devas, his mind is not overcome with passion, not overcome with aversion, not overcome with delusion. His mind heads straight, based on the [qualities of the] devas. And when the mind is headed straight, the disciple of the noble ones gains a sense of the goal, gains a sense of the Dhamma, gains joy connected with the Dhamma. In one who is joyful, rapture arises. In one who is rapturous, the body grows calm. One whose body is calmed experiences ease. In one at ease, the mind becomes concentrated.

"Of one who does this, Mahanama, it is said: 'Among those who are out of tune, the disciple of the noble ones dwells in tune; among those who are malicious, he dwells without malice; having attained the stream of Dhamma, he develops the recollection of the devas.'"

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Notes

1. I.e., the end of the rains retreat.

See also: AN 11.13.


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The Suttas

Sn 5.4: Mettagu-manava-puccha Mettagu's Questions

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Online edition of India's National Newspaper Thursday, Sep 20, 2007

Procuring licences, I-cards made easy

Special Correspondent

LUCKNOW: With the e-district programme of the Uttar Pradesh Government being taken up as a pilot project in six districts, people can expect to get better services in 10 fields in the next one year.

Ghaziabad, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Rae Bareli, Sitapur, Gorakhpur and Sultanpur districts have been selected in the first phase of the e-district programme, which would continue till August 2008.

The inaugural workshop of the programme held here on Wednesday focused on the use of information technology in making the services of common use better.

The people will not have to run for procuring identity cards, land revenue and pension records, services related to the public distribution system (PDS) and licences.

Inaugurating the workshop, the Chairman of the UP Board of Revenue, V.K. Malhotra, said if the pilot project in the six districts was successful, the scheme would be extended to the other districts.

He said the use of information technology can give a new direction considering that world over e-governance has been a success story.

State Principal Secretary (Information Technology) V.N. Garg said the objective of the e-district programme was to take 10 types of public services to the people.

These include proof of income, birth, death, caste, marriage, etc., different types of pension, revenue related matters and other utility services.

He said the scheme would be implemented at the district-level by the lokvani committee, headed by the District Magistrate.

The committee will create awareness through campaign in radio, TV, newspapers and other mediums.

Meanwhile, the Government has appointed consultants for implementation of the e-district programme.

These would function as implementation support agencies.

Orissa girl rescued in Uttar Pradesh

Rourkela: An eleven-year-old girl, allegedly abducted from here nearly a month ago and then sold to a Delhi-based businessman, has been rescued by the local police from Uttar Pradesh, police said.

A middle-aged woman, Nikita, was arrested yesterday for allegedly abducting and selling the girl, daughter of a daily wager of sector-7 area here, after the girl was rescued from Samoli village in Muzaffarpur district of Uttar Pradesh by Rourkela police after a long chase.


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True Teachings of The Awakened One

Dhamma

A Gradual Training

The Dhamma, the truth taught by the Buddha, unfolds gradually. The Buddha made clear many times that Awakening does not occur like a bolt out of the blue to the untrained and unprepared mind. Rather, it culminates a long journey of many stages:1

Just as the ocean has a gradual shelf, a gradual slope, a gradual inclination, with a sudden drop-off only after a long stretch, in the same way this Doctrine and Discipline (dhamma-vinaya) has a gradual training, a gradual performance, a gradual progression, with a penetration to gnosis only after a long stretch.

Ud 5.5

Monks, I do not say that the attainment of gnosis is all at once. Rather, the attainment of gnosis is after gradual training, gradual action, gradual practice. And how is there the attainment of gnosis after gradual training, gradual action, gradual practice? There is the case where, when conviction has arisen, one visits [a teacher]. Having visited, one grows close. Having grown close, one lends ear. Having lent ear, one hears the Dhamma. Having heard the Dhamma, one remembers it. Remembering, one penetrates the meaning of the teachings. Penetrating the meaning, one comes to an agreement through pondering the teachings. There being an agreement through pondering the teachings, desire arises. When desire has arisen, one is willing. When one is willing, one contemplates. Having contemplated, one makes an exertion. Having made an exertion, one realizes with the body the ultimate truth and, having penetrated it with discernment, sees it.

MN 70

In more practical terms, the Buddha taught this "gradual training" (anupubbi-katha) as a process that unfolds in six stages, guiding newcomers from first principles through progressively more advanced teachings, all the way to the fulfillment of the Four Noble Truths and the full realization of nibbana:

Then the Blessed One, having encompassed the awareness of the entire assembly with his awareness, asked himself, "Now who here is capable of understanding the Dhamma?" He saw Suppabuddha the leper sitting in the assembly, and on seeing him the thought occurred to him, "This person here is capable of understanding the Dhamma." So, aiming at Suppabuddha the leper, he gave a step-by-step talk, i.e., a talk on giving, a talk on virtue, a talk on heaven; he declared the drawbacks, degradation, & corruption of sensual passions, and the rewards of renunciation. Then when he saw that Suppabuddha the leper's mind was ready, malleable, free from hindrances, elated, & bright, he then gave the Dhamma-talk peculiar to Awakened Ones, i.e., stress, origination, cessation, & path. And just as a clean cloth, free of stains, would properly absorb a dye, in the same way, as Suppabuddha the leper was sitting in that very seat, the dustless, stainless Dhamma eye arose within him, "Whatever is subject to origination is all subject to cessation."

Ud 5.3

At each stage of the training the practitioner discovers a new and important dimension of the law of cause-and-effect kamma, the cornerstone of Right View. It is thus a very useful organizing framework with which to view the entirety of the Buddha's teachings.

The gradual training begins with the practice of generosity, which helps begin the long process of weakening the unawakened practitioner's habitual tendencies to cling to views, to sensuality, and to unskillful modes of thought and behavior. This is followed by the development of virtue, the basic level of sense-restraint that helps the practitioner develop a healthy and trustworthy sense of self. The peace of mind born from this level of self-respect provides the foundation for all further progress along the path. The practitioner now understands that some kinds of happiness are deeper and more dependable than anything that sense-gratification can ever provide; the happiness born of generosity and virtue can even lead to rebirth in heaven either literal or metaphorical. But eventually the practitioner begins to recognize the intrinsic drawbacks of even this kind of happiness: as good as rebirth in wholesome states may be, the happiness it brings is not a true and lasting one, for it relies on conditions over which he or she ultimately has no control. This marks a crucial turning point in the training, when the practitioner begins to grasp that true happiness will never be found in the realm of the physical and sensual world. The only possible route to an unconditioned happiness lies in renunciation, in turning away from the sensual realm, by trading the familiar, lower forms of happiness for something far more rewarding and noble. Now, at last, the practitioner is ripe to receive the teachings on the Four Noble Truths, which spell out the course of mental training required to realize the highest happiness: nibbana.

Many Westerners first encounter the Buddha's teachings on meditation retreats, which typically begin with instructions in how to develop the skillful qualities of right mindfulness and right concentration. It is worth noting that, as important as these qualities are, the Buddha placed them towards the very end of his gradual course of training. The meaning is clear: to reap the most benefit from meditation practice, to bring to full maturity all the qualities needed for Awakening, the fundamental groundwork must not be overlooked. There is no short-cutting this process.

Here is the Buddha's six-stage gradual training in more detail:

Generosity (dana) Virtue (sila) o The 5 Precepts

o The 8 Precepts

o The 10 Precepts

o Uposatha observance days (including this year's calendar of Uposatha days)

Heaven (sagga) o The Thirty-one Planes of Existence

Drawbacks (adinava) Renunciation (nekkhamma) The Four Noble Truths (cattari ariya saccani) i. The Noble Truth of Dukkha (dukkha ariya sacca)

Dukkha

The round of rebirth (samsara)

ii. The Noble Truth of the Cause of Dukkha (dukkha samudayo ariya sacca)

Craving (tanha)

Ignorance (avijja)

iii. The Noble Truth of the Cessation of Dukkha (dukkha nirodho ariya sacca)

Nibbana

iv. The Noble Truth of the Path Leading to the Cessation of Dukkha (dukkha nirodha gamini patipada ariya sacca) The Noble Eightfold Path:

Division Path Factor

Discernment (paa) 1. Right View (samma-ditthi)

Intentional action (kamma)

Admirable friendship (kalyanamittata)

2. Right Resolve (samma-sankappo)

Virtue (sila) 3. Right Speech (samma-vaca)

4. Right Action (samma-kammanto)

5. Right Livelihood (samma-ajivo)

Concentration (samadhi) 6. Right Effort (samma-vayamo)

7. Right Mindfulness (samma-sati)

8. Right Concentration (samma-samadhi)

Jhana

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Notes

1. Countless students over the centuries have invested inordinate time and energy grappling with the question, "Is Enlightentment 'sudden' or is it 'gradual'?" These and other passages from the Canon make the Buddha's own view on the matter quite clear: The mind develops gradually, until it is ripe to make that sudden leap to Awakening.

See also: Refuge: An Introduction to the Buddha, Dhamma, and Sangha by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.


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Temples of Gold: Seven Centuries of Thai Buddhist Paintings

Online edition of India's National Newspaper Wednesday, Sep 19, 2007

The unsung hero of Buddhist revival in India

Lakshman Jayawardena

Anagarika Dharmapala

Dr. B.R. Ambedkar is known as the messiah of the Scheduled Castes/Tribes(Original Inhabitants of The Great Prabuddha Bharath). That sure he is. He led a mass conversion into Buddhism in 1956, and thus paved the way for Buddhist revival in India. But history should record the American-born Colonel Olcott and Anagarika Dharmapala as his fore-runners.

Col. Olcott started schools for the Original Inhabitants of The Great Prabuddha Bharath and the social rejects of those days, even before Dr. Ambedkar was born. At the same period, Dharmapala was the first to feel there was a great potential to win over the hearts of the untouchables in India, whom the caste Hindus persecuted. He pointed out the need for converting 65 million of untouchables( Original Inhabitants of The Great Prabuddha Bharath)into Buddhism. He had expressed his frustration thus: I wish to start a propaganda to carry the Dhamma to the Original Inhabitants of The Great Prabuddha Bharath, but I am now very weak.

Dr. Ambedkar, along with his followers, got converted to Buddhism on October 15, 1956. This is recorded as the first historic mass conversion to Buddhism. But 58 years earlier, there was a mass conversion of Original Inhabitants of The Great Prabuddha Bharath in Colombo, the majority of whom were Indians. On July 1, 1898, Col. Olcott, accompanied by Dharmapala led a delegation of the Original Inhabitants of The Great Prabuddha Bharath from the southern India (members of the Sakya Muni Society, and who left Madras for Colombo). Olcott and Dharmapala presented the large group of untouchables from India to the High Priest of Vidyodaya Pirivena. And they took Pancasila in Sri Lanka. Then a history was created, soon forgotten. Thus the contribution of Dharmapala and Col. Olcott to revival of Buddhism in India is remarkable.

Anagarika Dharmapala, who took to the religious ministry of Buddhism under Theosophical auspices, became the first missionary of the Buddhist revival in India in 1891 when he founded the Maha Bodhi Society in Chennai. He fought for the transfer of the Buddha-Gaya temple complex to Buddhist hands. He enlisted the cooperation of influential men in India and Asian countries those days for this effort and succeeded in establishing a strong Buddhist presence in India.

The Maha Bodhi journal, started by him as the organ of the Society, was patronised by Indian intellectuals such as Rabindranath Tagore, who contributed articles and poems to it; it evoked widespread enthusiasm among educated people for the Buddha and his religion.

Dharmapalas signal achievement was the social base he built up for Buddhism to flourish again in India. He arranged to establish active centres of Buddhist worship.

Dharmapala spent in India 40 years of his life of 69. He worked day and night for the revival of Buddhism in India. Though Dharmapala was born in Sri Lanka and ceaselessly loved Sri Lanka, he was not keen to die and be buried in his own country. His desire was to breathe my last after having entered the Buddhist order in the land of Buddha, purified by the tread of peace-loving Buddhas feet.

Realising that his end was near, Ven Sri Devamita Dharmapala, as he came to be called on his getting ordained, said: Dont waste your money on buying medicine for me; use that money for Buddhist works. This is final moment. Let me be reborn and help to promote the Buddha Sasana in India. I am prepared to be born 25 times over or more times so as to help spread the Dhamma of the Great Teacher, the Samma Sambuddha over all the world. Mouthing that wish he breathed his last on April 29, 1933.

His is a big name in Sri Lanka. This great Sri Lankan, who is responsible for Buddhist revival in India, is a forgotten, unsung hero here.

(The writer is Counsellor, Information, Deputy High Commission for Sri Lanka, Chennai)

Monks protest against junta

Myanmar regime fears growing demonstrations

PHOTO: AFP

PEACEFUL STRUGGLE: Hundreds of Buddhist monks sit in protest against the Myanmar military regime in Yangon on Tuesday.

YANGON (Myanmar): More than 1,000 Buddhist monks marched peacefully in two Myanmar cities on Tuesday, the latest in a wave of recent anti-government protests that have rocked the country, witnesses said.

At least 400 monks, chanting prayers and walking in rows, marched in the countrys biggest city, Yangon, said witnesses, who refused to be named for fear of reprisals. After pro-junta toughs and plainclothes police barred them from entering Yangons famous Shwedagon pagoda and then the Botataung pagoda, the monks sat in the street and chanted before ending the protest and returning to monasteries. Thousands of onlookers cheered, clapped and offered water as the saffron-robed monks made the three-hour, 16-km march.

Unlike at earlier protests, junta supporters did not intervene. They did, however, snatch video cameras and cameras from some journalists and attempted to seize one journalist and force him into a truck, witnesses said.

Meanwhile, in the city of Bago about 80 km away, some 1,000 monks marched peacefully to the Shwemawdaw pagoda, residents said.No one was arrested in either march. The monks had given authorities a Monday deadline to apologise for beating hundreds of them two weeks ago as they marched peacefully. AP

The Milagrow SME Blog Tuesday, 18 September, 2007 Political advantage to small and medium retail

Leaders of various political parties, including those from the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and the Communist Party of India (CPI), will come together at a meeting here Wednesday to find ways to block entry of corporate houses into retail trading.

The meeting will be hosted by the Confederation of All India Traders, said Praveen Khandelwal, the secretary general of the traders' body.

He said it would be attended by amongst others BJP president Rajnath Singh, CPI general secretary A.B. Bardhan, National Democratic Alliance convenor George Fernandes and Janata Dal (United) president Sharad Yadav.

Others who would attend include BJP leader V.K. Malhotra, Akali Dal (Badal) leader Sukhdev Singh Dhindsa, Samajwadi party MP B.L. Kanchal and Bahujan Samaj Party leader Sudhir Goel.

Khandelwal said: 'With senior leaders believing in divergent political ideologies attending the meeting, the ongoing movement against entry of corporate houses into retail trading will get a significant boost.'

'It is heartening for us that the left and the right wing of the Indian polity will show their solidarity on the issue of entry of corporate houses into retail trade, which has a direct bearing on the livelihood of millions of people,' Khandelwal said.

'The entry of corporate houses into vast retail trade here in India is neither essential nor legitimate and is an attempt to capture and monopolise the retail trade,' he said.

Khandelwal said, 'entry of corporate houses into retail trading will not only render millions of people in India unemployed but also pose a serious threat to the livelihood of petty traders, farmers, labourers, hawkers and other sections of the population dependent upon retail trading'.

Source : PTI

Mayawati pitches for reservation for upper caste poor

Tuesday, September 18, 2007 | AY

Vadodara, Sept 16 (ANI): With an eye on Gujarat Assembly polls, Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Mayawati today pitched for reservation for poor among the upper castes, and accused both the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and the Congress party for not paying attention to this.Mayawati told a party rally here that she had met Prime Minister Manmohan Singh demanding reservations for the upper caste poor and told him that her Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) would support the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) to make an amendment in the Constitution."However, the Prime Minister had replied in the negative about the BSP's proposal," Mayawati added.Mayawati said that 10 per cent reservations each for scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, minorities and weaker sections of upper castes have been made in new industrial units or projects in the State after her party came to power."If it can be done in UP, then why it cannot be done at national level?" she added.Mayawati further said that both the Congress and the BJP are closer to corporate houses and capitalists; and they will oppose the reservation for upper caste poor.She said that her party will have no tie-up with any political party for Gujarat Assembly polls and will put up candidates for all the 182 seats. (ANI)

More police recruits sacked in U.P.

Special Correspondent

LUCKNOW: Continuing with the exercise of unearthing alleged irregularities in recruitments during the Mulayam Singh regime, the Mayawati government on Tuesday dismissed 3,964 police and Provincial Armed Constabulary (PAC) recruits and placed under suspension six IPS officers in the rank of DIG and SP. Four other IPS officers, placed under suspension on September 11, were again hauled up for alleged irregularities in the selections.

These officers headed the 10 recruitment boards which selected 3,664 police and 300 PAC constables between February 2005 and September 2006. Apart from a departmental inquiry, criminal cases would be filed against them.

Inquiry

A departmental inquiry was ordered against 40 members of the selection boards, including 10 officers in the rank of Additional Superintendent of Police.

On September 11, about 6,500 newly-recruited constables, selected by 14 boards during the last regime, were dismissed and 12 IPS officers placed under suspension for alleged irregularities in the selection process. In addition, around 50 officers, from the ranks of IG to Deputy SP, have been placed under suspension and departmental proceedings initiated against them.

Principal Home Secretary J.N. Chamber told newspersons that the inquiry panels report on the selection of constables by 18 recruitment boards was submitted to the government a couple of days ago. Tuesdays action pertained to 11 recruitment boards. While irregularities were found in the recruitment by 10 selection boards, only minor irregularities were detected in the selections made by the 11th board.


True Teachings of The Awakened One

Benefits to be Obtained (from Wealth)

Translated from the Pali by

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

The Buddha describes for the wealthy householder Anathapindika five skillful ways of using one's money that bring immense benefits to the giver benefits that last long after all the wealth is gone. [Often chanted by monks as a blessing after receiving food or other offerings.]

Then Anathapindika the householder went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As he was sitting there the Blessed One said to him: "There are these five benefits that can be obtained from wealth. Which five?

"There is the case where the disciple of the noble ones using the wealth earned through his efforts & enterprise, amassed through the strength of his arm, and piled up through the sweat of his brow, righteous wealth righteously gained provides himself with pleasure & satisfaction, and maintains that pleasure rightly. He provides his mother & father with pleasure & satisfaction, and maintains that pleasure rightly. He provides his children, his wife, his slaves, servants, & assistants with pleasure & satisfaction, and maintains that pleasure rightly. This is the first benefit that can be obtained from wealth.

"Furthermore, the disciple of the noble ones using the wealth earned through his efforts & enterprise, amassed through the strength of his arm, and piled up through the sweat of his brow, righteous wealth righteously gained provides his friends & associates with pleasure & satisfaction, and maintains that pleasure rightly. This is the second benefit that can be obtained from wealth.

"Furthermore, the disciple of the noble ones using the wealth earned through his efforts & enterprise, amassed through the strength of his arm, and piled up through the sweat of his brow, righteous wealth righteously gained wards off from calamities coming from fire, flood, kings, thieves, or hateful heirs, and keeps himself safe. This is the third benefit that can be obtained from wealth.

"Furthermore, the disciple of the noble ones using the wealth earned through his efforts & enterprise, amassed through the strength of his arm, and piled up through the sweat of his brow, righteous wealth righteously gained performs the five oblations: to relatives, guests, the dead, kings, & devas. This is the fourth benefit that can be obtained from wealth.

"Furthermore, the disciple of the noble ones using the wealth earned through his efforts & enterprise, amassed through the strength of his arm, and piled up through the sweat of his brow, righteous wealth righteously gained institutes offerings of supreme aim, heavenly, resulting in happiness, leading to heaven, given to priests & contemplatives who abstain from intoxication & heedlessness, who endure all things with patience & humility, each taming himself, each restraining himself, each taking himself to Unbinding. This is the fifth benefit that can be obtained from wealth.

"If it so happens that, when a disciple of the noble ones obtains these five benefits from wealth, his wealth goes to depletion, the thought occurs to him, 'Even though my wealth has gone to depletion, I have obtained the five benefits that can be obtained from wealth,' and he feels no remorse. If it so happens that, when a disciple of the noble ones obtains these five benefits from wealth, his wealth increases, the thought occurs to him, 'I have obtained the five benefits that can be obtained from wealth, and my wealth has increased,' and he feels no remorse. So he feels no remorse in either case."

'My wealth has been enjoyed,

my dependents supported,

protected from calamities by me.

I have given supreme offerings

& performed the five oblations.

I have provided for the virtuous,

the restrained,

followers of the holy life.

For whatever aim a wise householder

would desire wealth,

that aim I have attained.

I have done what will not lead to future distress.'

When this is recollected by a mortal,

a person established in the Dhamma of the Noble Ones,

he is praised in this life

and, after death, rejoices in heaven.

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Monday, September 17, 2007 Sarvajan Hitaya Sarvajan Sukhaya

BSP only national alternative, says Maya on Modi turf

Express News Service

Posted online: Monday, September 17, 2007 at 0000 hrs

VADODARA, SEPTEMBER 16: Chief Minister Mayawati projected the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) as the only national alternative that would cater to all sections of the society in a rally at Vadodaras Polo Ground on Sunday.

Mayawati, who arrived an hour and a half late at the rally venue, said though her party needed time to gain ground in the state, it was hopeful of doing well gradually.

Riding high on the electoral success in UP, Mayawati said the BSP, in a marked departure from the Congress, BJP and their allies, was not funded by industrialists and capitalists. We use the hard-earned money of the poor, and that too from each section of the society. She also said the BSP delivers what it promises. In Gujarat, she wanted to dispel the notion that the BSP is against the upper castes. Talking about the slogan Tilak Tarazu Aur Talwar, Unko Maro Jute Chaar, Mayawati said it was not coined by the BSP, but attributed to it by rivals.

We are not anti-upper castes. Otherwise, why would we give tickets to Brahmins? said Mayawati, while referring to the BSPs Brahmin face Satish Chandra Mishra.

Accusing the Congress and BJP of dividing the people on the basis of caste and religion, Mayawati said the BSP was the only party which worked towards uniting all sections .

While rebel BJP leader Nalin Bhatt shared the dais with Mayawati, other leaders from the BJP, Republican Party and the Lok Janshakti and some High Court advocates among others.

Mayawati pitches for reservation for upper caste poor

Vadodara, Sept 16 (ANI): With an eye on Gujarat Assembly polls, Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Mayawati today pitched for reservation for poor among the upper castes, and accused both the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and the Congress party for not paying attention to this.Mayawati told a party rally here that she had met Prime Minister Manmohan Singh demanding reservations for the upper caste poor and told him that her Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) would support the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) to make an amendment in the Constitution."However, the Prime Minister had replied in the negative about the BSP's proposal," Mayawati added.Mayawati said that 10 per cent reservations each for scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, minorities and weaker sections of upper castes have been made in new industrial units or projects in the State after her party came to power."If it can be done in UP, then why it cannot be done at national level?" she added.Mayawati further said that both the Congress and the BJP are closer to corporate houses and capitalists; and they will oppose the reservation for upper caste poor.She said that her party will have no tie-up with any political party for Gujarat Assembly polls and will put up candidates for all the 182 seats. (ANI)

Kerala News Headlines

Latest News, Online TV from India and Kerala, Videos, Kerala Discussion Forum

Mayawati woos upper castes; keen to replicate U.P. in Gujarat

Posted on September 17, 2007 under Main News, Hindu Share This

Bahujan Samaj Party to contest all 182 seats in Assembly elections

Kerala News Headlines

Latest News, Online TV from India and Kerala, Videos, Kerala Discussion Forum

BSP begins preparations for Lok Sabha polls

Posted on September 16, 2007 under Main News, Rediff Share This

Aiming at a repeat of its success in the recent Uttar Pradesh Assembly elections in which it secured a majority on its own, the Bahujan Samaj Party has now started preparations for the Lok Sabha polls.

Online edition of India's National Newspaper Monday, Sep 17, 2007

Mayawati woos upper castes; keen to replicate U.P. in Gujarat

Manas Dasgupta

Bahujan Samaj Party to contest all 182 seats in Assembly elections

All set: Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister and BSP chief Mayawati waves to supporters in Vadodara on Sunday as she prepares for the coming Gujarat Assembly elections.

VADODARA: Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Mayawati is to keen on replicating U.P. in Gujarat in the coming Assembly elections by presenting a united front of upper castes and backward classes against the Congress and the BJP.

Addressing a public meeting organised by the Bahujan Samaj Party to welcome some former members of the BJP, including the suspended former State general secretary, Nalin Bhatt, here on Sunday, Ms. Mayawati said her party would contest all the 182 seats in the State. She said she was not looking for power in the State immediately, but was patiently building up the party. The Bahujan Samaj had strong vote banks; they were scattered over various constituencies. She said her party would not allow its support base to be wasted by aligning with any other party.

In an apparent bid to woo the upper caste voters, both Ms. Mayawati and her party general secretary and Minister Satish Chandra Mishra repeatedly said the BSP was not against them. The Chief Minister disowned the slogans once made popular to describe the BSPs strong support base among the backward classes. She said the slogan that her party wanted to boot out the Brahmins, the Vaishyas and the Kshatriyas was the creation of the Congress and the BJP and was intended to create a division between the Dalits and the upper castes. She insisted that the BSP believed in a classless society

Ms. Mayawati refrained from naming Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi or attacking his alleged communal policies. Instead, she gave details of the steps being taken by her government in U.P. for the benefit of the backward classes, the poor and the unemployed among the upper castes.

Advocating reservation in jobs both in the public and private sectors, Ms. Mayawati said the BSP government in U.P. had stopped giving any facility to private industries unless they agreed to provide at least 30 per cent reservation in jobs, 10 per cent each for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes, the socially and educationally backward classes and the poor and the unemployed among the upper castes.

She had met Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to seek enforcement of reservation in the private sector, but was told it would be difficult to implement. But we have already done it in U.P. and if my party comes to power at the Centre, it will be implemented at the national level. But till then, we will keep pressuring the Centre.

Ms. Mayawati said her party had agreed to extend support to the UPA government at the Centre if it was prepared to take the initiative to amend the Constitution to provide for reservation for the poor and the jobless among the upper castes.

Neither the Congress nor the BJP was interested in improving the lot of the poor, she said.

Mayawati aiming at Lok Sabha

Lucknow: Aiming at a repeat of its success in the recent Uttar Pradesh Assembly elections in which it secured a majority on its own, the BSP has now started preparations for the Lok Sabha polls.

The party, which is of the view that the next parliamentary election could be held sometime next year, has begun preparations much in advance, focusing on strengthening its base, both in the State and outside, party sources said.

The BSP feels that completing ground work well in advance will enable it to gain an advantage over its rivals, and it has hence started the exercise for the next Lok Sabha polls, sources said. They said the aim was to win maximum seats in the elections to help the BSP play a greater role in national politics. The party is also working hard at consolidating its base in states like Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan, where Assembly elections are round the corner, they said.

BSP president Mayawati recently visited Himachal and Gujarat. Her close confidante Satish Misra has been trying to repeat this trend in Rajasthan through Brahmin sammelans. Those who have been sounded include the majority of sitting MPs, leaders of other parties. PTI

U.P. to appeal against court order

Special Correspondent

LUCKNOW: The Uttar Pradesh government will file a special appeal in the Allahabad High Court against the courts order to cancel the appointment of 13,000 Urdu teachers in primary schools. The order was delivered by the single Judge Bench of Justice Arun Tandon on Friday. Of the 13,000 assistant Urdu teachers selected during the Mulayam Singh regime in 2005-06, around 8,000 are undergoing two years training in Basic Teachers Course (BTC).

Shailesh Krishna, Principal Secretary to the Chief Minister, said here on Sunday that the appeal would be filed after studying the courts order.

Latest Hindu News BSP is best placed of all Sun, 09/16/2007 - 20:00

The Mayawati factor is going to dominate the political landscape over the next year. I must admit that Ms Mayawati, by her political action and deeds, is establishing herself as a 'decisive' leader for the future. The three Assembly by-election results saw the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) wresting two seats from the Samajwadi Party (SP). The BSP won the Farrukhabad seat (Congress leader Salman Khurshid's home base) and Swar Tanda by decisive margins and lost to the SP in Gunnar by 13,000 votes. Gun...

After BJP rebels, BSP gets down to wooing tribals, Muslims in Gujarat Thu, 09/06/2007 - 22:00

WITH the Bahujan Samaj Party Supremo (BSP) Mayawati slated to address a public meeting in Vadodara as a run-up to the state Assembly polls on September 16, party men are now headhunting for faces and leaders. Having declared that they will contest on all the 182 Assembly seats and have no truck with any party in < ?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" />Gujarat, BSP men are now poaching on the rebels and discontent, more so from the BJP ......

Maya snatches Mulayam seats Tue, 09/04/2007 - 00:00

Mayavati today continued her winning streak in Uttar Pradesh, wresting from the Samajwadi Party two of three seats to which Assembly bypolls were held....

Political heat puts retail in Maya freezer Fri, 08/24/2007 - 05:00

The Mayavati government today shut down all new-age retail stores selling farm products in the state, including 20 Reliance Fresh outlets and several Spencers stores opened yesterday, in the face of violent protests led by the Samajwadi Party....

Maya mulls middle path in Reliance row Tue, 09/04/2007 - 00:00

The Mayavati government may ask retail outlets like Reliance Fresh to procure vegetables from state-run wholesale markets, and not directly from farmers, sources said today....

Mayavati slams PM in Gujarat Mon, 09/17/2007 - 03:00

Mayavati today took her social engineering strategy to Gujarat, accusing the BJP and the Congress of conspiring to deny quotas to the upper-caste poor....

Uttar Pradesh IAS officers in dilemma over new head By Sharat Pradhan. Uttar Pradesh, India, 07:00 PM IST

The Indian Administrative Service (IAS) Association of Uttar Pradesh is caught in a dilemma over nomination of a new president as the two prospective nominees were once voted as among the 'three most corrupt' bureaucrats by the association members.

The issue has even caused a divide in the association, whose office bearers have no qualms about allowing either of the 'most corrupt' to head the body. But a section of senior and young bureaucrats are opposed to the idea of allowing a tainted colleague to head the representative body of the elite service.

Both officers in question, Brijendra Yadav and Neera Yadav, belong to the 1971 batch of the IAS. However, Brijendra happens to be senior to Neera within the batch and has staked claim to the top position.

Association secretary Sanjay Bhoosreddy is opposing Brijendra's case, saying the latter had resigned from the association almost two decades ago, though he has no written evidence to that effect.

'They want to ease me out to pave way for Neera Yadav,' Brijendra Yadav told IANS here Sunday.

Significantly, 10 years ago when the association undertook a unique exercise of identifying the 'three most corrupt' amongst them through a secret ballot, both Brijendra and Neera had figured in the list.

While Brijendra got sidelined due to poor health, Neera went on to hold the top bureaucratic position of the state's chief secretary during the Mulayam Singh Yadav regime. She was, however, ousted by an order of the Supreme Court following a public interest litigation (PIL) focusing on her tainted image.

Initially she was shifted to an almost equally key position of chairperson of the State Board of Revenue, only to be later moved by the Mayawati government to a far less important position of chairperson of the Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (UPSRTC).

Since then, she has been desperate to acquire some position of prominence. As association secretary Bhoosreddy is UPSRTC managing director, it apparently became simpler for Neera to push her own case to head the IAS body.

'As per the precedent of having the senior most IAS officer to head the state IAS association, Neera Yadav should have automatically become president immediately after the retirement of last incumbent Shambhu Nath on March 31. After all, she was the senior most member of the association, since Brijendra Yadav had snapped all ties with the association 20 years ago,' Bhoosreddy pointed out.

'We have decided to hold an emergency general meeting of the association on Sep 21 so that we can complete the procedure of nominating our new president.'

He lamented that, 'this was the first time in the history of the association that it has remained headless for five months.'

Asked if serious corruption charges against Neera Yadav, still under investigation by the central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) or indictment by the apex court would not reflect poorly on the association's image if she were to head the body, Bhoosreddy remarked: 'Immorality or corruption are non-issues, unless someone is actually convicted by a court.

'As far as the association is concerned, we go by our constitution which prescribes seniority as the sole criterion for heading the body,' he maintained.

Flaying Bhoosreddy for his stand, a number of IAS officers are determined to oppose the move.

'How can we allow this august body to be headed by someone who has brought disrepute and disgrace to the country's top service?' asked Vijay Shankar Pandey, an IAS officer of the 1979 batch.

Having earlier led the in-house crusade to identify the 'three most corrupt IAS officers', Pandey was firmly of the view that 'it would be most unfortunate if such tainted persons are allowed to be made president of our prestigious body.'

Suggesting a simple solution to the crisis, he said: 'We could surely pick up the third senior most IAS officer as next president since the reputation of the two in question was highly tainted.'

The third most senior officer, V.K. Malhotra, is rated as 'above board.'

Updated: 17 Sep 2007, 0837hrs IST | Powered by Indiatimes

BSP worker dies in Vadodara rally 16 Sep 2007, 2011 hrs IST,PTI

VADODARA: A man attending a public rally organised by Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) in Vadodara fainted at the venue and died, police sources said.

Vallabhai Jodia, who had come from Veraval town, fainted at Polo Ground. He was rushed to a city hosptial, where he was pronounced dead, they said.

The cause of the death will be known once the post- mortem report comes, they said.

Maoist Resistance Saturday, September 15, 2007 Haryana:Dalit unrest Dalit rally

T.K. RAJALAKSHMI in Gohana

Dalit resentment becomes widespread in Haryana following the murder of a Valmiki youth.

PTI

Police personnel trying to control protesters at Gohana.

ON the night of August 27, Rakesh Lara, a popular local leader of Valmikis, the community considered to be the lowest in the Dalit hierarchy, was shot dead by three motorcycle-borne assailants in Gohana town of Sonepat district in Haryana. The date was perhaps a coincidence: on August 27, 2005, Baljeet Siwach, a Jat youth, was murdered by some Valmiki youth following a petty quarrel. In the reprisal that followed, 50 Dalit homes were singled out for arson and looting.

As soon as news of Lara's death spread, a police assistance booth was set on fire in Sonepat, window panes of vehicles were broken and two oil tankers were almost set afire on National Highway 71. For the next two days, Dalit resentment became widespread in Haryana and neighbouring Punjab. Angry Valmikis, in response to a call given by the All India Valmiki Mahasabha, poured out on the streets in an unprecedented manner in Hisar, Sirsa, Sonepat, Rohtak, Hansi, Gurgaon, Bhiwani, Jhajjar, Panipat, Karnal, Yamunanagar, Fatehabad, Ambala and Panchkula districts and in Chandigarh and set public property on fire. In Punjab, members of the Balmiki Samaj in Sangrur, Jalandhar, Amritsar, Phagwara, Nawanshahar and Patiala districts staged protests. Normalcy returned on August 30 after some arrests were made. Even the lynching of five Dalits on October 15, 2002, in the presence of the police and civil administration officials at Duleena in Jhajjar district, did not draw the kind of reaction that Lara's death provoked.

The Gohana administration had not anticipated protests on this scale. The message that seemed to go out to the Valmikis was that Lara's murder was a revenge killing carried out at the behest of the upper castes, apparently with support from government officials.

It was widely believed that the 2005 incident would not have happened without the backing of Lara. There was little doubt then that the administration had acted in a partisan manner by allowing an upper-caste mob to loot and burn Valmiki homes. Lara went underground and the Valmiki families fled, fearing reprisal. The Dalit youth was, however, discharged in the Siwach murder case.

AKHILESH KUMAR

Bhupinder Singh Hooda. His government is facing Dalit ire.

By and large, the protests that followed Lara's killing were led by a motley group of organisations representing "backward and Dalit" interests. In some districts, the protests were spearheaded by caste organisations affiliated to the main Opposition party, the Indian National Lok Dal (INLD), and in some others by the rival factions within the Congress. In Gohana, Congress legislator Dharampal Malik was not allowed to participate in the condolence meeting called by the Valmiki community. The Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) jumped into the fray, demanding the arrest of the killers, and served an ultimatum on the Bhupinder Singh Hooda-led Congress government to deliver results by the month end. BSP State president Prakash Bharti told mediapersons that he had been deputed by BSP supremo and Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Mayawati to assess the situation.

CHAMPION OF THE DOWNTRODDEN

As a community that has been struggling for social acceptability, Valmikis saw Lara as the champion of the downtrodden. In 2001, this local hero grabbed the collar of a Deputy Superintendent of Police whom he accused of helping members of the dominant caste in a land grab case. "How could he [Lara] do that? It was as good as challenging the system," Arun Nehra, DSP, Gohana, told Frontline. Nehra himself has come under a lot of pressure since Lara's murder. There are demands from caste organisations for his removal. "For two years, I kept the peace in Gohana. No one can accuse me of taking sides," the police officer, known for his uprightness, said. The investigation into Lara's murder has been taken from his jurisdiction and handed over to the Superintendent of Police, Sonepat. The Haryana Police are now relieved that the government has ordered an inquiry by the Central Bureau of Investigations (CBI).

The police maintain that Lara was a small-time thug and extortionist. His iconic status was unjustified, especially as he had eight cases pending against him for robbery, assault and other crimes, they say. Valmikis refute this. "If he was a criminal, would hundreds of people turn up at his cremation?" asked Rampal Singh Pradhan, representing the Valmiki Mahasabha. "In fact, he used to protest against extortion. Where are the industries in Gohana for him to extort money from? There are only two bazaars here." Lara's mother, Shakuntala, is certain that her son was not an extortionist. "Yes, he used to help adjudicate disputes," she said, but insisted that he intervened mostly on behalf of the poor.

T.K. RAJALAKSHMI

Mother, wife and sisters of Rakesh Lara at a public mourning for the murdered Dalit youth, in Gohana.

Pran Ratnakar of the Dalit Nyaya Andolan, an organisation fighting for the rights of Dalits all over India, told Frontline that Valmikis had no intention of making the issue into a Jat-versus-Valmiki one. "We have lost faith i n the administration and the police here. Even if the CBI inquiry does not come out with anything concrete, we'll believe it," he said. Valmikis feel that there is an attempt to target Valmiki youth as the community has attained some economic success in the past few years. "They [Jats] do not like the status we've acquired for ourselves. They probably want to see us only as safai karamcharis," said Ratnakar, who is a small-time property dealer in Panipat.

Clearly, the social resentments run deep. Lara was seen primarily as a Dalit, and that is the identity that assumes importance with his fellow Valmikis after his murder. Whether or not he was an extortionist becomes immaterial from this perspective. No wonder, then, that the protests have taken on a caste dimension.

The Sonepat S.P., Navdeep Singh Virk, told Frontline that the flare-up could have been far worse as it was known that members of the dominant community were involved in the murder. Virk said the police had little reason to believe t hat there was a caste or revenge angle to the murder. None of the five accused was related to Baljeet Siwach, Virk said, adding that they were all history-sheeters. "The person who fired the shot was a lifer who had jumped parole," Nehra informed the S.P. Police theories seem to suggest two reasons for the murder. One theory is that it was the outcome of a turf war; the other is that Lara got killed because he extorted protection money from shopkeepers, including those from his own community. Plans to murder him were hatched both "inside" and "outside" jail, police sources say.

DALIT ASSERTION

There is no doubt that Dalits and backward castes are an exploited lot in the State. However, the overall social situation has changed drastically since the Duleena incident of 2002. The Dalits now assert themselves and articulate their anger at all available fora. The situation in cities and towns is no longer one of dependence. In a factory or an industry, a Dalit is less likely to be discriminated against. In towns, Dalit women work in upper-caste homes. They even cook food for their employers.

On the other hand, the caste politics practised by prominent political parties has affected Valmikis too. Lara, it is learnt, not only was a protector of his community but worked for certain political parties (he was known to be an INLD worker). But after the 2005 arson in Gohana, he "changed", as did many other Valmiki youth. Caste consciousness became stronger among the youth, and the political parties only helped entrench the feeling.

T.K. RAJALAKSHMI

Family members of the rape victim at Ahulana village in Sonepat district. The potter family is facing a social boycott.

Ironically, on August 26, Chief Minister Hooda announced major relief measures in the form of enhanced minimum wages and special relief for farmers. "The problem is that even if Hooda adopts such measures, he is only seen as patronising members of his own community," Inderjit Singh, State secretary of the Communist Party of India (Marxist), said. His party colleague S.N. Solanki, who is a lawyer in Sonepat, said Lara's murder was not a caste killing but the result of the charged atmosphere in the State. It was interpreted as one because of the increasing number of reports on atrocities against Dalits and backward castes, he said.

UP IN ARMS

Even as the Gohana administration grappled with the situation following Lara's murder, in nearby Ahulana village, members of the Vishwakarma community, a backward caste, were up in arms against the Sonepat administration for refusing to register a case of rape against two young men belonging to a dominant caste. The alleged incident, involving a Vishwakarma woman, took place on July 18.

This correspondent visited the village. The victim's family, potters by profession, claimed that the Station House Officer, Ishwar Rathi of the Barauda police station, refused to register a case on the basis of the victim's complaint. Her relations said the SHO had promised to arrange for a medical examination by a woman doctor, but it was not done. Finally, a case of molestation was registered against the two Jat youth.

To add insult to injury, on August 21, the Ahulana panchayat, allegedly with the connivance of the elected sarpanch, ordered a social boycott of the family and warned that anyone found violating the boycott would be fined Rs.1,100. The boycott was seen as a ploy to get the family to withdraw the police complaint.

"This means no one will let us enter their fields or sell us fodder, milk or any essential provisions. No one will talk to us; our children will suffer humiliation at school," said Sher Singh, the victim's uncle.

In Ahulana, there are around 40 homes of potters and 100-odd homes belonging to the upper castes. "Everyone is scared of annoying the powerful in the village," said Suresh, brother-in-law of the victim. The S.P. held that the family was not cooperating with the investigation and had refused to give the clothes the victim wore on the day of the rape for forensic examination, a charge denied by the victim's family.

T.K. RAJALAKSHMI

The social boycott of the potter family has deprived their livestock of fodder.

On August 13, angry members of the Dalit and backward communities took to the streets demanding justice for the Ahulana victim and a Dalit woman in Joli village, again in Gohana subdivision, victim of an alleged rape attempt. The protesters condemned the formula of "compromise" (that is, withdraw the complaint and the social boycott will be lifted) used every time an atrocity is committed on Dalits and backward castes.

"Why can't the police lift the social boycott? Is it permissible under the law?" asked Mahender Singh Panchal, secretary of the Backward Classes and Dalit Welfare Committee, an organisation floated to protect the interests of these communities. The Gohana DSP said that the molestation case was in court and there was little that the accused could do in terms of manipulating the law. He, however, prevailed on the sarpanch to ensure that no "social" harassment of the victim's family took place.

The Hooda government may have little to do with the upsurge of revolt by the backward and Dalit communities. The problem is that successive administrations have ignored this simmering discontent, which, along with other socio-economic problems, including changes on the agrarian scene, is threatening to prove a major headache for the Hooda government.

The Duleena lynching took place during the INLD-Bharatiya Janata Party regime. The same parties are now portraying themselves as champions of Dalit rights. The accused in the Duleena case were let off on bail after an apology was extracted from them. Not a single government official was held accountable. Despite demands for a CBI inquiry, the Om Prakash Chautala government refused to recommend one. It was during INLD-BJP rule that an elected Dalit sarpanch of Pehrawar village in Rohtak district went missing. His body has never been found (Frontline, January 16, 2004).

Among the political parties, only the Left, notably the CPI(M), has consistently protested against these atrocities without any hidden "caste agenda". The Congress, which makes platitudinous noises at the Centre about the welfare of backward classes and Dalits, often takes a U-turn when it comes to the crunch in States where upper-caste constituencies matter, in an electoral sense.


True Teachings of The Awakened One

Conviction

Translated from the Pali by

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

The five rewards that a layperson can expect for having conviction (faith) in the Triple Gem.

"For a lay person, there are these five rewards of conviction. Which five?

"When the truly good people in the world show compassion, they will first show compassion to people of conviction, and not to people without conviction. When visiting, they first visit people of conviction, and not people without conviction. When accepting gifts, they will first accept those from people with conviction, and not from people without conviction. When teaching the Dhamma, they will first teach those with conviction, and not those without conviction. A person of conviction, on the break-up of the body, after death, will arise in a good destination, the heavenly world. For a lay person, these are the five rewards of conviction.

"Just as a large banyan tree, on level ground where four roads meet, is a haven for the birds all around, even so a lay person of conviction is a haven for many people: monks, nuns, male lay followers, & female lay followers."

A massive tree

whose branches carry fruits & leaves,

with trunks & roots

& an abundance of fruits:

There the birds find rest.

In that delightful sphere

they make their home.

Those seeking shade

come to the shade,

those seeking fruit

find fruit to eat.

So with the person consummate

in virtue & conviction,

humble, sensitive, gentle,

delightful, & mild:

To him come those without effluent

free from passion,

free from aversion,

free from delusion

the field of merit for the world.

They teach him the Dhamma

that dispels all stress.

And when he understands,

he is freed from effluents,

totally unbound.


True Teachings of The Awakened One

A Meal

Translated from the Pali by

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

Whenever one gives the gift of food, five wonderful things are also given, automatically, to both giver and recipient alike. [Often chanted by monks as a blessing after receiving food or other offerings.]

"In giving a meal, the donor gives five things to the recipient. Which five? He/she gives life, beauty, happiness, strength, & quick-wittedness. Having given life, he/she has a share in long life, either human or divine. Having given beauty, he/she has a share in beauty, either human or divine. Having given happiness, he/she has a share in happiness, either human or divine. Having given strength, he/she has a share in strength, either human or divine. Having given quick-wittedness, he/she has a share in quick-wittedness, either human or divine. In giving a meal, the donor gives these five things to the recipient."

The prudent person giving life, strength,

beauty, quick-wittedness

the wise person, a giver of happiness

attains happiness himself.

Having given life, strength, beauty,

happiness, & quick-wittedness,

he has long life & status wherever he arises.


True Teachings of The Awakened One

Seasonable Gifts

Translated from the Pali by

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

Gifts given at the proper time bear the greatest fruit. Here the Buddha describes five such occasions.

[Often chanted by monks as a blessing after receiving food or other offerings.]

"There are these five seasonable gifts. Which five? One gives to a newcomer. One gives to one going away. One gives to one who is ill. One gives in time of famine. One sets the first fruits of field & orchard in front of those who are virtuous. These are the five seasonable gifts."

In the proper season they give

those with discernment,

responsive, free from stinginess.

Having been given in proper season,

with hearts inspired by the Noble Ones

straightened, Such

their offering bears an abundance.

Those who rejoice in that gift

or give assistance,

they, too, have a share of the merit,

and the offering isn't depleted by that.

So, with an unhesitant mind,

one should give where the gift bears great fruit.

Merit is what establishes

living beings in the next life.


True Teachings of The Awakened One

To General Siha (On Generosity)

Translated from the Pali by

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

General Siha, known for his generosity, asks the Buddha about the fruits of generosity that one can experience in this life. The Buddha describes four such fruits; a fifth (a happy rebirth) Siha can only take on faith.

I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying near Vesali, in the Great Forest, at the Gabled Pavilion. Then General Siha went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As he was sitting there he said to the Blessed One: "Is it possible, lord, to point out a fruit of generosity visible in the here & now?"

"It is possible, Siha. One who gives, who is a master of giving, is dear & charming to people at large. And the fact that who is generous, a master of giving, is dear & charming to people at large: this is a fruit of generosity visible in the here & now.

"Furthermore, good people, people of integrity, admire one who gives, who is a master of giving. And the fact that good people, people of integrity, admire one who gives, who is a master of giving: this, too, is a fruit of generosity visible in the here & now.

"Furthermore, the fine reputation of one who gives, who is a master of giving, is spread far & wide. And the fact that the fine reputation of one who gives, who is a master of giving, is spread far & wide: this, too, is a fruit of generosity visible in the here & now.

"Furthermore, when one who gives, who is a master of giving, approaches any assembly of people noble warriors, brahmans, householders, or contemplatives he/she does so confidently & without embarrassment. And the fact that when one who gives, who is a master of giving, approaches any assembly of people noble warriors, brahmans, householders, or contemplatives he/she does so confidently & without embarrassment: this, too, is a fruit of generosity visible in the here & now.

"Furthermore, at the break-up of the body, after death, one who gives, who is a master of giving, reappears in a good destination, the heavenly world. And the fact that at the break-up of the body, after death, one who gives, who is a master of giving, reappears in a good destination, the heavenly world: this is a fruit of generosity in the next life."

When this was said, General Siha said to the Blessed One: "As for the four fruits of generosity visible in the here & now that have been pointed out by the Blessed One, it's not the case that I go by conviction in the Blessed One with regard to them. I know them, too. I am one who gives, a master of giving, dear & charming to people at large. I am one who gives, a master of giving; good people, people of integrity, admire me. I am one who gives, a master of giving, and my fine reputation is spread far & wide: 'Siha is generous, a doer, a supporter of the Sangha.' I am one who gives, a master of giving, and when I approach any assembly of people noble warriors, brahmans, householders, or contemplatives I do so confidently & without embarrassment.

"But when the Blessed One says to me, 'At the break-up of the body, after death, one who gives, who is a master of giving, reappears in a good destination, the heavenly world,' that I do not know. That is where I go by conviction in the Blessed One."

"So it is, Siha. So it is. At the break-up of the body, after death, one who gives, who is a master of giving, reappears in a good destination, the heavenly world."

One who gives is dear.

People at large admire him.

He gains honor. His status grows.

He enters an assembly unembarrassed.

He is confident the man unmiserly.

Therefore the wise give gifts.

Seeking bliss,

they would subdue the stain

of miserliness.

Established in the three-fold heavenly world,

they enjoy themselves long

in fellowship with the devas.

Having made the opportunity for themselves,

having done what is skillful,

then when they fall from here

they fare on, self-radiant, in Nandana.1

There they delight, enjoy, are joyful,

replete with the five sensuality strands.

Having followed the words of the sage who is Such,

they enjoy themselves in heaven

disciples of the One Well-gone.


True Teachings of The Awakened One

To Nagita

The raucous carryings-on of a group of brahmans lead the Buddha to reflect on the rewards of detachment.

Translated from the Pali by

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

Translator's note: The frame story here is common to three suttas: AN 5.30, AN 6.42, and AN 8.86. Although the conversation takes a different turn in each case, in all three cases the Buddha takes the opportunity to teach some unusually plain-spoken truths.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One, on a wandering tour among the Kosalans with a large community of monks, arrived at a Kosalan brahman village named Icchanangala. There he stayed in the Icchanangala forest grove.

The brahman householders of Icchanangala heard it said, "Gotama the contemplative the son of the Sakyans, having gone forth from the Sakyan clan on a wandering tour among the Kosalans with a large community of monks has arrived at Icchanangala and is staying in the Icchanangala forest grove. And of that Master Gotama this fine reputation has spread: 'He is indeed a Blessed One, worthy, & rightly self-awakened, consummate in knowledge & conduct, well-gone, a knower of the cosmos, an unexcelled trainer of those persons ready to be tamed, teacher of human & divine beings, awakened, blessed. He has made known having realized it through direct knowledge this world with its devas, maras, & brahmas, its generations with their contemplatives & priests, their rulers & common people; has explained the Dhamma admirable in the beginning, admirable in the middle, admirable in the end; has expounded the holy life both in its particulars & in its essence, entirely perfect, surpassingly pure. It is good to see such a worthy one.'"

So the brahman householders of Icchanangala, when the night was gone, taking many staple & non-staple foods, went to the gate house of the Icchanangala forest grove. On arrival they stood there making a loud racket, a great racket.

Now at that time Ven. Nagita was the Blessed One's attendant. So the Blessed One addressed Ven. Nagita: "Nagita, what is that loud racket, that great racket, like fishermen with a catch of fish?"

"Lord, those are the brahman householders of Icchanangala standing at the gate house to the Icchanangala forest grove, having brought many staple & non-staple foods for the sake of the Blessed One & the community of monks."

"May I have nothing to do with honor, Nagita, and honor nothing to do with me. Whoever cannot obtain at will without difficulty, without trouble as I do, the pleasure of renunciation, the pleasure of seclusion, the pleasure of peace, the pleasure of self-awakening, let him consent to this slimy-excrement-pleasure, this torpor-pleasure, this pleasure of gains, offerings, & fame."

"Lord, let the Blessed One acquiesce [to their offerings] now! Let the One Well-gone acquiesce now! Now is the time for the Blessed One's acquiescence, lord! Now is the time for the Blessed One's acquiescence, lord! Wherever the Blessed One will go now, the brahmans of the towns & countryside will be so inclined. Just as when the rain-devas send rain in fat drops, the waters flow with the incline, in the same way, wherever the Blessed One will go now, the brahmans of the towns & countryside will be so inclined. Why is that? Because such is the Blessed One's virtue & discernment."

"May I have nothing to do with honor, Nagita, and honor nothing to do with me. Whoever cannot obtain at will without difficulty, without trouble as I do, the pleasure of renunciation, the pleasure of seclusion, the pleasure of peace, the pleasure of self-awakening, let him consent to this slimy-excrement-pleasure, this torpor-pleasure, this pleasure of gains, offerings, & fame.

"When one eats & drinks & chews & savors, there is excrement & urine: That is one's reward.

"When one loves, there arises the state of change & aberration, sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair: That is one's reward.

"When one is committed to the theme of the unattractive, one takes a stance in the loathsomeness of the theme of beauty: That is one's reward.

"When one remains focused on the inconstancy of the six media of sensory contact, one takes a stance in the loathsomeness of contact: That is one's reward.

"When one remains focused on the arising & passing away of the five clinging aggregates, one takes a stance in the loathsomeness of clinging: That is one's reward."


True Teachings of The Awakened One

Samadhanga Sutta

The Factors of Concentration

The Buddha explains how the progressive development of jhana (absorption) leads to the development of the supranormal

I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying at Savatthi, in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's monastery. There he addressed the monks, "Monks, I will teach you the five-factored noble right concentration. Listen, and pay close attention. I will speak."

"As you say, lord," the monks replied.

The Blessed One said: "Now what, monks, is five-factored noble right concentration? There is the case where a monk quite withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful qualities enters and remains in the first jhana: rapture and pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought and evaluation. He permeates and pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the rapture and pleasure born from withdrawal. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by rapture and pleasure born from withdrawal.

"Just as if a skilled bathman or bathman's apprentice would pour bath powder into a brass basin and knead it together, sprinkling it again and again with water, so that his ball of bath powder saturated, moisture-laden, permeated within and without would nevertheless not drip; even so, the monk permeates, suffuses and fills this very body with the rapture and pleasure born of withdrawal. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by rapture and pleasure born from withdrawal. This is the first development of the five-factored noble right concentration.

"Furthermore, with the stilling of directed thoughts & evaluations, he enters and remains in the second jhana: rapture and pleasure born of composure, unification of awareness free from directed thought and evaluation internal assurance. He permeates and pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the rapture and pleasure born of composure. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by rapture and pleasure born of composure.

"Just like a lake with spring-water welling up from within, having no inflow from east, west, north, or south, and with the skies periodically supplying abundant showers, so that the cool fount of water welling up from within the lake would permeate and pervade, suffuse and fill it with cool waters, there being no part of the lake unpervaded by the cool waters; even so, the monk permeates and pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the rapture and pleasure born of composure. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by rapture and pleasure born of composure. This is the second development of the five-factored noble right concentration.

"And furthermore, with the fading of rapture, he remains in equanimity, is mindful & alert, and senses pleasure with the body. He enters & remains in the third jhana, of which the Noble Ones declare, 'Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasurable abiding.' He permeates and pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the pleasure divested of rapture, so that there is nothing of his entire body unpervaded with pleasure divested of rapture.

"Just as in a blue-, white-, or red-lotus pond, there may be some of the blue, white, or red lotuses which, born and growing in the water, stay immersed in the water and flourish without standing up out of the water, so that they are permeated and pervaded, suffused and filled with cool water from their roots to their tips, and nothing of those blue, white, or red lotuses would be unpervaded with cool water; even so, the monk permeates and pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the pleasure divested of rapture. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded with pleasure divested of rapture. This is the third development of the five-factored noble right concentration.

"And furthermore, with the abandoning of pleasure and stress as with the earlier disappearance of elation and distress he enters and remains in the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity and mindfulness, neither-pleasure-nor-pain. He sits, permeating the body with a pure, bright awareness, so that there is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by pure, bright awareness.

"Just as if a man were sitting wrapped from head to foot with a white cloth so that there would be no part of his body to which the white cloth did not extend; even so, the monk sits, permeating his body with a pure, bright awareness. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by pure, bright awareness. This is the fourth development of the five-factored noble right concentration.

"And furthermore, the monk has his theme of reflection well in hand, well attended to, well-considered, well-tuned1 by means of discernment.

"Just as if one person were to reflect on another, or a standing person were to reflect on a sitting person, or a sitting person were to reflect on a person lying down; even so, monks, the monk has his theme of reflection well in hand, well attended to, well-pondered, well-tuned by means of discernment. This is the fifth development of the five-factored noble right concentration.

"When a monk has developed and pursued the five-factored noble right concentration in this way, then whichever of the six higher knowledges he turns his mind to know and realize, he can witness them for himself whenever there is an opening.

"Suppose that there were a water jar, set on a stand, brimful of water so that a crow could drink from it. If a strong man were to tip it in any way at all, would water spill out?"

"Yes, lord."

"In the same way, when a monk has developed and pursued the five-factored noble right concentration in this way, then whichever of the six higher knowledges he turns his mind to know and realize, he can witness them for himself whenever there is an opening.

"Suppose there were a rectangular water tank set on level ground, bounded by dikes brimful of water so that a crow could drink from it. If a strong man were to loosen the dikes anywhere at all, would water spill out?"

"Yes, lord."

"In the same way, when a monk has developed and pursued the five-factored noble right concentration in this way, then whichever of the six higher knowledges he turns his mind to know and realize, he can witness them for himself whenever there is an opening.

"Suppose there were a chariot on level ground at four crossroads, harnessed to thoroughbreds, waiting with whips lying ready, so that a skilled driver, a trainer of tamable horses, might mount and taking the reins with his left hand and the whip with his right drive out and back, to whatever place and by whichever road he liked; in the same way, when a monk has developed and pursued the five-factored noble right concentration in this way, then whichever of the six higher knowledges he turns his mind to know and realize, he can witness them for himself whenever there is an opening.

"If he wants, he wields manifold supranormal powers. Having been one he becomes many; having been many he becomes one. He appears. He vanishes. He goes unimpeded through walls, ramparts, and mountains as if through space. He dives in and out of the earth as if it were water. He walks on water without sinking as if it were dry land. Sitting crosslegged he flies through the air like a winged bird. With his hand he touches and strokes even the sun and moon, so mighty and powerful. He exercises influence with his body even as far as the Brahma worlds. He can witness this for himself whenever there is an opening.

"If he wants, he hears by means of the divine ear-element, purified and surpassing the human both kinds of sounds: divine and human, whether near or far. He can witness this for himself whenever there is an opening.

"If he wants, he knows the awareness of other beings, other individuals, having encompassed it with his own awareness. He discerns a mind with passion as a mind with passion, and a mind without passion as a mind without passion. He discerns a mind with aversion as a mind with aversion, and a mind without aversion as a mind without aversion. He discerns a mind with delusion as a mind with delusion, and a mind without delusion as a mind without delusion. He discerns a restricted mind as a restricted mind, and a scattered mind as a scattered mind. He discerns an enlarged mind as an enlarged mind, and an unenlarged mind as an unenlarged mind. He discerns an excelled mind2 as an excelled mind, and an unexcelled mind as an unexcelled mind. He discerns a concentrated mind as a concentrated mind, and an unconcentrated mind as an unconcentrated mind. He discerns a released mind as a released mind, and an unreleased mind as an unreleased mind. He can witness this for himself whenever there is an opening.

"If he wants, he recollects his manifold past lives,3 i.e., one birth, two births, three births, four, five, ten, twenty, thirty, forty, fifty, one hundred, one thousand, one hundred thousand, many aeons of cosmic contraction, many aeons of cosmic expansion, many aeons of cosmic contraction and expansion, [recollecting], 'There I had such a name, belonged to such a clan, had such an appearance. Such was my food, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such the end of my life. Passing away from that state, I re-arose there. There too I had such a name, belonged to such a clan, had such an appearance. Such was my food, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such the end of my life. Passing away from that state, I re-arose here.' Thus he remembers his manifold past lives in their modes and details. He can witness this for himself whenever there is an opening.

"If he wants, he sees by means of the divine eye, purified and surpassing the human beings passing away and re-appearing, and he discerns how they are inferior and superior, beautiful and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate in accordance with their kamma: 'These beings who were endowed with bad conduct of body, speech, and mind, who reviled the noble ones, held wrong views and undertook actions under the influence of wrong views with the break-up of the body, after death, have re-appeared in the plane of deprivation, the bad destination, the lower realms, in hell. But these beings who were endowed with good conduct of body, speech, and mind, who did not revile the noble ones, who held right views and undertook actions under the influence of right views with the break-up of the body, after death, have re-appeared in the good destinations, in the heavenly world.' Thus by means of the divine eye, purified and surpassing the human he sees beings passing away and re-appearing, and he discerns how they are inferior and superior, beautiful and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate in accordance with their kamma. He can witness this for himself whenever there is an opening.

"If he wants, then through the ending of the mental effluents, he remains in the effluent-free awareness-release & discernment-release, having known and made them manifest for himself right in the here and now. He can witness this for himself whenever there is an opening."

That is what the Blessed One said. Gratified, the monks delighted in the Blessed One's words.


True Teachings of The Awakened One

(Immeasurable) Concentration

The Buddha encourages the practice of the brahmavihara (sublime states of metta, karuna, mudita, and upekkha) as a basis for concentration practice, as it leads to five important realizations.

"Wise & mindful, you should develop immeasurable concentration [i.e., concentration based on immeasurable good will, compassion, appreciation, or equanimity]. When, wise & mindful, one has developed immeasurable concentration, five realizations arise right within oneself. Which five?

"The realization arises right within oneself that 'This concentration is blissful in the present and will result in bliss in the future.'

"The realization arises right within oneself that 'This concentration is noble & not connected with the baits of the flesh.'

"The realization arises right within oneself that 'This concentration is not obtained by base people.'

"The realization arises right within oneself that 'This concentration is peaceful, exquisite, the acquiring of serenity, the attainment of unity, not kept in place by the fabrications of forceful restraint.'

"The realization arises right within oneself that 'I enter into this concentration mindfully, and mindfully I emerge from it.'

"Wise & mindful, you should develop immeasurable concentration. When, wise & mindful, one has developed immeasurable concentration, these five realizations arise right within oneself."


True Teachings of The Awakened One

Supported

Five factors that lead to the fulfillment of right view.

"Monks, when right view is supported by five factors, it has awareness-release as its fruit, awareness-release as its reward; it has discernment-release as its fruit, discernment-release as its reward. Which five?

"There is the case where right view is supported by virtue, supported by learning, supported by discussion, supported by tranquillity, supported by insight.

"When supported by these five factors, right view has awareness-release as its fruit, awareness-release as its reward; it has discernment-release as its fruit, discernment-release as its reward."


True Teachings of The Awakened One

Benefit

Translated from the Pali by

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

How to practice Dhamma for the benefit of both oneself and others.

"A monk endowed with five qualities practices both for his own benefit and for that of others. Which five?

"There is the case where a monk is himself consummate in virtue and encourages others to be consummate in virtue. He himself is consummate in concentration and encourages others to be consummate in concentration. He himself is consummate in discernment and encourages others to be consummate in discernment. He himself is consummate in release and encourages others to be consummate in release. He himself is consummate in the knowledge & vision of release and encourages others to be consummate in the knowledge & vision of release.

"Endowed with these five qualities, a monk practices both for his own benefit and for that of others.


True Teachings of The Awakened One

(Strengths) in Detail

A summary of the five "strengths" (bala) to be developed in Dhamma practice.

Translated from the Pali by

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

"Monks, there are these five strengths for one in training. Which five? Strength of conviction, strength of conscience, strength of concern, strength of persistence, & strength of discernment.

"And what is strength of conviction? There is the case where a monk, a disciple of the noble ones, has conviction, is convinced of the Tathagata's Awakening: 'Indeed, the Blessed One is worthy and rightly self-awakened, consummate in knowledge & conduct, well-gone, an expert with regard to the world, unexcelled as a trainer for those people fit to be tamed, the Teacher of divine & human beings, awakened, blessed.' This, monks, is called the strength of conviction.

"And what is the strength of conscience? There is the case where a disciple of the noble ones feels shame at [the thought of engaging in] bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, mental misconduct. This is called the strength of conscience.

"And what is the strength of concern? There is the case where a disciple of the noble ones feels concern for [the suffering that results from] bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, mental misconduct. This is called the strength of concern.

"And what is the strength of persistence? There is the case where a monk, a disciple of the noble ones, keeps his persistence aroused for abandoning unskillful mental qualities and taking on skillful mental qualities. He is steadfast, solid in his effort, not shirking his duties with regard to skillful mental qualities. This is called the strength of persistence.

"And what is the strength of discernment? There is the case where a monk, a disciple of the noble ones, is discerning, endowed with discernment of arising & passing away noble, penetrating, leading to the right ending of stress. This is called the strength of discernment.

"These, monks, are the five strengths of one in training. Thus you should train yourselves, 'We will be endowed with the strength of conviction that is the strength of one in training; with the strength of conscience... the strength of concern... the strength of persistence... the strength of discernment that is the strength of one in training.' That's how you should train yourselves."


True Followers of The Awakened One

Kindly visit:

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an04/an04.259.than.html

A Wilderness Dweller

What sort of person is fit to live in the wilderness?

Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu

"Endowed with [any of] four qualities, a monk isn't fit to stay in isolated forest & wilderness dwellings. Which four? [He is endowed] with thoughts of sensuality, with thoughts of ill will, with thoughts of harmfulness, and he is a person of weak discernment, dull, a drooling idiot. Endowed with [any of] these four qualities, a monk isn't fit to stay in isolated forest & wilderness dwellings.

"Endowed with four qualities, a monk is fit to stay in isolated forest & wilderness dwellings. Which four? [He is endowed] with thoughts of renunciation, with thoughts of non-ill will, with thoughts of harmlessness, and he is a discerning person, not dull, not a drooling idiot. Endowed with these four qualities, a monk is fit to stay in isolated forest & wilderness dwellings."


True Teachings of The Awakened One

On Families

How a family loses or preserves its wealth.

"In every case where a family cannot hold onto its great wealth for long, it is for one or another of these four reasons. Which four? They don't look for things that are lost. They don't repair things that have gotten old. They are immoderate in consuming food and drink. They place a woman or man of no virtue or principles in the position of authority. In every case where a family cannot hold onto its great wealth for long, it is for one or another of these four reasons.

"In every case where a family can hold onto its great wealth for long, it is for one or another of these four reasons. Which four? They look for things that are lost. They repair things that have gotten old. They are moderate in consuming food and drink. They place a virtuous, principled woman or man in the position of authority. In every case where a family can hold onto its great wealth for long, it is for one or another of these four reasons."


Meditation Techniques from Buddha

The Meditation Techniques from Buddha are the techniques that were written down in the Pali Pitaka that passed down through the generations of Buddhist Scholar in the Theravada Tradition. All Scholars in Theravada Tradition learned all the Buddha's teaching from the main Buddhist Scriptures called Pali Pitaka (literally means three baskets).

The Purposes of The Meditation Techniques There are two kind of Meditation Techniques:

1.the first technique called Anapana sati (Focus on the breathing)

This technique is establishing momentary concentration, and focusing on a certain object or subject to analyze with your mind. When you analyze a certain subject matter, you will quickly have a profound comprehension into it. You not only understand the subject matter, but also remember that subject matter very fast. This technique is very best for wisdom development. It is dealing with present conditioning (asava). Deal with problems in your daily life. For example: finding solution to a problem at work, or finding a solution to a problem at home. Basically, focusing on the breathing can be practicing anywhere to deal with problems as they arise.

2. The second technique is Samatha Samadhi (calm concentration. This technique is best for practicing to gain deep concentration. Deep concentration is best for staying in one spot. When you establish deep concentration, your mind will temporary suspend past conditioning (kilesa). When the mind gain a certain purity, it produces a certain pleasure. This sense of pleasure that keep you occupy in your practice. It is not like sensual pleasure(eg. sex, eating, drinking or dancing). It is the pleasure come from the purity of the mind. It last as long as you are in deep concentration, and it does not have habit forming or addiction. On the other hand Sex, eating, drinking, or dancing last only a moment and these sensual pleasures are very addictive. And remember: sex, to man; sex is a chore. You always want sex, but you cannot get from who you wante it or whenever you want it. Then sex to a woman; it is simply a matter of choice: who, where and when she wants it. The better deep concentration you gain, the more pleasure in your practice, the rapture of pleasure from purity is much more sublime and great than sensual pleasure. It makes your mind calm, cool, peaceful flourishingly refresh. Focus On Breathing (anapana sati) Most People called it "Mindfulness Meditation" False Translation The translated meaning from the Pali Scripture is totally different from the real teaching from Buddha. The English definition of meditation is intention, planning, or brooding and it has nothing to do with the Buddha's teaching.

The Buddha's teaching is about mental training or training the mind.

There are three kinds of trainings:

1. Prevention training (precepts)

2. Concentration training (mental development)

3. Wisdom training (developing wisdom)

The word Anapana Sati, literally means "focus on breathing or put attention on breathing". However, people who didn't read the text in the Tipitaka definitely exaggerated the real meaning of the original teaching. Some people would go as far as to call vipassana or vipassana meditation.

The word vipassana literally mean "seeing things as they really are". And the real teaching is about mental training called "Focus on breathing or put attention on breathing".

What you should learn is focusing your attention on your breathing. It is a very simple technique. When you breathe in, be aware of breathing in and when you breathing out, be aware of breathing out. Anybody can learn and remember that simple technique called "focus on breathing".

You can practice this technique anywhere in four different postures: walking, standing, sitting, and lying down.

Some teachers would tell you that you need to get a special cushion or a certain kind of seat to practice. However, I would recommend that you get any kind of comfortable seat to practice, will do. It can be on a chair, a sofa, a bed, a carpet, a cushion, a bench. You can start basically practice any where that you feel comfortable to practice. Concentration (Samadhi)

Some people called it "Samattha Meditation"

Another Technique is concentration. Now, this technique require sitting down in a quiet place. Practice concentration, you need to get a disc call Kasina. You can make it yourself. Kasina can be made from earth, fire, water, light, color (red, white, blue, or yellow). You practice focus on the breathing and repeat the word or look at the Kasina until your mind captures Kasina's image. When you close your eyes, you still see the color and texture of the Kasina in your mind. Then you practice more concentration to expand the size of the disc and increase the brightness of the disc until you can make expansion and contraction with your mind. You will experience blissful sensation.

When you achieve deep concentration, your mind will temporarily suppressing the past conditioning (Kilesa). So it means that your mind temporarily have a certain purity. Contemplation and Analysis (anussati) this technique help you develop wisdom The Sample practice of this practice would be in the Great Foundation of Mindfulness Discourse "Maha Satipatthana Sutta". Kayanussati: contemplation on the body; you practice focus your attention on the breathing and analyzing the body at the same time.

There four contemplations to use as foundation:

* contemplation on body (kayanussati),

* contemplation on consciousness (vinnananussati),

* contemplation on feeling (vedananussati) and

* contemplation on perception & mental formation (dhammanussati).

So you should learn and master all of them. You learn this technique after you are well established with the practice of "Focus Attention On the Breathing". After you master this technique, you can use this technique to analyze every aspect or problem in your life. You practice analyze things until you see things as they really are (vipassana), that is when the wisdom is arising. Or another word is, you practice developing wisdom.

Continue exploration in contemplations:

* Contemplation on Buddha (buddhanussati)

* Contemplation on precepts(silanussati)

* Contemplation on celestial being (devatanussati)

* Contemplation on suffering (dukkhanussati)

* Contemplation on death (marananussati)

Contemplate and analyze until you see things as they really are. When you have more understanding in many aspect of things, you will appreciate more of the teaching from Buddha. Put Them All Together Now Master the combination of all techniques After you master all the technique, now you can put all of them together to practice. This is the moment that you can test to see how much you can achieve with Buddha's tools and techniques.

First, you sit down on a comfortable seat in a quiet place. You begin practice focus on breathing and let your mind settle down. Then you begin your concentration practice. You practice concentration until your mind settle to base or deep concentration. At this point your mind is temporarily suspend past conditioning (Kilesa). It means that your mind is in a certain state of purity. At that very moment, you should get out of your concentration and start doing contemplation and analysis. You do contemplation until you see things as they really are (vipassana). When you see things as they really are, you are gaining wisdom into things.

Cope with Situations

When you are weak and tired, you should practice contemplation and analysis to keep yourself awake and gain energy.

When you very energetic and full of energy, you should practice concentration to calm yourself down.

Purpose

All the tools and the teachings from Buddha to serve one purpose: practicing to gain wisdom. Wisdom of the truth. Wisdom will destroy present conditioning (asava). Present Conditioning (asava) is the cause of suffering.

I salute you for taking time to seek this noble journey of practice. You will be on your way to become a noble being in the universe.

I salute for your noble efforts.


True Teachings of The Awakened One

Searches

What are you searching for? Are you looking for happiness in all the wrong places? Are you looking for lasting, noble happiness?

" True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One, these four are ignoble searches. Which four? There is the case where a person, being subject himself to aging, seeks [happiness in] what is subject to aging. Being subject himself to illness, he seeks [happiness in] what is subject to illness. Being subject himself to death, he seeks [happiness in] what is subject to death. Being subject himself to defilement, he seeks [happiness in] what is subject to defilement. These are four ignoble searches.

"Now, these four are noble searches. Which four? There is the case where a person, being subject himself to aging, realizing the drawbacks of what is subject to aging, seeks the unaging, unsurpassed rest from the yoke: Unbinding. Being subject himself to illness, realizing the drawbacks of what is subject to illness, he seeks the unailing, unsurpassed rest from the yoke: Unbinding. Being subject himself to death, realizing the drawbacks of what is subject to death, he seeks the undying, unsurpassed rest from the yoke: Unbinding. Being subject himself to defilement, realizing the drawbacks of what is subject to defilement, he seeks the undefiled, unsurpassed rest from the yoke: Unbinding.

"These are four noble searches."


True Teachings of The Awakened One

The Noble Path

Skillful actions eventually bring good results, while unskillful ones bring bad. But best of all are the actions that lead to the ending of actions altogether.

" True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One, these four types of kamma have been directly realized, verified, & made known by me. Which four? There is action that is dark with dark result. There is action that is bright with bright result. There is action that is dark & bright with dark & bright result. There is action that is neither dark nor bright with neither dark nor bright result, leading to the ending of actions.

"And what is action that is dark with dark result? There is the case where a certain person fabricates an injurious bodily fabrication, fabricates an injurious verbal fabrication, fabricates an injurious mental fabrication. Having fabricated an injurious bodily fabrication, having fabricated an injurious verbal fabrication, having fabricated an injurious mental fabrication, he rearises in an injurious world. On rearising in an injurious world, he is there touched by injurious contacts. Touched by injurious contacts, he experiences feelings that are exclusively painful, like those of the beings in hell. This is called action that is dark with dark result.

"And what is action that is bright with bright result? There is the case where a certain person fabricates a non-injurious bodily fabrication ... a non-injurious verbal fabrication ... a non-injurious mental fabrication ... He rearises in a non-injurious world ... There he is touched by non-injurious contacts ... He experiences feelings that are exclusively pleasant, like those of the Ever-radiant Devas. This is called action that is bright with bright result.

"And what is action that is dark & bright with dark & bright result? There is the case where a certain person fabricates a bodily fabrication that is injurious & non-injurious ... a verbal fabrication that is injurious & non-injurious ... a mental fabrication that is injurious & non-injurious ... He rearises in an injurious & non-injurious world ... There he is touched by injurious & non-injurious contacts ... He experiences injurious & non-injurious feelings, pleasure mingled with pain, like those of human beings, some devas, and some beings in the lower realms. This is called action that is dark & bright with dark & bright result.

"And what is action that is neither dark nor bright with neither dark nor bright result, leading to the ending of kamma? Right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration. This is called kamma that is neither dark nor bright with neither dark nor bright result, leading to the ending of action.

"These, True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One, are the four types of action directly realized, verified, & made known by me."


True Teachings of The Awakened One

Affection

The opinions of our friends and enemies often influence our own thoughts and feelings about others. This kind of thinking is rooted in craving, and the Awakened One offers a cure.

"True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One, these four things are born. Which four? Affection is born of affection. Aversion is born of affection. Affection is born of aversion. Aversion is born of aversion.

"And how is affection born of affection? There is the case where an individual is pleasing, appealing, & charming to (another) individual. Others treat that individual as pleasing, appealing, & charming, and the other one thinks, 'This individual is pleasing, appealing, & charming to me. Others treat this individual as pleasing, appealing, & charming.' He gives rise to affection for them. This is how affection is born of affection.

"And how is aversion born of affection? There is the case where an individual is pleasing, appealing, & charming to (another) individual. Others treat that individual as displeasing, unappealing, & not charming, and the other one thinks, 'This individual is pleasing, appealing, & charming to me. Others treat this individual as displeasing, unappealing, & not charming.' He gives rise to aversion for them. This is how aversion is born of affection.

"And how is affection born of aversion? There is the case where an individual is displeasing, unappealing, & not charming to (another) individual. Others treat that individual as displeasing, unappealing, & not charming, and the other one thinks, 'This individual is displeasing, unappealing, & not charming to me. Others treat this individual as displeasing, unappealing, & not charming.' He gives rise to affection for them. This is how affection is born of aversion.

"And how is aversion born of aversion? There is the case where an individual is displeasing, unappealing, & not charming to (another) individual. Others treat that individual as pleasing, appealing, & charming, and the other one thinks, 'This individual is displeasing, unappealing, & not charming to me. Others treat this individual as pleasing, appealing, & charming.' He gives rise to aversion for them. This is how aversion is born of aversion.

" True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One, these are the four things that are born.

"Now, on the occasion when a True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One, quite withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful (mental) qualities, enters & remains in the first jhana rapture & pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought & evaluation then any affection of his that is born of affection does not come about. Any aversion of his that is born of affection... any affection of his that is born of aversion... any aversion of his that is born of aversion does not come about.

"On the occasion when a True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One... enters & remains in the second jhana... enters & remains in the third jhana... enters & remains in the fourth jhana, then any affection of his that is born of affection does not come about. Any aversion of his that is born of affection... any affection of his that is born of aversion... any aversion of his that is born of aversion does not come about.

"On the occasion when a True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One, through the ending of the mental fermentations, enters & remains in the fermentation-free awareness-release & discernment-release, having known & verified them for himself right in the here & now, then any affection of his that is born of affection is abandoned, its root destroyed, like an uprooted palm tree, deprived of the conditions of existence, not destined for future arising. Any aversion of his that is born of affection... any affection of his that is born of aversion... any aversion of his that is born of aversion is abandoned, its root destroyed, like an uprooted palm tree, deprived of the conditions of existence, not destined for future arising.

"This is said to be a True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One who doesn't pull in, doesn't push away, doesn't smolder, doesn't flare up, and doesn't burn.

"And how does a monk pull in? There is the case where a True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One assumes form to be the self, or the self as possessing form, or form as in the self, or the self as in form. He assumes feeling to be the self, or the self as possessing feeling, or feeling as in the self, or the self as in feeling. He assumes perception to be the self, or the self as possessing perception, or perception as in the self, or the self as in perception. He assumes (mental) fabrications to be the self, or the self as possessing fabrications, or fabrications as in the self, or the self as in fabrications. He assumes consciousness to be the self, or the self as possessing consciousness, or consciousness as in the self, or the self as in consciousness. This is how a monk pulls in.

"And how does a True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One not pull in? There is the case where a True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One doesn't assume form to be the self, or the self as possessing form, or form as in the self, or the self as in form. He doesn't assume feeling to be the self... doesn't assume perception to be the self... doesn't assume fabrications to be the self... doesn't assume consciousness to be the self, or the self as possessing consciousness, or consciousness as in the self, or the self as in consciousness. This is how a monk doesn't pull in.

"And how does a True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One push away? There is the case where a monk returns insult to one who has insulted him, returns anger to one who is angry at him, quarrels with one who is quarreling. This is how a True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One pushes away.

"And how does a True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One not push away? There is the case where a monk doesn't return insult to one who has insulted him, doesn't return anger to one who is angry at him, doesn't quarrel with one who is quarreling. This is how a monk doesn't push away.

"And how does a True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One smolder? There is the case where, there being 'I am,' there comes to be 'I am here,' there comes to be 'I am like this' ... 'I am otherwise' ... 'I am bad' ... 'I am good' ... 'I might be' ... 'I might be here' ... 'I might be like this' ... 'I might be otherwise' ... 'May I be' ... 'May I be here' ... 'May I be like this' ... 'May I be otherwise' ... 'I will be' ... 'I will be here' ... 'I will be like this' ... 'I will be otherwise.'

"And how does a True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One not smolder? There is the case where, there being 'I am,' there doesn't come to be 'I am here,' there doesn't come to be 'I am like this' ... 'I am otherwise' ... 'I am bad' ... 'I am good' ... 'I might be' ... 'I might be here' ... 'I might be like this' ... 'I might be otherwise' ... 'May I be' ... 'May I be here' ... 'May I be like this' ... 'May I be otherwise' ... 'I will be' ... 'I will be here' ... 'I will be like this' ... 'I will be otherwise.'

"And how does a True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One flare up? There is the case where, there being 'I am because of this (or: by means of this),' there comes to be 'I am here because of this,' there comes to be 'I am like this because of this' ... 'I am otherwise because of this' ... 'I am bad because of this' ... 'I am good because of this' ... 'I might be because of this' ... 'I might be here because of this' ... 'I might be like this because of this' ... 'I might be otherwise because of this' ... 'May I be because of this' ... 'May I be here because of this' ... 'May I be like this because of this' ... 'May I be otherwise because of this' ... 'I will be because of this' ... 'I will be here because of this' ... 'I will be like this because of this' ... 'I will be otherwise because of this.'

"And how does a True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One not flare up? There is the case where, there being 'I am because of this (or: by means of this),' there doesn't come to be 'I am here because of this,' there doesn't come to be 'I am like this because of this' ... 'I am otherwise because of this' ... 'I am bad because of this' ... 'I am good because of this' ... 'I might be because of this' ... 'I might be here because of this' ... 'I might be like this because of this' ... 'I might be otherwise because of this' ... 'May I be because of this' ... 'May I be here because of this' ... 'May I be like this because of this' ... 'May I be otherwise because of this' ... 'I will be because of this' ... 'I will be here because of this' ... 'I will be like this because of this' ... 'I will be otherwise because of this.'

"And how does a True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One burn? There is the case where a monk's conceit of 'I am' is not abandoned, its root destroyed, like an uprooted palm tree, deprived of the conditions of existence, not destined for future arising. This is how a True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One burns.

"And how does a True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One not burn? There is the case where a monk's conceit of 'I am' is abandoned, its root destroyed, like an uprooted palm tree, deprived of the conditions of existence, not destined for future arising. This is how a True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One doesn't burn."


Craving

The Awakened One enumerates the many kinds of tangled thoughts experienced by a mind not yet free of craving. Sound familiar?

" True Followers of the Path shaown by The Awakened One, I will teach you craving: the ensnarer that has flowed along, spread out, and caught hold, with which this world is smothered & enveloped like a tangled skein, a knotted ball of string, like matted rushes and reeds, and does not go beyond transmigration, beyond the planes of deprivation, woe, & bad destinations. Listen well, and I will speak."

"Yes, lord," the True Followers of the Path shaown by The Awakened One responded.

The Blessed One said: "And which craving is the ensnarer that has flowed along, spread out, and caught hold, with which this world is smothered & enveloped like a tangled skein, a knotted ball of string, like matted rushes and reeds, and does not go beyond transmigration, beyond the planes of deprivation, woe, & bad destinations? These 18 craving-verbalizations dependent on what is internal and 18 craving-verbalizations dependent on what is external.

"And which are the 18 craving-verbalizations dependent on what is internal? There being 'I am,' there comes to be 'I am here,' there comes to be 'I am like this' ... 'I am otherwise' ... 'I am bad' ... 'I am good' ... 'I might be' ... 'I might be here' ... 'I might be like this' ... 'I might be otherwise' ... 'May I be' ... 'May I be here' ... 'May I be like this' ... 'May I be otherwise' ... 'I will be' ... 'I will be here' ... 'I will be like this' ... 'I will be otherwise.' These are the 18 craving-verbalizations dependent on what is internal.

"And which are the 18 craving-verbalizations dependent on what is external? There being 'I am because of this (or: by means of this),' there comes to be 'I am here because of this,' there comes to be 'I am like this because of this' ... 'I am otherwise because of this' ... 'I am bad because of this' ... 'I am good because of this' ... 'I might be because of this' ... 'I might be here because of this' ... 'I might be like this because of this' ... 'I might be otherwise because of this' ... 'May I be because of this' ... 'May I be here because of this' ... 'May I be like this because of this' ... 'May I be otherwise because of this' ... 'I will be because of this' ... 'I will be here because of this' ... 'I will be like this because of this' ... 'I will be otherwise because of this.' These are the 18 craving-verbalizations dependent on what is external.

"Thus there are 18 craving-verbalizations dependent on what is internal and 18 craving-verbalizations dependent on what is external. These are called the 36 craving-verbalizations. Thus, with 36 craving-verbalizations of this sort in the past, 36 in the future, and 36 in the present, there are 108 craving-verbalizations.

"This, monks is craving the ensnarer that has flowed along, spread out, and caught hold, with which this world is smothered & enveloped like a tangled skein, a knotted ball of string, like matted rushes and reeds, and does not go beyond transmigration, beyond the planes of deprivation, woe, & bad destinations."


True Teachings of The Awakened One

Courses of Action How can you recognize a good and wise person? The Awakened One

explains what qualities to look for and how to spot them.

"True Followers of The Awakened One, there are these four courses of action. Which four? There is the course of action that is unpleasant to do and that, when done, leads to what is unprofitable. There is the course of action that is unpleasant to do but that, when done, leads to what is profitable. There is the course of action that is pleasant to do but that, when done, leads to what is unprofitable. There is the course of action that is pleasant to do and that, when done, leads to what is profitable.

"Now as for the course of action that is unpleasant to do and that, when done, leads to what is unprofitable, one considers it as not worth doing for both reasons: because the course of action is unpleasant to do, one considers it as not worth doing; and because the course of action, when done, leads to what is unprofitable, one considers it as not worth doing. Thus one considers it as not worth doing for both reasons.

"As for the course of action that is unpleasant to do but that, when done, leads to what is profitable, it is in light of this course of action that one may be known in terms of manly stamina, manly persistence, manly effort as a fool or a wise person. For a fool doesn't reflect, 'Even though this course of action is unpleasant to do, still when it is done it leads to what is profitable.' So he doesn't do it, and thus the non-doing of that course of action leads to what is unprofitable for him. But a wise person reflects, 'Even though this course of action is unpleasant to do, still when it is done it leads to what is profitable.' So he does it, and thus the doing of that course of action leads to what is profitable for him.

"As for the course of action that is pleasant to do but that, when done, leads to what is unprofitable, it is in light of this course of action that one may be known in terms of manly stamina, manly persistence, manly effort as a fool or a wise person. For a fool doesn't reflect, 'Even though this course of action is pleasant to do, still when it is done it leads to what is unprofitable.' So he does it, and thus the doing of that course of action leads to what is unprofitable for him. But a wise person reflects, 'Even though this course of action is pleasant to do, still when it is done it leads to what is unprofitable.' So he doesn't do it, and thus the non-doing of that course of action leads to what is profitable for him.

"As for the course of action that is pleasant to do and that, when done, leads to what is profitable, one considers it as worth doing for both reasons: because the course of action is pleasant to do, one considers it as worth doing; and because the course of action, when done, leads to what is profitable, one considers it as worth doing. Thus one considers it as worth doing for both reasons.

"These are the four courses of action."


True Teachings of The Awakened One

To Prince Abhaya

(On Right Speech)

Fearless

The Awakened One explains to Janussonin four ways to overcome the fear of death.

Translator's Introduction

In this discourse, the Awakened One shows the factors that go into deciding what is and is not worth saying. The main factors are three: whether or not a statement is true, whether or not it is beneficial, and whether or not it is pleasing to others. The Awakened One himself would state only those things that are true and beneficial, and would have a sense of time for when pleasing and unpleasing things should be said. Notice that the possibility that a statement might be untrue yet beneficial is not even entertained.

This discourse also shows, in action, the Awakened One 's teaching on the four categories of questions and how they should be answered (see AN 4.42). The prince asks him two questions, and in both cases he responds first with a counter-question, before going on to give an analytical answer to the first question and a categorical answer to the second. Each counter-question serves a double function: to give the prince a familiar reference point for understanding the answer about to come, and also to give him a chance to speak of his own intelligence and good motives. This provides him with the opportunity to save face after being stymied in his desire to best the Awakened One in argument. The Commentary notes that the prince had placed his infant son on his lap as a cheap debater's trick: if the Awakened One had put him in an uncomfortable spot in the debate, the prince would have pinched his son, causing him to cry and thus effectively bringing the debate to a halt. TheAwakened One , however, uses the infant's presence to remove any sense of a debate and also to make an effective point. Taking Nigantha Nataputta's image of a dangerous object stuck in the throat, he applies it to the infant, and then goes on to make the point that, unlike the Niganthas who were content to leave someone with a potentially lethal object in the throat the Awakened One 's desire is to remove such objects, out of sympathy and compassion. In this way, he brings the prince over to his side, converting a potential opponent into a disciple.

Thus this discourse is not only about right speech, but also shows right speech in action.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying near Rajagaha in the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrels' Sanctuary.

Then Prince Abhaya went to Nigantha Nataputta and on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As he was sitting there, Nigantha Nataputta said to him, "Come, now, prince. Refute the words of the contemplative Gotama, and this admirable report about you will spread afar: 'The words of the contemplative Gotama so mighty, so powerful were refuted by Prince Abhaya!'"

"But how, venerable sir, will I refute the words of the contemplative Gotama so mighty, so powerful?"

"Come now, prince. Go to the contemplative Gotama and on arrival say this: 'Lord, would the Tathagata say words that are unendearing & disagreeable to others?' If the contemplative Gotama, thus asked, answers, 'The Tathagata would say words that are unendearing & disagreeable to others,' then you should say, 'Then how is there any difference between you, lord, and run-of-the-mill people? For even run-of-the-mill people say words that are unendearing & disagreeable to others.' But if the contemplative Gotama, thus asked, answers, 'The Tathagata would not say words that are unendearing & disagreeable to others,' then you should say, 'Then how, lord, did you say of Devadatta that "Devadatta is headed for destitution, Devadatta is headed for hell, Devadatta will boil for an eon, Devadatta is incurable"? For Devadatta was upset & disgruntled at those words of yours.' When the contemplative Gotama is asked this two-pronged question by you, he won't be able to swallow it down or spit it up. Just as if a two-horned chestnut1 were stuck in a man's throat: he would not be able to swallow it down or spit it up. In the same way, when the contemplative Gotama is asked this two-pronged question by you, he won't be able to swallow it down or spit it up."

Responding, "As you say, venerable sir," Prince Abhaya got up from his seat, bowed down to Nigantha Nataputta, circumambulated him, and then went to the Blessed One. On arrival, he bowed down to the Blessed One and sat to one side. As he was sitting there, he glanced up at the sun and thought, "Today is not the time to refute the Blessed One's words. Tomorrow in my own home I will overturn the Blessed One's words." So he said to the Blessed One, "May the Blessed One, together with three others, acquiesce to my offer of tomorrow's meal."

The Blessed One acquiesced with silence.

Then Prince Abhaya, understanding the Blessed One's acquiescence, got up from his seat, bowed down to the Blessed One, circumambulated him, and left.

Then, after the night had passed, the Blessed One early in the morning put on his robes and, carrying his bowl and outer robe, went to Prince Abhaya's home. On arrival, he sat down on a seat made ready. Prince Abhaya, with his own hand, served & satisfied the Blessed One with fine staple & non-staple foods. Then, when the Blessed One had eaten and had removed his hand from his bowl, Prince Abhaya took a lower seat and sat to one side. As he was sitting there he said to the Blessed One, "Lord, would the Tathagata say words that are unendearing & disagreeable to others?"


"Prince, there is no categorical yes-or-no answer to that."

"Then right here, lord, the Niganthas are destroyed."

"But prince, why do you say, 'Then right here, lord, the Niganthas are destroyed'?"

"Just yesterday, lord, I went to Nigantha Nataputta and... he said to me...'Come now, prince. Go to the contemplative Gotama and on arrival say this: "Lord, would the Tathagata say words that are unendearing & disagreeable to others?"... Just as if a two-horned chestnut were stuck in a man's throat: he would not be able to swallow it down or spit it up. In the same way, when the contemplative Gotama is asked this two-pronged question by you, he won't be able to swallow it down or spit it up.'"

Now at that time a baby boy was lying face-up on the prince's lap. So the Blessed One said to the prince, "What do you think, prince: If this young boy, through your own negligence or that of the nurse, were to take a stick or a piece of gravel into its mouth, what would you do?"

"I would take it out, lord. If I couldn't get it out right away, then holding its head in my left hand and crooking a finger of my right, I would take it out, even if it meant drawing blood. Why is that? Because I have sympathy for the young boy."

"In the same way, prince:

[1] In the case of words that the Tathagata knows to be unfactual, untrue, unbeneficial (or: not connected with the goal), unendearing & disagreeable to others, he does not say them.

[2] In the case of words that the Tathagata knows to be factual, true, unbeneficial, unendearing & disagreeable to others, he does not say them.

[3] In the case of words that the Tathagata knows to be factual, true, beneficial, but unendearing & disagreeable to others, he has a sense of the proper time for saying them.

[4] In the case of words that the Tathagata knows to be unfactual, untrue, unbeneficial, but endearing & agreeable to others, he does not say them.

[5] In the case of words that the Tathagata knows to be factual, true, unbeneficial, but endearing & agreeable to others, he does not say them.

[6] In the case of words that the Tathagata knows to be factual, true, beneficial, and endearing & agreeable to others, he has a sense of the proper time for saying them. Why is that? Because the Tathagata has sympathy for living beings."

"Lord, when wise nobles or priests, householders or contemplatives, having formulated questions, come to the Tathagata and ask him, does this line of reasoning appear to his awareness beforehand 'If those who approach me ask this, I thus asked will answer in this way' or does the Tathagata come up with the answer on the spot?"

"In that case, prince, I will ask you a counter-question. Answer as you see fit. What do you think: are you skilled in the parts of a chariot?"

"Yes, lord. I am skilled in the parts of a chariot."

"And what do you think: When people come & ask you, 'What is the name of this part of the chariot?' does this line of reasoning appear to your awareness beforehand 'If those who approach me ask this, I thus asked will answer in this way' or do you come up with the answer on the spot?"

"Lord, I am renowned for being skilled in the parts of a chariot. All the parts of a chariot are well-known to me. I come up with the answer on the spot."

"In the same way, prince, when wise nobles or priests, householders or contemplatives, having formulated questions, come to the Tathagata and ask him, he comes up with the answer on the spot. Why is that? Because the property of the Dhamma is thoroughly penetrated by the Tathagata. From his thorough penetration of the property of the Dhamma, he comes up with the answer on the spot." 2

When this was said, Prince Abhaya said to the Blessed One: "Magnificent, lord! Magnificent! Just as if he were to place upright what was overturned, to reveal what was hidden, to show the way to one who was lost, or to carry a lamp into the dark so that those with eyes could see forms, in the same way has the Blessed One through many lines of reasoning made the Dhamma clear. I go to the Blessed One for refuge, to the Dhamma, and to the Sangha of monks. May the Blessed One remember me as a lay follower who has gone to him for refuge, from this day forward, for life."

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Notes 1. A two-horned chestnut is the nut of a tree (Trapa bicornis) growing in south and southeast Asia. Its shell looks like the head of a water buffalo, with two nasty, curved "horns" sticking out of either side.

2. This statement is apparently related to the more abstract statement in AN 4.24, that what the Tathagata knows is not "established" in him. In other words, he does not define himself or the awakened mind in terms of knowledge or views, even concerning the True Teachings of The Awakened One, although the knowledge that led to his awakening is fully available for him to draw on at any time.


True Teachings of The Awakened One

On What is Heard

Why the principle of truthfulness does not imply total frankness or openness.

I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying at Rajagaha in the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrels' Sanctuary. Then Vassakara the brahman, the minister to the king of Magadha, approached the Blessed One and, on arrival, exchanged courteous greetings with him. After an exchange of friendly greetings & courtesies, he sat to one side. As he was sitting there he said to the Blessed One: "I am of the view, of the opinion, that when anyone speaks of what he has seen, [saying,] 'Thus have I seen,' there is no fault in that. When anyone speaks of what he has heard, [saying,] 'Thus have I heard,' there is no fault in that. When anyone speaks of what he has sensed, [saying,] 'Thus have I sensed,' there is no fault in that. When anyone speaks of what he has cognized, [saying,] 'Thus have I cognized,' there is no fault in that."


[The Blessed One responded:] "I do not say, brahman, that everything that has been seen should be spoken about. Nor do I say that everything that has been seen should not be spoken about. I do not say that everything that has been heard... everything that has been sensed... everything that has been cognized should be spoken about. Nor do I say that everything that has been cognized should not be spoken about.

"When, for one who speaks of what has been seen, unskillful mental qualities increase and skillful mental qualities decrease, then that sort of thing should not be spoken about. But when, for one who speaks of what has been seen, unskillful mental qualities decrease and skillful mental qualities increase, then that sort of thing should be spoken about.

"When, for one who speaks of what has been heard... what has been sensed... what has been cognized, unskillful mental qualities increase and skillful mental qualities decrease, then that sort of thing should not be spoken about. But when, for one who speaks of what has been cognized, unskillful mental qualities decrease and skillful mental qualities increase, then that sort of thing should be spoken about."

Then Vassakara the brahman, delighting & rejoicing in the Blessed One's words, got up from his seat and left.


True Teachings of The Awakened One

To Yodhajiva (The Warrior)

An accomplished meditator like a great warrior develops these four qualities.

Then Yodhajiva1 the headman went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As he was sitting there he said to the Blessed One: "Lord, I have heard that it has been passed down by the ancient teaching lineage of warriors that 'When a warrior strives & exerts himself in battle, if others then strike him down & slay him while he is striving & exerting himself in battle, then with the breakup of the body, after death, he is reborn in the company of devas slain in battle.' What does the Blessed One have to say about that?"


"Enough, headman, put that aside. Don't ask me that."

A second time... A third time Yodhajiva the headman said: "Lord, I have heard that it has been passed down by the ancient teaching lineage of warriors that 'When a warrior strives & exerts himself in battle, if others then strike him down & slay him while he is striving & exerting himself in battle, then with the breakup of the body, after death, he is reborn in the company of devas slain in battle.' What does the Blessed One have to say about that?"

"Apparently, headman, I haven't been able to get past you by saying, 'Enough, headman, put that aside. Don't ask me that.' So I will simply answer you. When a warrior strives & exerts himself in battle, his mind is already seized, debased, & misdirected by the thought: 'May these beings be struck down or slaughtered or annihilated or destroyed. May they not exist.' If others then strike him down & slay him while he is thus striving & exerting himself in battle, then with the breakup of the body, after death, he is reborn in the hell called the realm of those slain in battle. But if he holds such a view as this: 'When a warrior strives & exerts himself in battle, if others then strike him down & slay him while he is striving & exerting himself in battle, then with the breakup of the body, after death, he is reborn in the company of devas slain in battle,' that is his wrong view. Now, there are two destinations for a person with wrong view, I tell you: either hell or the animal womb."

When this was said, Yodhajiva the headman sobbed & burst into tears. [The Blessed One said:] "That is what I couldn't get past you by saying, 'Enough, headman, put that aside. Don't ask me that.'"

"I'm not crying, lord, because of what the Blessed One said to me, but simply because I have been deceived, cheated, & fooled for a long time by that ancient teaching lineage of warriors who said: 'When a warrior strives & exerts himself in battle, if others then strike him down & slay him while he is striving & exerting himself in battle, then with the breakup of the body, after death, he is reborn in the company of devas slain in battle.'

"Magnificent, lord! Magnificent! Just as if he were to place upright what was overturned, to reveal what was hidden, to show the way to one who was lost, or to carry a lamp into the dark so that those with eyes could see forms, in the same way has the Blessed One through many lines of reasoning made the Dhamma clear. I go to the Blessed One for refuge, to the Dhamma, and to the Community of monks. May the Blessed One remember me as a lay follower who has gone to him for refuge, from this day forward, for life."


True Teachings of The Awakened One

Unbinding

Why do some people gain Awakening in this life, while others don't?


I have heard that on one occasion Ven. Sariputta was staying near Rajagaha in the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrels' Feeding Sanctuary. There he said to the True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One, "This Unbinding is pleasant, friends. This Unbinding is pleasant."

When this was said, Ven. Udayin said to Ven. Sariputta, "But what is the pleasure here, my friend, where there is nothing felt?"

"Just that is the pleasure here, my friend: where there is nothing felt. There are these five strings of sensuality. Which five? Forms cognizable via the eye agreeable, pleasing, charming, endearing, fostering desire, enticing; sounds cognizable via the ear... smells cognizable via the nose... tastes cognizable via the tongue... tactile sensations cognizable via the body agreeable, pleasing, charming, endearing, fostering desire, enticing. Whatever pleasure or joy arises in dependence on these five strings of sensuality, that is sensual pleasure.

"Now there is the case where a There he said to the True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One quite withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful qualities enters & remains in the first jhana: rapture & pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought & evaluation. If, as he remains there, he is beset with attention to perceptions dealing with sensuality, that is an affliction for him. Just as pain arises as an affliction in a healthy person for his affliction, even so the attention to perceptions dealing with sensuality that beset the monk is an affliction for him. Now, the Blessed One has said that whatever is an affliction is stress. So by this line of reasoning it may be known how Unbinding is pleasant.

"Furthermore, there is the case where a There he said to the True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One, with the stilling of directed thoughts & evaluations, enters & remains in the second jhana: rapture & pleasure born of composure, unification of awareness free from directed thought & evaluation internal assurance. If, as he remains there, he is beset with attention to perceptions dealing with directed thought, that is an affliction for him...

"Furthermore, there is the case where a There he said to the True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One, with the fading of rapture, remains in equanimity, mindful & alert, is physically sensitive to pleasure, and enters & remains in the third jhana, of which the Noble Ones declare, 'Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasurable abiding.' If, as he remains there, he is beset with attention to perceptions dealing with rapture, that is an affliction for him...

"Furthermore, there is the case where a There he said to the True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One, with the abandoning of pleasure & stress as with the earlier disappearance of elation & distress enters & remains in the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity & mindfulness, neither-pleasure-nor-pain. If, as he remains there, he is beset with attention to perceptions dealing with equanimity, that is an affliction for him...

"Furthermore, there is the case where a There he said to the True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One, with the complete transcending of perceptions of [physical] form, with the disappearance of perceptions of resistance, and not heeding perceptions of diversity, [perceiving,] 'Infinite space,' enters & remains in the dimension of the infinitude of space. If, as he remains there, he is beset with attention to perceptions dealing with form, that is an affliction for him...

"Furthermore, there is the case where a There he said to the True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One, with the complete transcending of the dimension of the infinitude of space, [perceiving,] 'Infinite consciousness,' enters & remains in the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness. If, as he remains there, he is beset with attention to perceptions dealing with the dimension of the infinitude of space, that is an affliction for him...

"Furthermore, there is the case where a There he said to the True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One, with the complete transcending of the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness, [perceiving,] 'There is nothing,' enters & remains in the dimension of nothingness. If, as he remains there, he is beset with attention to perceptions dealing with the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness, that is an affliction for him...

"Furthermore, there is the case where a There he said to the True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One, with the complete transcending of the dimension of nothingness, enters & remains in the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception. If, as he remains there, he is beset with attention to perceptions dealing with the dimension of nothingness, that is an affliction for him. Now, the Blessed One has said that whatever is an affliction is stress. So by this line of reasoning it may be known how pleasant Unbinding is.

"Furthermore, there is the case where a There he said to the True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One, with the complete transcending of the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception, enters & remains in the cessation of perception & feeling. And, having seen [that] with discernment, his mental fermentations are completely ended. So by this line of reasoning it may be known how Unbinding is pleasant."


True Teachings of The Awakened One

The Waste-water Pool

The Awakened One uses some memorable similes to describe the overcoming of self-identification and ignorance.


"True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One, these four types of individuals are to be found existing in the world. Which four?

"There is the case where a True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One enters & remains in a certain peaceful awareness-release. He attends to the cessation of self-identification, but as he is attending to the cessation of self-identification his mind doesn't leap up, grow confident, steadfast, or firm in the cessation of self-identification. For him the cessation of self-identification is not to be expected. Just as if a man were to grasp a branch with his hand smeared with resin, his hand would stick to it, grip it, adhere to it; in the same way, the True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One enters & remains in a certain peaceful awareness-release. He attends to the cessation of self-identification, but as he is attending to the cessation of self-identification his mind doesn't leap up, grow confident, steadfast, or firm in the cessation of self-identification. For him the cessation of self-identification is not to be expected.

"Now, there is the case where a True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One enters & remains in a certain peaceful awareness-release. He attends to the cessation of self-identification, and as he is attending to the cessation of self-identification his mind leaps up, grows confident, steadfast, & firm in the cessation of self-identification. For him the cessation of self-identification is to be expected. Just as if a man were to grasp a branch with a clean hand, his hand would not stick to it, grip it, or adhere to it; in the same way, the True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One enters & remains in a certain peaceful awareness-release. He attends to the cessation of self-identification, and as he is attending to the cessation of self-identification his mind leaps up, grows confident, steadfast, & firm in the cessation of self-identification. For him the cessation of self-identification is to be expected.

"Now, there is the case where a True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One enters & remains in a certain peaceful awareness-release. He attends to the breaching of ignorance, but as he is attending to the breaching of ignorance his mind doesn't leap up, grow confident, steadfast, or firm in the breaching of ignorance. For him the breaching of ignorance is not to be expected. Just as if there were a waste-water pool that had stood for countless years, where a man were to block all the inlets and open all the outlets, and the sky were to not rain down in good streams of rain: the breaching of the waste-water pool's embankment would not be expected; in the same way, the True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One enters & remains in a certain peaceful awareness-release. He attends to the breaching of ignorance, but as he is attending to the breaching of ignorance his mind doesn't leap up, grow confident, steadfast, or firm in the breaching of ignorance. For him the breaching of ignorance is not to be expected.

"Now, there is the case where a True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One enters & remains in a certain peaceful awareness-release. He attends to the breaching of ignorance, and as he is attending to the breaching of ignorance his mind leaps up, grows confident, steadfast, & firm in the breaching of ignorance. For him the breaching of ignorance is to be expected. Just as if there were a waste-water pool that had stood for countless years, where a man were to open all the inlets and block all the outlets, and the sky were to rain down in good streams of rain: the breaching of the waste-water pool's embankment would be expected; in the same way, the True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One enters & remains in a certain peaceful awareness-release. He attends to the breaching of ignorance, and as he is attending to the breaching of ignorance his mind leaps up, grows confident, steadfast, & firm in the breaching of ignorance. For him the breaching of ignorance is to be expected.

"These are four types of individuals to be found existing in the world."


True Teachings of The Awakened One

To Kotthita

How the Awakened One answers the question, "What lies beyond The Supreme Bliss?"

Once, Ven. Sariputta and Ven. Maha Kotthita were living near Varanasi, at Isipatana in the Deer Park. Then Ven. Maha Kotthita, in the late afternoon, left his seclusion and went to Ven. Sariputta. On arrival, he exchanged courteous greetings with him. After an exchange of friendly greetings & courtesies, he sat to one side. As he was sitting there, he said to Ven. Sariputta, "Now tell me, friend Sariputta, is the eye the fetter of forms, or are forms the fetter of the eye? Is the ear... Is the nose... Is the tongue... Is the body... Is the intellect the fetter of ideas, or are ideas the fetter of the intellect?"

"No, my friend. The eye is not the fetter of forms, nor are forms the fetter of the eye. Whatever desire & passion arises in dependence on the two of them: That is the fetter there. The ear is not the fetter of sounds... The nose is not the fetter of aromas... The tongue is not the fetter of flavors... The body is not the fetter of tactile sensations... The intellect is not the fetter of ideas, nor are ideas the fetter of the intellect. Whatever desire & passion arises in dependence on the two of them: That is the fetter there.

"Suppose that a black ox and a white ox were joined with a single collar or yoke. If someone were to say, 'The black ox is the fetter of the white ox, the white ox is the fetter of the black' speaking this way, would he be speaking rightly?"

"No, my friend. The black ox is not the fetter of the white ox, nor is the white ox the fetter of the black. The single collar or yoke by which they are joined: That is the fetter there."

"In the same way, the eye is not the fetter of forms, nor are forms the fetter of the eye. Whatever desire & passion arises in dependence on the two of them: That is the fetter there. The ear is not the fetter of sounds... The nose is not the fetter of aromas... The tongue is not the fetter of flavors... The body is not the fetter of tactile sensations... The intellect is not the fetter of ideas, nor are ideas the fetter of the intellect. Whatever desire & passion arises in dependence on the two of them: That is the fetter there.

"If the eye were the fetter of forms, or if forms were the fetter of the eye, then this holy life for the right ending of stress & suffering would not be proclaimed. But because whatever desire & passion arises in dependence on the two of them is the fetter there, that is why this holy life for the right ending of stress & suffering is proclaimed.

"If the ear were the fetter...

"If the nose were the fetter...

"If the tongue were the fetter...

"If the body were the fetter...

"If the intellect were the fetter of ideas, or if ideas were the fetter of the intellect, then this holy life for the right ending of stress & suffering would not be proclaimed. But because whatever desire & passion arises in dependence on the two of them is the fetter there, that is why this holy life for the right ending of stress & suffering is proclaimed.

"And through this line of reasoning one may know how the eye is not the fetter of forms, nor are forms the fetter of the eye, but whatever desire & passion arises in dependence on the two of them: That is the fetter there. The ear is not the fetter of sounds... The nose is not the fetter of aromas... The tongue is not the fetter of flavors... The body is not the fetter of tactile sensations... The intellect is not the fetter of ideas, nor are ideas the fetter of the intellect, but whatever desire & passion arises in dependence on the two of them: That is the fetter there. There is an eye in the Blessed One. The Blessed One sees forms with the eye. There is no desire or passion in the Blessed One. The Blessed One is well-released in mind.

"There is an ear in the Blessed One...

"There is a nose in the Blessed One...

"There is a tongue in the Blessed One...

"There is a body in the Blessed One...

"There is an intellect in the Blessed One. The Blessed One knows ideas with the intellect. There is no desire or passion in the Blessed One. The Blessed One is well-released in mind.

"It is through this line of reasoning that one may know how the eye is not the fetter of forms, nor are forms the fetter of the eye, but whatever desire & passion arises in dependence on the two of them: That is the fetter there. The ear is not the fetter of sounds... The nose is not the fetter of aromas... The tongue is not the fetter of flavors... The body is not the fetter of tactile sensations... The intellect is not the fetter of ideas, nor are ideas the fetter of the intellect, but whatever desire & passion arises in dependence on the two of them: That is the fetter there."


True Teachings of The Awakened One

In Tandem

Ven. Ananda describes the paths to arahantship by which insight (vipassana) and tranquillity (samatha) work hand-in-hand.

On one occasion Ven. Ananda was staying in Kosambi, at Ghosita's monastery. There he addressed the True Followers of The Path shown by The Awakened One, "Friends!"

"Yes, friend," the True Followers of The Path shown by The Awakened One responded.

Ven. Ananda said: "Friends, whoever True Followers of The Path shown by The Awakened One or Nun declares the attainment of arahantship in my presence, they all do it by means of one or another of four paths. Which four?

"There is the case where a True Follower of The Path shown by The Awakened One has developed insight preceded by tranquillity. As he develops insight preceded by tranquillity, the path is born. He follows that path, develops it, pursues it. As he follows the path, developing it & pursuing it his fetters are abandoned, his obsessions destroyed.

"Then there is the case where a True Follower of The Path shown by The Awakened One has developed tranquillity preceded by insight. As he develops tranquillity preceded by insight, the path is born. He follows that path, develops it, pursues it. As he follows the path, developing it & pursuing it his fetters are abandoned, his obsessions destroyed.

"Then there is the case where a True Follower of The Path shown by The Awakened One has developed tranquillity in tandem with insight. As he develops tranquillity in tandem with insight, the path is born. He follows that path, develops it, pursues it. As he follows the path, developing it & pursuing it his fetters are abandoned, his obsessions destroyed.

"Then there is the case where a True Follower of The Path shown by The Awakened One 's mind has its restlessness concerning the True Teachings of The Awakened One[Comm: the corruptions of insight] well under control. There comes a time when his mind grows steady inwardly, settles down, and becomes unified & concentrated. In him the path is born. He follows that path, develops it, pursues it. As he follows the path, developing it & pursuing it his fetters are abandoned, his obsessions destroyed.

"Whoever True Follower of The Path shown by The Awakened One or nun declares the attainment of arahantship in my presence, they all do it by means of one or another of these four paths."


True Teachings of The Awakened One

The Nun Ven. Ananda teaches a nun that, although craving can be used to overcome craving, and conceit to overcome conceit, the same principle does not hold for sexual intercourse.

I have heard that on one occasion Ven. Ananda was staying in Kosambi, at Ghosita's Park. Then a certain nun said to a certain man, "Go, my good man, to my lord Ananda and, on arrival, bowing your head to his feet in my name, tell him, 'The nun named such-and-such, venerable sir, is sick, in pain, severely ill. She bows her head to the feet of her lord Ananda and says, "It would be good if my lord Ananda were to go to the nuns' quarters, to visit this nun out of sympathy for her."'"

Responding, "Yes, my lady," the man then approached Ven. Ananda and, on arrival, having bowed down, sat to one side. As he was sitting there he said to Ven. Ananda, "The nun named such-and-such, venerable sir, is sick, in pain, severely ill. She bows her head to the feet of her lord Ananda and says, 'It would be good if my lord Ananda were to go to the nuns' quarters, to visit this nun out of sympathy for her.'"

Ven. Ananda accepted with silence.

Then in the early morning, having put on his robes and, carrying his bowl and outer robe, he went to the nuns' quarters. The nun saw Ven. Ananda coming from afar. On seeing him, she lay down on a bed, having covered her head.

Then Ven. Ananda approached the nun and, on arrival, sat down on a prepared seat. As he was sitting there, he said to the nun: "This body, sister, comes into being through food. And yet it is by relying on food that food is to be abandoned.

"This body comes into being through craving. And yet it is by relying on craving that craving is to be abandoned.

"This body comes into being through conceit. And yet it is by relying on conceit that conceit is to be abandoned.

"This body comes into being through sexual intercourse. Sexual intercourse is to be abandoned. With regard to sexual intercourse, the Awakened One declares the cutting off of the bridge.


"'This body, sister, comes into being through food. And yet it is by relying on food that food is to be abandoned.' Thus was it said. And in reference to what was it said? There is the case, sister, where a monk, considering it thoughtfully, takes food not playfully, nor for intoxication, nor for putting on bulk, nor for beautification but simply for the survival & continuance of this body, for ending its afflictions, for the support of the holy life, [thinking,] 'Thus will I destroy old feelings [of hunger] and not create new feelings [from overeating]. I will maintain myself, be blameless, & live in comfort.' Then, at a later time, he abandons food, having relied on food. 'This body, sister, comes into being through food. And yet it is by relying on food that food is to be abandoned.' Thus was it said, and in reference to this was it said.

"'This body comes into being through craving. And yet it is by relying on craving that craving is to be abandoned.' Thus was it said. And in reference to what was it said? There is the case, sister, where a True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One hears, 'The True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One named such-and-such, they say, through the ending of the fermentations, has entered & remains in the fermentation-free awareness-release & discernment-release, having known & realized them for himself in the here & now.' The thought occurs to him, 'I hope that I, too, will through the ending of the fermentations enter & remain in the fermentation-free awareness-release & discernment-release, having known & realized them for myself in the here & now.' Then, at a later time, he abandons craving, having relied on craving. 'This body comes into being through craving. And yet it is by relying on craving that craving is to be abandoned.' Thus was it said. And in reference to this was it said.

"'This body comes into being through conceit. And yet it is by relying on conceit that conceit is to be abandoned.' Thus was it said. And in reference to what was it said? There is the case, sister, where a monk hears, 'The True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One named such-and-such, they say, through the ending of the fermentations, has entered & remains in the fermentation-free awareness-release & discernment-release, having known & realized them for himself in the here & now.' The thought occurs to him, 'The True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One named such-and-such, they say, through the ending of the fermentations, has entered & remains in the fermentation-free awareness-release & discernment-release, having known & realized them for himself in the here & now. Then why not me?' Then, at a later time, he abandons conceit, having relied on conceit. 'This body comes into being through conceit. And yet it is by relying on conceit that conceit is to be abandoned.' Thus was it said, and in reference to this was it said.

"This body comes into being through sexual intercourse. Sexual intercourse is to be abandoned. With regard to sexual intercourse, the Awakened One declares the cutting off of the bridge."

Then the nun getting up from her bed, arranging her upper robe over one shoulder, and bowing down with her head at Ven. Ananda's feet said, "A transgression has overcome me, venerable sir, in that I was so foolish, so muddle-headed, and so unskilled as to act in this way. May my lord Ananda please accept this confession of my transgression as such, so that I may restrain myself in the future."

"Yes, sister, a transgression overcame you in that you were so foolish, so muddle-headed, and so unskilled as to act in this way. But because you see your transgression as such and make amends in accordance with the Teachings of The Awakened One, we accept your confession. For it is a cause of growth in the Teachings of The Awakened One & Discipline of the noble ones when, seeing a transgression as such, one makes amends in accordance with the Teachings of The Awakened One and exercises restraint in the future."

That is what Ven. Ananda said. Gratified, the nun delighted in Ven. Ananda's words.


True Teachings of The Awakened One

Brightness

What provides the most brightness in life?


"There are these four types of brightness. Which four? The brightness of the sun, the brightness of the moon, the brightness of fire, and the brightness of discernment. These are the four types of brightness. And of these four types of brightness, the foremost is the brightness of discernment."


True Teachings of The Awakened One

Good Will

The Awakened One describes four possible courses of rebirth open to someone who practices the brahma-vihara (good will, compassion, appreciative joy, and equanimity).


"Followers of the Path shaown by The Awakened One, for one whose awareness-release through good will is cultivated, developed, pursued, handed the reins and taken as a basis, given a grounding, steadied, consolidated, and well-undertaken, eleven benefits can be expected. Which eleven?

"One sleeps easily, wakes easily, dreams no evil dreams. One is dear to human beings, dear to non-human beings. The devas protect one. Neither fire, poison, nor weapons can touch one. One's mind gains concentration quickly. One's complexion is bright. One dies unconfused and if penetrating no higher is headed for the Brahma worlds.

"These are the eleven benefits that can be expected for one whose awareness-release through good will is cultivated, developed, pursued, handed the reins and taken as a basis, given a grounding, steadied, consolidated, and well-undertaken."


True Teachings of The Awakened One

Mental Absorption

The Awakened One describes another possible course of rebirth open to someone who practices jhana.

"I tell you, the ending of the mental fermentations depends on the first jhana... the second jhana... the third... the fourth... the dimension of the infinitude of space... the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness... the dimension of nothingness. I tell you, the ending of the mental fermentations depends on the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception.

"'I tell you, the ending of the mental fermentations depends on the first jhana.' Thus it has been said. In reference to what was it said? There is the case where a True Follower of the path shown by The Awakened One, withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful qualities, enters & remains in the first jhana: rapture & pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought & evaluation. He regards whatever phenomena there that are connected with form, feeling, perception, fabrications, & consciousness, as inconstant, stressful, a disease, a cancer, an arrow, painful, an affliction, alien, a disintegration, an emptiness, not-self. He turns his mind away from those phenomena, and having done so, inclines his mind to the property of deathlessness: 'This is peace, this is exquisite the resolution of all fabrications; the relinquishment of all acquisitions; the ending of craving; dispassion; cessation; Unbinding.'

"Suppose that an archer or archer's apprentice were to practice on a straw man or mound of clay, so that after a while he would become able to shoot long distances, to fire accurate shots in rapid succession, and to pierce great masses. In the same way, there is the case where a monk... enters & remains in the first jhana: rapture & pleasure born of withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought & evaluation. He regards whatever phenomena there that are connected with form, feeling, perception, fabrications, & consciousness, as inconstant, stressful, a disease, a cancer, an arrow, painful, an affliction, alien, a disintegration, an emptiness, not-self. He turns his mind away from those phenomena, and having done so, inclines his mind to the property of deathlessness: 'This is peace, this is exquisite the resolution of all fabrications; the relinquishment of all acquisitions; the ending of craving; dispassion; cessation; Unbinding.'

"Staying right there, he reaches the ending of the mental fermentations. Or, if not, then through this very Teachings of The Awakened One-passion, this very Teachings of The Awakened One -delight, and from the total wasting away of the first five of the fetters he is due to be reborn [in the Pure Abodes], there to be totally unbound, never again to return from that world.

"'I tell you, the ending of the mental fermentations depends on the first jhana.' Thus was it said, and in reference to this was it said.

(Similarly with the other levels of jhana up through the dimension of nothingness.)

"Thus, as far as the perception-attainments go, that is as far as gnosis-penetration goes. As for these two spheres the attainment of the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception & the attainment of the cessation of feeling & perception I tell you that they are to be rightly explained by those monks who are meditators, skilled in attaining, skilled in attaining & emerging, who have attained & emerged in dependence on them."

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Notes

1. Self-identity views, grasping at precepts & practices, uncertainty, sensual passion, and resistance.


True Teachings of The Awakened One

Mental Absorption

The Awakened One describes four possible courses of rebirth open to someone who practices jhana

"I tell you, the ending of the mental fermentations depends on the first jhana... the second jhana... the third... the fourth... the dimension of the infinitude of space... the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness... the dimension of nothingness. I tell you, the ending of the mental fermentations depends on the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception.

"'I tell you, the ending of the mental fermentations depends on the first jhana.' Thus it has been said. In reference to what was it said? There is the case where a monk, withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful qualities, enters & remains in the first jhana: rapture & pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought & evaluation. He regards whatever phenomena there that are connected with form, feeling, perception, fabrications, & consciousness, as inconstant, stressful, a disease, a cancer, an arrow, painful, an affliction, alien, a disintegration, an emptiness, not-self. He turns his mind away from those phenomena, and having done so, inclines his mind to the property of deathlessness: 'This is peace, this is exquisite the resolution of all fabrications; the relinquishment of all acquisitions; the ending of craving; dispassion; cessation; Unbinding.'

"Suppose that an archer or archer's apprentice were to practice on a straw man or mound of clay, so that after a while he would become able to shoot long distances, to fire accurate shots in rapid succession, and to pierce great masses. In the same way, there is the case where a monk... enters & remains in the first jhana: rapture & pleasure born of withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought & evaluation. He regards whatever phenomena there that are connected with form, feeling, perception, fabrications, & consciousness, as inconstant, stressful, a disease, a cancer, an arrow, painful, an affliction, alien, a disintegration, an emptiness, not-self. He turns his mind away from those phenomena, and having done so, inclines his mind to the property of deathlessness: 'This is peace, this is exquisite the resolution of all fabrications; the relinquishment of all acquisitions; the ending of craving; dispassion; cessation; Unbinding.'

"Staying right there, he reaches the ending of the mental fermentations. Or, if not, then through this very True Teachings of The Awakened One-passion, this very True Teachings of The Awakened One -delight, and from the total wasting away of the first five of the fetters he is due to be reborn [in the Pure Abodes], there to be totally unbound, never again to return from that world.

"'I tell you, the ending of the mental fermentations depends on the first jhana.' Thus was it said, and in reference to this was it said.

(Similarly with the other levels of jhana up through the dimension of nothingness.)

"Thus, as far as the perception-attainments go, that is as far as gnosis-penetration goes. As for these two spheres the attainment of the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception & the attainment of the cessation of feeling & perception I tell you that they are to be rightly explained by those monks who are meditators, skilled in attaining, skilled in attaining & emerging, who have attained & emerged in dependence on them."

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Notes

1. Self-identity views, grasping at precepts & practices, uncertainty, sensual passion, and resistance.


The Teachings of The awakened One

Courses of Action

When faced with a choice, how does one decide which course of action to follow? The Awakened One here offers some helpful advice.

"True Followers of the Path shown by The awakened One, there are these four courses of action. Which four? There is the course of action that is unpleasant to do and that, when done, leads to what is unprofitable. There is the course of action that is unpleasant to do but that, when done, leads to what is profitable. There is the course of action that is pleasant to do but that, when done, leads to what is unprofitable. There is the course of action that is pleasant to do and that, when done, leads to what is profitable.

"Now as for the course of action that is unpleasant to do and that, when done, leads to what is unprofitable, one considers it as not worth doing for both reasons: because the course of action is unpleasant to do, one considers it as not worth doing; and because the course of action, when done, leads to what is unprofitable, one considers it as not worth doing. Thus one considers it as not worth doing for both reasons.

"As for the course of action that is unpleasant to do but that, when done, leads to what is profitable, it is in light of this course of action that one may be known in terms of manly stamina, manly persistence, manly effort as a fool or a wise person. For a fool doesn't reflect, 'Even though this course of action is unpleasant to do, still when it is done it leads to what is profitable.' So he doesn't do it, and thus the non-doing of that course of action leads to what is unprofitable for him. But a wise person reflects, 'Even though this course of action is unpleasant to do, still when it is done it leads to what is profitable.' So he does it, and thus the doing of that course of action leads to what is profitable for him.

"As for the course of action that is pleasant to do but that, when done, leads to what is unprofitable, it is in light of this course of action that one may be known in terms of manly stamina, manly persistence, manly effort as a fool or a wise person. For a fool doesn't reflect, 'Even though this course of action is pleasant to do, still when it is done it leads to what is unprofitable.' So he does it, and thus the doing of that course of action leads to what is unprofitable for him. But a wise person reflects, 'Even though this course of action is pleasant to do, still when it is done it leads to what is unprofitable.' So he doesn't do it, and thus the non-doing of that course of action leads to what is profitable for him.

"As for the course of action that is pleasant to do and that, when done, leads to what is profitable, one considers it as worth doing for both reasons: because the course of action is pleasant to do, one considers it as worth doing; and because the course of action, when done, leads to what is profitable, one considers it as worth doing. Thus one considers it as worth doing for both reasons.

"These are the four courses of action."


The Teachings of The Awakened One

The Goad-stick

How much suffering does it take to motivate you to practice the Teachings of The Awakened One in earnest? The Awakened One illustrates his point with the famous simile of a thoroughbred horse stirred to action by its rider.

"There are these four types of excellent thoroughbred horses to be found existing in the world. Which four? There is the case where an excellent thoroughbred horse, on seeing the shadow of the goad-stick, is stirred & agitated, [thinking,] 'I wonder what task the trainer will have me do today? What should I do in response?' Some excellent thoroughbred horses are like this. And this is the first type of excellent thoroughbred horse to be found existing in the world.

"Then again there is the case where an excellent thoroughbred horse is not stirred & agitated on seeing the shadow of the goad-stick, but when his coat is pricked [with the goad stick] he is stirred & agitated, [thinking,] 'I wonder what task the trainer will have me do today? What should I do in response?' Some excellent thoroughbred horses are like this. And this is the second type of excellent thoroughbred horse to be found existing in the world.

"Then again there is the case where an excellent thoroughbred horse is not stirred & agitated on seeing the shadow of the goad-stick, or when his coat is pricked, but when his hide is pricked [with the goad stick] he is stirred & agitated, [thinking,] 'I wonder what task the trainer will have me do today? What should I do in response?' Some excellent thoroughbred horses are like this. And this is the third type of excellent thoroughbred horse to be found existing in the world.

"Then again there is the case where an excellent thoroughbred horse is not stirred & agitated on seeing the shadow of the goad-stick, or when his coat is pricked, or when his hide is pricked, but when his bone is pricked [with the goad stick] he is stirred & agitated, [thinking,] 'I wonder what task the trainer will have me do today? What should I do in response?' Some excellent thoroughbred horses are like this. And this is the fourth type of excellent thoroughbred horse to be found existing in the world.

"These are the four types of excellent thoroughbred horse to be found existing in the world.

"Now, there are these four types of excellent thoroughbred persons to be found existing in the world. Which four?

"There is the case where a certain excellent thoroughbred person hears, 'In that town or village over there a man or woman is in pain or has died.' He is stirred & agitated by that. Stirred, he becomes appropriately resolute. Resolute, he both realizes with his body the highest truth and, having penetrated it with discernment, sees. This type of excellent thoroughbred person, I tell you, is like the excellent thoroughbred horse who, on seeing the shadow of the goad-stick, is stirred & agitated. Some excellent thoroughbred people are like this. And this is the first type of excellent thoroughbred person to be found existing in the world.

"Then again there is the case where a certain excellent thoroughbred person does not hear, 'In that town or village over there a man or woman is in pain or has died.' But he himself sees a man or woman in pain or dead. He is stirred & agitated by that. Stirred, he becomes appropriately resolute. Resolute, he both realizes with his body the highest truth and, having penetrated it with discernment, sees. This type of excellent thoroughbred person, I tell you, is like the excellent thoroughbred horse who, when its coat is pricked with the goad-stick, is stirred & agitated. Some excellent thoroughbred people are like this. And this is the second type of excellent thoroughbred person to be found existing in the world.

"Then again there is the case where a certain excellent thoroughbred person does not hear, 'In that town or village over there a man or woman is in pain or has died.' And he himself does not see a man or woman in pain or dead. But he sees one of his own blood relatives in pain or dead. He is stirred & agitated by that. Stirred, he becomes appropriately resolute. Resolute, he both realizes with his body the highest truth and, having penetrated it with discernment, sees. This type of excellent thoroughbred person, I tell you, is like the excellent thoroughbred horse who, when its hide is pricked with the goad-stick, is stirred & agitated. Some excellent thoroughbred people are like this. And this is the third type of excellent thoroughbred person to be found existing in the world.

"Then again there is the case where a certain excellent thoroughbred person does not hear, 'In that town or village over there a man or woman is in pain or has died.' And he himself does not see a man or woman in pain or dead, nor does he see one of his own blood relatives in pain or dead. But he himself is touched by bodily feelings that are painful, fierce, sharp, wracking, repellent, disagreeable, life-threatening. He is stirred & agitated by that. Stirred, he becomes appropriately resolute. Resolute, he both realizes with his body the highest truth and, having penetrated it with discernment, sees. This type of excellent thoroughbred person, I tell you, is like the excellent thoroughbred horse who, when its bone is pricked with the goad-stick, is stirred & agitated. Some excellent thoroughbred people are like this. And this is the fourth type of excellent thoroughbred person to be found existing in the world.

"These are the four types of excellent thoroughbred persons to be found existing in the world."


True Teachings of the Awakened One

To Kesi the Horsetrainer

The Aswakened One explains to Kesi, a horsetrainer, how he teaches The True Teachings of The awakened One. This brilliant exposition warrants close study by every teacher, as it reveals the multiple levels in which effective teaching operates: the Awakened One speaks in terms that the listener understands (horsetraining), he uses similes to great effect, and he deftly answers the real question that lies behind the student's query ("Please, can you train me?").

Then Kesi the horsetrainer went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down, sat to one side. As he was sitting there, the Blessed One said to him: "You, Kesi, are a trained man, a trainer of tamable horses. And how do you train a tamable horse?"

"Lord, I train a tamable horse [sometimes] with gentleness, [sometimes] with harshness, [sometimes] with both gentleness & harshness."

"And if a tamable horse does not submit either to a mild training or to a harsh training or to a mild & harsh training, Kesi, what do you do?"

"If a tamable horse does not submit either to a mild training or to a harsh training or to a mild and harsh training, lord, then I kill it. Why is that? [I think:] 'Don't let this be a disgrace to my lineage of teachers.' But the Blessed One, lord, is the unexcelled trainer of tamable people. How do you train a tamable person?"

"Kesi, I train a tamable person [sometimes] with gentleness, [sometimes] with harshness, [sometimes] with both gentleness & harshness.

"In using gentleness, [I teach:] 'Such is good bodily conduct. Such is the result of good bodily conduct. Such is good verbal conduct. Such is the result of good verbal conduct. Such is good mental conduct. Such is the result of good mental conduct. Such are the devas. Such are human beings.'

"In using harshness, [I teach:] 'Such is bodily misconduct. Such is the result of bodily misconduct. Such is verbal misconduct. Such is the result of verbal misconduct. Such is mental misconduct. Such is the result of mental misconduct. Such is hell. Such is the animal womb. Such the realm of the hungry shades.'

"In using gentleness & harshness, [I teach:] 'Such is good bodily conduct. Such is the result of good bodily conduct. Such is bodily misconduct. Such is the result of bodily misconduct. Such is good verbal conduct. Such is the result of good verbal conduct. Such is verbal misconduct. Such is the result of verbal misconduct. Such is good mental conduct. Such is the result of good mental conduct. Such is mental misconduct. Such is the result of mental misconduct. Such are the devas. Such are human beings. Such is hell. Such is the animal womb. Such the realm of the hungry shades.'"

"And if a tamable person does not submit either to a mild training or to a harsh training or to a mild & harsh training, what do you do?"

"If a tamable person does not submit either to a mild training or to a harsh training or to a mild & harsh training, then I kill him, Kesi."

"But it's not proper for our Blessed One to take life! And yet the Blessed One just said, 'I kill him, Kesi.'"

"It is true, Kesi, that it's not proper for a Tathagata to take life. But if a tamable person does not submit either to a mild training or to a harsh training or to a mild & harsh training, then the Tathagata does not regard him as being worth speaking to or admonishing. His knowledgeable fellows in the holy life do not regard him as being worth speaking to or admonishing. This is what it means to be totally destroyed in the Doctrine & Discipline, when the Tathagata does not regard one as being worth speaking to or admonishing, and one's knowledgeable fellows in the holy life do not regard one as being worth speaking to or admonishing."

"Yes, lord, wouldn't one be totally destroyed if the Tathagata does not regard one as being worth speaking to or admonishing, and one's knowledgeable fellows in the holy life do not regard one as being worth speaking to or admonishing!

"Magnificent, lord! Magnificent! Just as if he were to place upright what was overturned, to reveal what was hidden, to show the way to one who was lost, or to carry a lamp into the dark so that those with eyes could see forms, in the same way has the Blessed One through many lines of reasoning made the True Teachings of The awakened One clear. I go to the Blessed One for refuge, to the True Teachings of The awakened One, and to the community of The True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One. May the Blessed One remember me as a lay follower who has gone to him for refuge, from this day forward, for life."


True Teachings of the Awakened One

Thunderheads

Reading suttas is good, but there is more to be done. Go meditate!

"There are these four types of thunderheads. Which four? One that thunders but doesn't rain, one that rains but doesn't thunder, one that neither thunders nor rains, and one that both thunders and rains. These are the four types of thunderheads.

"In the same way, these four types of persons resembling thunderheads are to be found existing in the world. Which four? The one that thunders but doesn't rain, the one that rains but doesn't thunder, the one that neither thunders nor rains, and the one that both thunders and rains.

"And how is one the type of person who thunders but doesn't rain? There is the case where a person has mastered the Teachings of The Awakened One: dialogues, narratives of mixed prose and verse, explanations, verses, spontaneous exclamations, quotations, birth stories, amazing events, question & answer sessions.1 Yet he doesn't discern, as it actually is present, that 'This is stress.' He doesn't discern, as it actually is present, that 'This is the origination of stress.' He doesn't discern, as it actually is present, that 'This is the cessation of stress.' He doesn't discern, as it actually is present, that 'This is the path of practice leading to the cessation of stress.' This is the type of person who thunders but doesn't rain. This type of person, I tell you, is like the thunderhead that thunders but doesn't rain.

"And how is one the type of person who rains but doesn't thunder? There is the case where a person has not mastered the The Teachings of The Awakened One: dialogues... question & answer sessions. Yet he does discern, as it actually is present, that 'This is stress.' He discerns, as it actually is present, that 'This is the origination of stress.' He discerns, as it actually is present, that 'This is the cessation of stress.' He discerns, as it actually is present, that 'This is the path of practice leading to the cessation of stress.' This is the type of person who rains but doesn't thunder. This type of person, I tell you, is like the thunderhead that rains but doesn't thunder.

"And how is one the type of person who neither thunders nor rains? There is the case where a person has not mastered the Teeachings of The Awakened One: dialogues... question & answer sessions. He doesn't discern, as it actually is present, that 'This is stress.' ... 'This is the origination of stress.' ... 'This is the cessation of stress.' ... 'This is the path of practice leading to the cessation of stress.' This is the type of person who neither thunders nor rains. This type of person, I tell you, is like the thunderhead that neither thunders nor rains.

"And how is one the type of person who both thunders and rains? There is the case where a person has mastered the Teachings of The Awakened One: dialogues... question & answer sessions. He discerns, as it actually is present, that 'This is stress.' ... 'This is the origination of stress.' ... 'This is the cessation of stress.' ... 'This is the path of practice leading to the cessation of stress.' This is the type of person who both thunders and rains. This type of person, I tell you, is like the thunderhead that both thunders and rains.

"There are these four types of people to be found existing in the world."


Trainings (1)

It is best of all if you not only follow the precepts yourself, but can support others in following them, too.

"There are these three trainings. Which three? The training in heightened virtue, the training in heightened mind, the training in heightened discernment.

"And what is the training in heightened virtue? There is the case where a True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One is virtuous. He dwells restrained in accordance with the Patimokkha, consummate in his behavior & sphere of activity. He trains himself, having undertaken the training rules, seeing danger in the slightest fault. This is called the training in heightened virtue.

"And what is the training in heightened mind? There is the case where a True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One quite withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful [mental] qualities enters & remains in the first jhana: rapture & pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought & evaluation. With the stilling of directed thought & evaluation, he enters & remains in the second jhana: rapture & pleasure born of composure, unification of awareness free from directed thought & evaluation internal assurance. With the fading of rapture he remains in equanimity, mindful & alert, and physically sensitive of pleasure. He enters & remains in the third jhana, of which the Noble Ones declare, 'Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasurable abiding.' With the abandoning of pleasure & pain as with the earlier disappearance of elation & distress he enters & remains in the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity & mindfulness, neither pleasure nor pain. This is called the training in heightened mind.

"And what is the training in heightened discernment? There is the case where a True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One discerns as it actually is that 'This is stress... This is the origination of stress... This is the cessation of stress... This is the path of practice leading to the cessation of stress.' This is called the training in heightened discernment.

"These are the three trainings."


True Teachings of The Awakened One

The Subduing of Passion

What does it mean to practice The True Teachings of The Awakened One for one's own benefit and for another's?

"True Followers of the Path shown by The awakened One, these four types of individuals are to be found existing in the world. Which four? The one who practices for his/her own benefit but not for that of others. The one who practices for the benefit of others but not for his/her own. The one who practices neither for his/her own benefit nor for that of others. The one who practices for his/her own benefit and for that of others.

"And who is the individual who practices for his/her own benefit but not for that of others? There is the case where a certain individual practices for the subduing of passion within him/herself but doesn't encourage others in the subduing of passion; practices for the subduing of aversion within him/herself but doesn't encourage others in the subduing of aversion; practices for the subduing of delusion within him/herself but doesn't encourage others in the subduing of delusion. Such is the individual who practices for his/her own benefit but not for that of others.

"And who is the individual who practices for the benefit of others but not for his/her own? There is the case where a certain individual doesn't practice for the subduing of passion within him/herself but encourages others in the subduing of passion; he/she doesn't practice for the subduing of aversion within him/herself but encourages others in the subduing of aversion; he/she doesn't practice for the subduing of delusion within him/herself but encourages others in the subduing of delusion. Such is the individual who practices for the benefit of others but not for his/her own.

"And who is the individual who practices neither for his/her own benefit nor for that of others? There is the case where a certain individual doesn't practice for the subduing of passion within him/herself and doesn't encourage others in the subduing of passion; he/she doesn't practice for the subduing of aversion within him/herself and doesn't encourage others in the subduing of aversion; he/she doesn't practice for the subduing of delusion within him/herself and doesn't encourage others in the subduing of delusion. Such is the individual who practices neither for his/her own benefit nor for that of others.

"And who is the individual who practices for his/her own benefit and for that of others? There is the case where a certain individual practices for the subduing of passion within him/herself and encourages others in the subduing of passion; practices for the subduing of aversion within him/herself and encourages others in the subduing of aversion; practices for the subduing of delusion within him/herself and encourages others in the subduing of delusion. Such is the individual who practices for his/her own benefit and for that of others.

"These are the four types of individuals to be found existing in the world."


True Teachings of The Awakened One

Concentration (Tranquillity and Insight)

True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One, these are the four developments of concentration. Which four? There is the development of concentration that, when developed & pursued, leads to a pleasant abiding in the here & now. There is the development of concentration that, when developed & pursued, leads to the attainment of knowledge & vision. There is the development of concentration that, when developed & pursued, leads to mindfulness & alertness. There is the development of concentration that, when developed & pursued, leads to the ending of the effluents.

And what is the development of concentration that, when developed & pursued, leads to a pleasant abiding in the here & now? There is the case where a monk quite withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful qualities enters & remains in the first jhana: rapture & pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought & evaluation. With the stilling of directed thought & evaluation, he enters & remains in the second jhana: rapture & pleasure born of composure, unification of awareness free from directed thought & evaluation internal assurance. With the fading of rapture he remains in equanimity, mindful & alert, and physically sensitive to pleasure. He enters & remains in the third jhana, of which the Noble Ones declare, Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasurable abiding. With the abandoning of pleasure & pain as with the earlier disappearance of elation & distress he enters & remains in the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity & mindfulness, neither pleasure nor pain. This is the development of concentration that, when developed & pursued, leads to a pleasant abiding in the here & now.

And what is the development of concentration that, when developed & pursued, leads to the attainment of knowledge & vision? There is the case where a True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One attends to the perception of light and is resolved on the perception of daytime [at any hour of the day]. Day [for him] is the same as night, night is the same as day. By means of an awareness open & unhampered, he develops a brightened mind. This is the development of concentration that, when developed & pursued, leads to the attainment of knowledge & vision.

And what is the development of concentration that, when developed & pursued, leads to mindfulness & alertness? There is the case where feelings are known to the True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One as they arise, known as they persist, known as they subside. Perceptions are known to him as they arise, known as they persist, known as they subside. Thoughts are known to him as they arise, known as they persist, known as they subside. This is the development of concentration that, when developed & pursued, leads to mindfulness & alertness.

And what is the development of concentration that, when developed & pursued, leads to the ending of the effluents? There is the case where a True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One remains focused on arising & falling away with reference to the five clinging-aggregates: Such is form, such its origination, such its passing away. Such is feeling, such its origination, such its passing away. Such is perception, such its origination, such its passing away. Such are fabrications, such their origination, such their passing away. Such is consciousness, such its origination, such its disappearance. This is the development of concentration that, when developed & pursued, leads to the ending of the effluents.

These are the four developments of concentration.

And it was in connection with this that I stated in Punnakas Question in the Way to the He who has fathomed the far & near in the world,

for whom there is nothing perturbing in the world

his vices evaporated,

undesiring, untroubled,

at peace he, I tell you, has crossed over birth

aging.


True Teachings of The Awakened One

A person's goodness is measured not by his or her wealth, beauty, or status, but by the goodness of his or her actions.

Darkness

"There are these four types of people to be found existing in the world. Which four? One in darkness who is headed for darkness, one in darkness who is headed for light, one in light who is headed for darkness, and one in light who is headed for light.

"And how is one the type of person in darkness who is headed for darkness? There is the case where a person is born into such a lowly family - a family that is poor, with little food or drink, living in hardship, where food & clothing are hard to come by. And he is ugly, misshapen, stunted, & sickly: half-blind or deformed or lame or crippled. He doesn't receive any [gifts of] food, drink, clothing, or vehicles; garlands, perfumes, or ointments; bedding, shelter, or lamps. He engages in bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, & mental misconduct. Having engaged in bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, & mental misconduct, he on the break-up of the body, after death reappears in the plane of deprivation, the bad destination, the lower realms, in hell. This is the type of person in darkness who is headed for darkness.

"And how is one the type of person in darkness who is headed for light? There is the case where a person is born into such a lower class family a family that is poor, with little food or drink, living in hardship, where food & clothing are hard to come by. And he is ugly, misshapen, stunted, & sickly: half-blind or deformed or lame or crippled. He doesn't receive any [gifts of] food, drink, clothing, or vehicles; garlands, perfumes, or ointments; bedding, shelter, or lamps. He engages in good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct, & good mental conduct. Having engaged in good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct, & good mental conduct, he on the break-up of the body, after death reappears in the good destination, the heavenly world. This is the type of person in darkness who is headed for light.

"And how is one the type of person in light who is headed for darkness? There is the case where a person is born into an upper class family a noble warrior family, a priestly family, a prosperous householder family a family that is rich, with much wealth, with many possessions, with a great deal of money, a great many accoutrements of wealth, a great many commodities. And he is well-built, handsome, extremely inspiring, endowed with a lotus-like complexion. He receives [gifts of] food, drink, clothing, & vehicles; garlands, perfumes, & ointments; bedding, shelter, & lamps. He engages in bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, & mental misconduct. Having engaged in bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, & mental misconduct, he on the break-up of the body, after death reappears in the plane of deprivation, the bad destination, the lower realms, in hell. This is the type of person in light who is headed for darkness.

"And how is one the type of person in light who is headed for light? There is the case where a person is born into an upper class family a noble warrior family, a priestly family, a prosperous householder family a family that is rich, with much wealth, with many possessions, with a great deal of money, a great many accoutrements of wealth, a great many commodities. And he is well-built, handsome, extremely inspiring, endowed with a lotus-like complexion. He receives [gifts of] food, drink, clothing, & vehicles; garlands, perfumes, & ointments; bedding, shelter, & lamps. He engages in good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct, & good mental conduct. Having engaged in good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct, & good mental conduct, he on the break-up of the body, after death reappears in the good destination, the heavenly world. This is the type of person in light who is headed for light.

"These are the four types of people to be found existing in the world."


True Teachings of The Awakened One

Vanijja Sutta

One reason why some people succeed and others fail in their trades.

Trade

Then Ven. Sariputta went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As he was sitting there he said to the Blessed One, "What is the reason, lord, what is the cause why a certain trade, when engaged in by some people, turns out a failure? What is the reason, what is the cause why the same sort of trade, when engaged in by other people, turns out not as intended? What is the reason, what is the cause why the same sort of trade, when engaged in by other people, turns out as intended? What is the reason, what is the cause why the same sort of trade, when engaged in by other people, turns out better than intended?"

"There is the case, Sariputta, where a certain person, having gone to a priest or contemplative, makes him an offer: 'Tell me, sir, what you need in terms of the [four] requisites.' But he doesn't give what he offered. If he passes away from there and comes here, then whatever trade he engages in, it turns out a failure.

"Then there is the case where a certain person, having gone to a priest or contemplative, makes him an offer: 'Tell me, sir, what you need in terms of the [four] requisites.' But he gives him something other than what he intended by the offer. If he passes away from there and comes here, then whatever trade he engages in, it turns out not as intended.

"Then there is the case where a certain person, having gone to a priest or contemplative, makes him an offer: 'Tell me, sir, what you need in terms of the [four] requisites.' He gives him what he intended by the offer. If he passes away from there and comes here, then whatever trade he engages in, it turns out as intended.

"Then there is the case where a certain person, having gone to a priest or contemplative, makes him an offer: 'Tell me, sir, what you need in terms of the [four] requisites.' He gives him more than what he intended by the offer. If he passes away from there and comes here, then whatever trade he engages in, it turns out better than intended.

"This is the reason, Sariputta, this is the cause why a certain trade, when engaged in by some people, turns out a failure; why the same sort of trade, when engaged in by other people, turns out not as intended; why the same sort of trade, when engaged in by other people, turns out as intended; why the same sort of trade, when engaged in by other people, turns out better than intended."


True Teachings of The Awakened One

Unconjecturable

If you spend too much time pondering these four things you will surely drive yourself crazy.

"There are these four unconjecturables that are not to be conjectured about, that would bring madness & vexation to anyone who conjectured about them. Which four?

"The Awakened One-range of the Awakened Ones is an unconjecturable that is not to be conjectured about, that would bring madness & vexation to anyone who conjectured about it.

"The jhana-range of a person in jhana...

"The [precise working out of the] results of kamma...

"Conjecture about [the origin, etc., of] the world is an unconjecturable that is not to be conjectured about, that would bring madness & vexation to anyone who conjectured about it.

"These are the four unconjecturables that are not to be conjectured about, that would bring madness & vexation to anyone who conjectured about them."

Notes

1.I.e., the range of powers an Awakened One develops as a result of becoming an Awakened One .

2.I.e., the range of powers that one may obtain while absorbed in jhana.


True Teachings of The Awakened One

A Person of Integrity

"True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One, a person endowed with these four qualities can be known as 'a person of no integrity.' Which four?

"There is the case where a person of no integrity, when unasked, reveals another person's bad points, to say nothing of when asked. Furthermore, when asked, when pressed with questions, he is one who speaks of another person's bad points in full & in detail, without omission, without holding back. Of this person you may know, 'This venerable one is a person of no integrity.'

"Then again, a person of no integrity, when asked, does not reveal another person's good points, to say nothing of when unasked. Furthermore, when asked, when pressed with questions, he is one who speaks of another person's good points not in full, not in detail, with omissions, holding back. Of this person you may know, 'This venerable one is a person of no integrity.'

"Then again, a person of no integrity, when asked, does not reveal his own bad points, to say nothing of when unasked. Furthermore, when asked, when pressed with questions, he is one who speaks of his own bad points not in full, not in detail, with omissions, holding back. Of this person you may know, 'This venerable one is a person of no integrity.'

"Then again, a person of no integrity, when unasked, reveals his own good points, to say nothing of when asked. Furthermore, when asked, when pressed with questions, he is one who speaks of his own good points in full & in detail, without omissions, without holding back. Of this person you may know, 'This venerable one is a person of no integrity.'

"True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One, a person endowed with these four qualities can be known as 'a person of no integrity.'

"Now, a person endowed with these four qualities can be known as 'a person of integrity.' Which four?

"There is the case where a person of integrity, when asked, does not reveal another person's bad points, to say nothing of when unasked.

Furthermore, when asked, when pressed with questions, he is one who speaks of another person's bad points not in full, not in detail, with omissions, holding back. Of this person you may know, 'This venerable one is a person of integrity.'

"Then again, a person of integrity, when unasked, reveals another person's good points, to say nothing of when asked. Furthermore, when asked, when pressed with questions, he is one who speaks of another person's good points in full & in detail, without omissions, without holding back. Of this person you may know, 'This venerable one is a person of integrity.'

"Then again, a person of integrity, when unasked, reveals his own bad points, to say nothing of when asked. Furthermore, when asked, when pressed with questions, he is one who speaks of his own bad points in full & in detail, without omissions, without holding back. Of this person you may know, 'This venerable one is a person of integrity.'

"Then again, a person of integrity, when asked, does not reveal his own good points, to say nothing of when unasked. Furthermore, when asked, when pressed with questions, he is one who speaks of his own good points not in full, not in detail, with omissions, holding back. Of this person you may know, 'This venerable one is a person of integrity.'


True Teachings of The Awakened One

Debtless

Then Anathapindika the householder went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As he was sitting there the Blessed One said to him: "There are these four kinds of bliss that can be attained in the proper season, on the proper occasions, by a householder partaking of sensuality. Which four? The bliss of having, the bliss of [making use of] wealth, the bliss of debtlessness, the bliss of blamelessness.

"And what is the bliss of having? There is the case where the son of a good family has wealth earned through his efforts & enterprise, amassed through the strength of his arm, and piled up through the sweat of his brow, righteous wealth righteously gained. When he thinks, 'I have wealth earned through my efforts & enterprise, amassed through the strength of my arm, and piled up through the sweat of my brow, righteous wealth righteously gained,' he experiences bliss, he experiences joy. This is called the bliss of having.

"And what is the bliss of [making use of] wealth? There is the case where the son of a good family, using the wealth earned through his efforts & enterprise, amassed through the strength of his arm, and piled up through the sweat of his brow, righteous wealth righteously gained, partakes of his wealth and makes merit. When he thinks, 'Using the wealth earned through my efforts & enterprise, amassed through the strength of my arm, and piled up through the sweat of my brow, righteous wealth righteously gained, I partake of wealth and make merit,' he experiences bliss, he experiences joy. This is called the bliss of [making use of] wealth.

"And what is the bliss of debtlessness? There is the case where the son of a good family owes no debt, great or small, to anyone at all. When he thinks, 'I owe no debt, great or small, to anyone at all,' he experiences bliss, he experiences joy. This is called the bliss of debtlessness.

"And what is the bliss of blamelessness? There is the case where a disciple of the noble ones is endowed with blameless bodily kamma, blameless verbal kamma, blameless mental kamma. When he thinks, 'I am endowed with blameless bodily kamma, blameless verbal kamma, blameless mental kamma,' he experiences bliss, he experiences joy. This is called the bliss of blamelessness.

"These are the four kinds of bliss that can be attained in the proper season, on the proper occasions, by a householder partaking of sensuality."

Knowing the bliss of debtlessness, & recollecting the bliss of having, enjoying the bliss of wealth, the mortal then sees clearly with discernment. Seeing clearly the wise one he knows both sides: that these are not worth one sixteenth-sixteenth of the bliss of blamelessness.


Living in Tune

Once the Blessed One was staying among the Bhaggas in the Deer Park at Bhesakala Grove, near Crocodile Haunt. Then early in the morning the Blessed One put on his robes and, carrying his bowl and outer robe, went to the home of the householder, Nakula's father. On arrival, he sat down on a seat made ready. Then Nakula's father & Nakula's mother went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As they were sitting there, Nakula's father said to the Blessed One: "Lord, ever since Nakula's mother as a young girl was brought to me [to be my wife] when I was just a young boy, I am not conscious of being unfaithful to her even in mind, much less in body. We want to see one another not only in the present life but also in the life to come." And Nakula's mother said to the Blessed One: "Lord, ever since I as a young girl was brought to Nakula's father [to be his wife] when he was just a young boy, I am not conscious of being unfaithful to him even in mind, much less in body. We want to see one another not only in the present life but also in the life to come."

[The Blessed One said:] "If both husband & wife want to see one another not only in the present life but also in the life to come, they should be in tune [with each other] in conviction, in tune in virtue, in tune in generosity, and in tune in discernment. Then they will see one another not only in the present life but also in the life to come."

Husband & wife, both of them having conviction, being responsive, being restrained, living by the Dhamma, addressing each other with loving words: they benefit in manifold ways. To them comes bliss. Their enemies are dejected when both are in tune in virtue.

Obscurations

" True Followers of the Path shown by the Awakened One, there are these four obscurations of the sun and moon, obscured by which the sun and moon don't glow, don't shine, don't dazzle. Which four?

"Clouds are an obscuration of the sun and moon, obscured by which the sun and moon don't glow, don't shine, don't dazzle.

"Fog is an obscuration...

"Smoke and dust is an obscuration...

"Rahu, the king of the asuras, is an obscuration of the sun and moon, obscured by which the sun and moon don't glow, don't shine, don't dazzle.

"These are the four obscurations of the sun and moon, obscured by which the sun and moon don't glow, don't shine, don't dazzle. "In the same way, there are four obscurations of contemplatives and brahmans, obscured by which some contemplatives and brahmans don't glow, don't shine, don't dazzle. Which four?

"There are some contemplatives and brahmans who drink alcohol and fermented liquor, who don't refrain from drinking alcohol and fermented liquor. This is the first obscuration of contemplatives and brahmans, obscured by which some contemplatives and brahmans don't glow, don't shine, don't dazzle.

"There are some contemplatives and brahmans who engage in sexual intercourse, who don't refrain from sexual intercourse. This is the second obscuration of contemplatives and brahmans, obscured by which some contemplatives and brahmans don't glow, don't shine, don't dazzle.

"There are some contemplatives and brahmans who consent to gold & silver, who don't refrain from accepting gold & silver. This is the third obscuration of contemplatives and brahmans, obscured by which some contemplatives and brahmans don't glow, don't shine, don't dazzle.

"There are some contemplatives and brahmans who maintain life through wrong livelihood, who don't refrain from wrong livelihood. This is the fourth obscuration of contemplatives and brahmans, obscured by which some contemplatives and brahmans don't glow, don't shine, don't dazzle.

"These are the four obscurations, obscured by which some contemplatives and brahmans don't glow, don't shine, don't dazzle."

Obscured by passion & aversion

some brahmans & contemplatives people entrenched in ignorance, delighting in endearing forms, drink alcohol & fermented liquor, engage in sexual intercourse, unwise, consent to gold & silver, live by means of wrong livelihood some brahmans & contemplatives. These are said to be obscurations by the Awakened One, kinsman of the Sun.

Because of these obscurations some brahmans & contemplatives don't glow, don't shine, are impure, dusty, dead.

Covered with darkness, slaves to craving, led on, they swell the terrible charnel ground, they grab at further becoming.

Perversions

"True Followers of the Path shown by the Awakened One, there are these four perversions of perception, perversions of mind, perversions of view. Which four? 'Constant' with regard to the inconstant is a perversion of perception, a perversion of mind, a perversion of view. 'Pleasant' with regard to the stressful... 'Self' with regard to not-self... 'Attractive' with regard to the unattractive is a perversion of perception, a perversion of mind, a perversion of view. These are the four perversions of perception, perversions of mind, perversions of view.

"There are these four non-perversions of perception, non-perversions of mind, non-perversions of view. Which four? 'Inconstant' with regard to the inconstant is a non-perversion of perception, a non-perversion of mind, a non-perversion of view. 'Stressful' with regard to the stressful... 'Not-self' with regard to not-self... 'Unattractive' with regard to the unattractive is a non-perversion of perception, a non-perversion of mind, a non-perversion of view. These are the four non-perversions of perception, non-perversions of mind, non-perversions of view."

Perceiving constancy in the inconstant,

pleasure in the stressful,

self in what's not-self,

attractiveness in the unattractive,

beings, destroyed by wrong-view,

go mad, out of their minds.

Bound to Mara's yoke,

from the yoke they find no rest.

Beings go on to the wandering-on,

leading to birth & death.

But when Awakened Ones

arise in the world,

bringing light to the world,

they proclaim the Teachings of the Awakened One

leading to the stilling of stress.

When those with discernment listen,

they regain their senses,

seeing the inconstant as inconstant,

the stressful as stressful,

what's not-self as not-self,

the unattractive as unattractive.

Undertaking right view,

they transcend all stress & suffering.

To Rohitassa

On one occasion the Blessed One was staying near Savatthi, in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's monastery. Then Rohitassa, the son of a deva, in the far extreme of the night, his extreme radiance lighting up the entirety of Jeta's Grove, went to the Blessed One. On arrival, having bowed down to the Blessed One, he stood to one side. As he was standing there he said to the Blessed One: "Is it possible, lord, by traveling, to know or see or reach a far end of the cosmos where one does not take birth, age, die, pass away or reappear?"

"I tell you, friend, that it is not possible by traveling to know or see or reach a far end of the cosmos where one does not take birth, age, die, pass away, or reappear."

"It is amazing, lord, and awesome, how well that has been said by the Blessed One: 'I tell you, friend, that it is not possible by traveling to know or see or reach a far end of the cosmos where one does not take birth, age, die, pass away, or reappear.' Once I was a seer named Rohitassa, a student of Bhoja, a powerful sky-walker. My speed was as fast as that of a strong archer well-trained, a practiced hand, a practiced sharp-shooter shooting a light arrow across the shadow of a palm tree. My stride stretched as far as the east sea is from the west. To me, endowed with such speed, such a stride, there came the desire: 'I will go traveling to the end of the cosmos.' I with a one-hundred year life, a one-hundred year span spent one hundred years traveling apart from the time spent on eating, drinking, chewing & tasting, urinating & defecating, and sleeping to fight off weariness but without reaching the end of the cosmos I died along the way. So it is amazing, lord, and awesome, how well that has been said by the Blessed One: 'I tell you, friend, that it is not possible by traveling to know or see or reach a far end of the cosmos where one does not take birth, age, die, pass away, or reappear.'"

[When this was said, the Blessed One responded:] "I tell you, friend, that it is not possible by traveling to know or see or reach a far end of the cosmos where one does not take birth, age, die, pass away, or reappear. But at the same time, I tell you that there is no making an end of suffering & stress without reaching the end of the cosmos. Yet it is just within this fathom-long body, with its perception & intellect, that I declare that there is the cosmos, the origination of the cosmos, the cessation of the cosmos, and the path of practice leading to the cessation of the cosmos."

It's not to be reached by traveling,

the end of the cosmos

regardless.

And it's not without reaching

the end of the cosmos

that there is release

from suffering & stress.

So, truly, the wise one,

an expert with regard to the cosmos,

a knower of the end of the cosmos,

having fulfilled the holy life,

calmed,

knowing the cosmos' end,

doesn't long for this cosmos or for any other.

Questions

"There are these four ways of answering questions. Which four? There are questions that should be answered categorically [straightforwardly yes, no, this, that]. There are questions that should be answered with an analytical (qualified) answer [defining or redefining the terms]. There are questions that should be answered with a counter-question. There are questions that should be put aside. These are the four ways of answering questions."

First the categorical answer,

then the qualified,

third, the type to be counter-questioned,

& fourth, the one to be set aside.

Any monk who knows which is which,

in line with the Dhamma,

is said to be skilled

in the four types of questions:

hard to overcome, hard to beat,

profound, hard to defeat.

He knows what's worthwhile

& what's not,

proficient in (recognizing) both,

he rejects the worthless,

grasps the worthwhile.

He's called one who has broken through to what's worthwhile,

prudent,

wise.

Immeasurable Concentration

"Wise & mindful, you should develop immeasurable concentration [i.e., concentration based on immeasurable good will, compassion, appreciation, or equanimity]. When, wise & mindful, one has developed immeasurable concentration, five realizations arise right within oneself. Which five?

"The realization arises right within oneself that 'This concentration is blissful in the present and will result in bliss in the future.'

"The realization arises right within oneself that 'This concentration is noble & not connected with the baits of the flesh.'

"The realization arises right within oneself that 'This concentration is not obtained by base people.' "The realization arises right within oneself that 'This concentration is peaceful, exquisite, the acquiring of serenity, the attainment of unity, not kept in place by the fabrications of forceful restraint.'

"The realization arises right within oneself that 'I enter into this concentration mindfully, and mindfully I emerge from it.' "Wise & mindful, you should develop immeasurable concentration. When, wise & mindful, one has developed immeasurable concentration, these five realizations arise right within oneself."

No Falling Away

"Endowed with four qualities, a True Follower of the Path shown by the Awakened One is incapable of falling away and is right in the presence of Unbinding. Which four? "There is the case where a True Follower of the Path shown by the Awakened One is consummate in virtue, guards the doors to his sense faculties, knows moderation in eating, & is devoted to wakefulness.

"And how is a True Followers of the Path shown by the Awakened One consummate in virtue? There is the case where a True Follower of the Path shown by the Awakened One is virtuous. He dwells restrained in accordance with the Patimokkha, consummate in his behavior & sphere of activity. He trains himself, having undertaken the training rules, seeing danger in the slightest faults. This is how a True Follower of the Path shown by the Awakened One is consummate in virtue.

"And how does a True Follower of the Path shown by the Awakened One guard the doors to his sense faculties? There is the case where a True Follower of the Path shown by the Awakened One, on seeing a form with the eye, does not grasp at any theme or variations by which if he were to dwell without restraint over the faculty of the eye evil, unskillful qualities such as greed or distress might assail him. He practices with restraint. He guards the faculty of the eye. He achieves restraint with regard to the faculty of the eye.

"On hearing a sound with the ear...

"On smelling an aroma with the nose...

"On tasting a flavor with the tongue...

"On feeling a tactile sensation with the body...

"On cognizing an idea with the intellect, he does not grasp at any theme or variations by which if he were to dwell without restraint over the faculty of the intellect evil, unskillful qualities such as greed or distress might assail him. He practices with restraint. He guards the faculty of the intellect. He achieves restraint with regard to the faculty of the intellect. This is how a monk guards the doors to his sense faculties.

"And how does a True Follower of the Path shown by the Awakened One know moderation in eating? There is the case where a True Follower of the Path shown by the Awakened One, considering it appropriately, takes his food not playfully, nor for intoxication, nor for putting on bulk, nor for beautification, but simply for the survival & continuance of this body, for ending its afflictions, for the support of the holy life, thinking, 'I will destroy old feelings [of hunger] & not create new feelings [from overeating]. Thus I will maintain myself, be blameless, & live in comfort.' This is how a True Follower of the Path shown by the Awakened One knows moderation in eating. "And how is a True Follower of the Path shown by the Awakened One devoted to wakefulness? There is the case where a True Follower of the Path shown by the Awakened One during the day, sitting & pacing back & forth, cleanses his mind of any qualities that would hold the mind in check. During the first watch of the night, sitting & pacing back & forth, he cleanses his mind of any qualities that would hold the mind in check. During the second watch of the night, reclining on his right side, he takes up the lion's posture, one foot placed on top of the other, mindful, alert, with his mind set on getting up [either as soon as he awakens or at a particular time]. During the last watch of the night, sitting & pacing back & forth, he cleanses his mind of any qualities that would hold the mind in check. This is how a True Follower of the Path shown by the Awakened One is devoted to wakefulness.

"Endowed with these four qualities, a True Follower of the Path shown by the Awakened One is incapable of falling away and is right in the presence of Unbinding."

The True Follower of the Path shown by the Awakened One established in virtue,

restrained with regard to the sense faculties, knowing moderation in food,

& devoted to wakefulness:

dwelling thus ardently,

day & night, untiring,

he develops skillful qualities for the attainment of rest from the yoke.

The True Follower of the Path shown by the Awakened One delighting in heedfulness and seeing danger in heedlessness is incapable of falling away, is right in the presence of Unbinding.

With Dona

On one occasion the Blessed One was traveling along the road between Ukkattha and Setabya, and Dona the brahman was also traveling along the road between Ukkattha and Setabya. Dona the brahman saw, in the Blessed One's footprints, wheels with 1,000 spokes, together with rims and hubs, complete in all their features. On seeing them, the thought occurred to him, "How amazing! How astounding! These are not the footprints of a human being!"

Then the Blessed One, leaving the road, went to sit at the root of a certain tree his legs crossed, his body erect, with mindfulness established to the fore. Then Dona, following the Blessed One's footprints, saw him sitting at the root of the tree: confident, inspiring confidence, his senses calmed, his mind calmed, having attained the utmost control & tranquility, tamed, guarded, his senses restrained, a naga.1 On seeing him, he went to him and said,

"Master, are you a deva?"

"No, brahman, I am not a deva."

"Are you a gandhabba?"

"No..."

"... a yakkha?"

"No..."

"... a human being?"

"No, brahman, I am not a human being."

"When asked, 'Are you a deva?' you answer, 'No, brahman, I am not a deva.' When asked, 'Are you a gandhabba?' you answer, 'No, brahman, I am not a gandhabba.' When asked, 'Are you a yakkha?' you answer, 'No, brahman, I am not a yakkha.' When asked, 'Are you a human being?' you answer, 'No, brahman, I am not a human being.' Then what sort of being are you?" "Brahman, the fermentations by which if they were not abandoned I would be a deva: Those are abandoned by me, their root destroyed, like an uprooted palm tree, deprived of the conditions of existence, not destined for future arising. The fermentations by which if they were not abandoned I would be a gandhabba... a yakkha... a human being: Those are abandoned by me, their root destroyed, like an uprooted palm tree, deprived of the conditions of existence, not destined for future arising.

"Just like a red, blue, or white lotus born in the water, grown in the water, rising up above the water stands unsmeared by the water, in the same way I born in the world, grown in the world, having overcome the world live unsmeared by the world. Remember me, brahman, as 'awakened.'

"The fermentations by which I would go to a deva-state,

or become a gandhabba in the sky,

or go to a yakkha-state & human-state:

Those have been destroyed by me,

ruined, their stems removed.

Like a blue lotus, rising up,

unsmeared by water,

unsmeared am I by the world,

and so, brahman,

I'm awake."

 
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The True Teachings of The Awakened One

Generosity dana, caga

A treasure "And what is the treasure of generosity? There is the case of a disciple of the noble ones, his awareness cleansed of the stain of stinginess, living at home, freely generous, openhanded, delighting in being magnanimous, responsive to requests, delighting in the distribution of alms. This is called the treasure of generosity."

AN 7.6

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A requisite for spiritual progress "Without abandoning these five qualities, one is incapable of entering & remaining in the first jhana... the second jhana... the third jhana... the fourth jhana; incapable of realizing the fruit of stream-entry... the fruit of once-returning... the fruit of non-returning... arahantship. Which five? Stinginess as to one's monastery [lodgings], stinginess as to one's family [of supporters], stinginess as to one's gains, stinginess as to one's status, and ingratitude. Without abandoning these five qualities, one is incapable of entering & remaining in the second jhana... the third jhana... the fourth jhana; one is incapable realizing the fruit of stream-entry... the fruit of once-returning... the fruit of non-returning... arahantship.

"With the abandoning of these five qualities, one is capable of entering & remaining in the second jhana... the third jhana... the fourth jhana; capable of realizing the fruit of stream-entry... the fruit of once-returning... the fruit of non-returning... arahantship..."

AN 5.258-259

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The rewards of giving "These are the five rewards of generosity: One is dear and appealing to people at large, one is admired by good people, one's good name is spread about, one does not stray from the rightful duties of the householder, and with the break-up of the body at death, one reappears in a good destination, in the heavenly worlds."

AN 5.35

[The Buddha:] "Then there is the case where a certain person refrains from taking life, refrains from taking what is not given, refrains from sensual misconduct, refrains from false speech, refrains from divisive speech, refrains from abusive speech, refrains from idle chatter, is not covetous, bears no ill will, and has right views. And he gives food, drink, cloth, vehicles, garlands, scents, creams, bed, lodging, & lamps to priests & contemplatives. With the break-up of the body, after death, he reappears in the company of human beings. There he experiences the five strings of human sensuality [delightful sights, sounds, smells, tastes, tactile sensations]. It's because he refrained from taking what is not given, refrained from sensual misconduct, refrained from false speech, refrained from divisive speech, refrained from abusive speech, refrained from idle chatter, was not covetous, bore no ill will, and had right views that he reappears in the company of human beings. And it's because he gave food, drink, cloth, vehicles, garlands, scents, creams, bed, lodging, & lamps to priests & contemplatives that he experiences the five strings of human sensuality.

[Similarly for the case of rebirth in the company of devas] "...It's because he refrained from taking what is not given... and had right views that he reappears in the company of devas. And it's because he gave food, drink, cloth, vehicles, garlands, scents, creams, bed, lodging, & lamps to priests & contemplatives that he experiences the five strings of divine sensuality. But at any rate, brahman, the donor does not go without reward."

[The brahman Janussonin:] "It's amazing, Master Gotama, it's astounding, how it's enough to make one want to give a gift, enough to make one want to make an offering, where the donor does not go without reward."

"That's the way it is, brahman. That's the way it is. The donor does not go without reward."

AN 10.177

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Never underestimate the power of small gifts "Even if a person throws the rinsings of a bowl or a cup into a village pool or pond, thinking, 'May whatever animals live here feed on this,' that would be a source of merit."

AN 3.57

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What isn't given is lost So when the world is on fire with aging and death, one should salvage [one's wealth] by giving: what's given is well salvaged.

What's given bears fruit as pleasure. What isn't given does not: thieves take it away, or kings; it gets burnt by fire or lost.

SN 1.41

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Overcoming miserliness Conquer anger with lack of anger; bad, with good; stinginess, with a gift; a liar, with truth.

Dhp 223

What the miser fears, that keeps him from giving, is the very danger that comes when he doesn't give.

SN I.32

No misers go to the world of the devas. Those who don't praise giving are fools. The enlightened express their approval for giving and so find ease in the world beyond.

Dhp 177

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Giving even one's last meal "If beings knew, as I know, the results of giving & sharing, they would not eat without having given, nor would the stain of miserliness overcome their minds. Even if it were their last bite, their last mouthful, they would not eat without having shared, if there were someone to receive their gift. But because beings do not know, as I know, the results of giving & sharing, they eat without having given. The stain of miserliness overcomes their minds."

Iti 26

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Giving at the proper time In the proper season they give those with discernment, responsive, free from stinginess. Having been given in proper season, with hearts inspired by the Noble Ones straightened, Such their offering bears an abundance. Those who rejoice in that gift or give assistance, they, too, have a share of the merit, and the offering isn't depleted by that. So, with an unhesitant mind, one should give where the gift bears great fruit. Merit is what establishes living beings in the next life. AN 5.36

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To reap the highest rewards, to whom should we give? As he was sitting to one side, King Pasenadi Kosala said to the Blessed One: "Where, lord, should a gift be given?"

"Wherever the mind feels confidence, great king."

"But a gift given where, lord, bears great fruit?"

"This [question] is one thing, great king 'Where should a gift be given?' while this 'A gift given where bears great fruit?' is something else entirely. What is given to a virtuous person rather than to an unvirtuous one bears great fruit."

SN 3.24

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How a person of integrity gives a gift "These five are a person of integrity's gifts. Which five? A person of integrity gives a gift with a sense of conviction. A person of integrity gives a gift attentively. A person of integrity gives a gift in season. A person of integrity gives a gift with an empathetic heart. A person of integrity gives a gift without adversely affecting himself or others.

AN 5.148 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Many fruits [General Siha:] "Is it possible, lord, to point out a fruit of generosity visible in the here & now?"

[The Buddha:] "It is possible, Siha. One who gives, who is a master of giving, is dear & charming to people at large. And the fact that who gives, who is a master of giving, is dear & charming to people at large: this is a fruit of generosity visible in the here & now.

"Furthermore, good people, people of integrity, admire one who gives, who is a master of giving. And the fact that good people, people of integrity, admire one who gives, who is a master of giving: this, too, is a fruit of generosity visible in the here & now.

"Furthermore, the fine reputation of one who gives, who is a master of giving, is spread far & wide. And the fact that the fine reputation of one who gives, who is a master of giving, is spread far & wide: this, too, is a fruit of generosity visible in the here & now.

"Furthermore, when one who gives, who is a master of giving, approaches any assembly of people noble warriors, brahmans, householders, or contemplatives he/she does so confidently & without embarrassment. And the fact that when one who gives, who is a master of giving, approaches any assembly of people noble warriors, brahmans, householders, or contemplatives he/she does so confidently & without embarrassment: this, too, is a fruit of generosity visible in the here & now.

"Furthermore, at the break-up of the body, after death, one who gives, who is a master of giving, reappears in a good destination, the heavenly world. And the fact that at the break-up of the body, after death, one who gives, who is a master of giving, reappears in a good destination, the heavenly world: this is a fruit of generosity in the next life."

When this was said, General Siha said to the Blessed One: "As for the four fruits of generosity visible in the here & now that have been pointed out by the Blessed One, it's not the case that I go by conviction in the Blessed One with regard to them. I know them, too. I am one who gives, a master of giving, dear & charming to people at large. I am one who gives, a master of giving; good people, people of integrity, admire me. I am one who gives, a master of giving, and my fine reputation is spread far & wide: 'Siha is generous, a doer, a supporter of the Sangha.' I am one who gives, a master of giving, and when I approach any assembly of people noble warriors, brahmans, householders, or contemplatives I do so confidently & without embarrassment.

"But when the Blessed One says to me, 'At the break-up of the body, after death, one who gives, who is a master of giving, reappears in a good destination, the heavenly world,' that I do not know. That is where I go by conviction in the Blessed One."

"So it is, Siha. So it is. At the break-up of the body, after death, one who gives, who is a master of giving, reappears in a good destination, the heavenly world."

AN 5.34

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Many motives, many fruits "Sariputta, there is the case where a person gives a gift seeking his own profit, with a mind attached [to the reward], seeking to store up for himself [with the thought], 'I'll enjoy this after death.' He gives his gift food, drink, clothing, a vehicle; a garland, perfume, & ointment; bedding, shelter, & a lamp to a priest or a contemplative. What do you think, Sariputta? Might a person give such a gift as this?"

"Yes, lord."

"Having given this gift seeking his own profit with a mind attached [to the reward], seeking to store up for himself, [with the thought], 'I'll enjoy this after death' on the break-up of the body, after death, reappears in the company of the Four Great Kings. Then, having exhausted that action, that power, that status, that sovereignty, he is a returner, coming back to this world.

"Then there is the case of a person who gives a gift not seeking his own profit, not with a mind attached [to the reward], not seeking to store up for himself, nor [with the thought], 'I'll enjoy this after death.' Instead, he gives a gift with the thought, 'Giving is good.' He gives his gift food, drink, clothing, a vehicle; a garland, perfume, & ointment; bedding, shelter, & a lamp to a priest or a contemplative. What do you think, Sariputta? Might a person give such a gift as this?"

"Yes, lord."

"Having given this gift with the thought, 'Giving is good,' on the break-up of the body, after death, reappears in the company of the Devas of the Thirty-three. Then, having exhausted that action, that power, that status, that sovereignty, he is a returner, coming back to this world.

"Or, instead of thinking, 'Giving is good,' he gives a gift with the thought, 'This was given in the past, done in the past, by my father & grandfather. It would not be right for me to let this old family custom be discontinued'... on the break-up of the body, after death, he reappears in the company of the Devas of the Hours. Then, having exhausted that action, that power, that status, that sovereignty, he is a returner, coming back to this world.

"Or, instead... he gives a gift with the thought, 'I am well-off. These are not well-off. It would not be right for me, being well-off, not to give a gift to those who are not well-off'... on the break-up of the body, after death, he reappears in the company of the Contented Devas. Then, having exhausted that action, that power, that status, that sovereignty, he is a returner, coming back to this world.

"Or, instead... he gives a gift with the thought, 'Just as there were the great sacrifices of the sages of the past Atthaka, Vamaka, Vamadeva, Vessamitta, Yamataggi, Angirasa, Bharadvaja, Vasettha, Kassapa, & Bhagu in the same way will this be my distribution of gifts'... on the break-up of the body, after death, he reappears in the company of the devas who delight in creation. Then, having exhausted that action, that power, that status, that sovereignty, he is a returner, coming back to this world.

"Or, instead... he gives a gift with the thought, 'When this gift of mine is given, it makes the mind serene. Gratification & joy arise'... on the break-up of the body, after death, he reappears in the company of the devas who have power over the creations of others. Then, having exhausted that action, that power, that status, that sovereignty, he is a returner, coming back to this world.

"Or, instead of thinking, 'When this gift of mine is given, it makes the mind serene. Gratification & joy arise,' he gives a gift with the thought, 'This is an ornament for the mind, a support for the mind.' He gives his gift food, drink, clothing, a vehicle; a garland, perfume, & ointment; bedding, shelter, & a lamp to a priest or a contemplative. What do you think, Sariputta? Might a person give such a gift as this?"

"Yes, lord."

"Having given this, not seeking his own profit, not with a mind attached [to the reward], not seeking to store up for himself, nor [with the thought], 'I'll enjoy this after death,'

" nor with the thought, 'Giving is good,'

" nor with the thought, 'This was given in the past, done in the past, by my father & grandfather. It would not be right for me to let this old family custom be discontinued,'

" nor with the thought, 'I am well-off. These are not well-off. It would not be right for me, being well-off, not to give a gift to those who are not well-off,' nor with the thought, 'Just as there were the great sacrifices of the sages of the past Atthaka, Vamaka, Vamadeva, Vessamitta, Yamataggi, Angirasa, Bharadvaja, Vasettha, Kassapa, & Bhagu in the same way this will be my distribution of gifts,'

" nor with the thought, 'When this gift of mine is given, it makes the mind serene. Gratification & joy arise,'

" but with the thought, 'This is an ornament for the mind, a support for the mind' on the break-up of the body, after death, he reappears in the company of Brahma's Retinue. Then, having exhausted that action, that power, that status, that sovereignty, he is a non-returner. He does not come back to this world.

"This, Sariputta, is the cause, this is the reason, why a person gives a gift of a certain sort and it does not bear great fruit or great benefit, whereas another person gives a gift of the same sort and it bears great fruit and great benefit."

AN 7.49

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The greatest gift A gift of Dhamma conquers all gifts Dhp 354


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What is Theravada Buddhism?

by

John Bullitt

Many Buddhisms, One Dhamma-vinaya The Buddha the "Awakened One" called the religion he founded Dhamma-vinaya "the doctrine and discipline." To provide a social structure supportive of the practice of Dhamma-vinaya (or Dhamma for short [Sanskrit: Dharma]), and to preserve these teachings for posterity, the Buddha established the order of bhikkhus (monks) and bhikkhunis (nuns) the Sangha which continues to this day to pass his teachings on to subsequent generations of laypeople and monastics, alike.

Sangha

sangha

In the suttas the word sangha (lit. "group, assembly") is usually used in one of two ways: it refers either to the community of ordained monks and nuns (bhikkhu-sangha and bhikkhuni-sangha) or to the community of "noble ones" (ariya-sangha) persons who have attained at least stream-entry, the first stage of Awakening.

The definition (ariya-sangha) "The Sangha of the Blessed One's disciples who have practiced well... who have practiced straight-forwardly... who have practiced methodically... who have practiced masterfully in other words, the four types [of noble disciples] when taken as pairs, the eight when taken as individual types they are the Sangha of the Blessed One's disciples: worthy of gifts, worthy of hospitality, worthy of offerings, worthy of respect, the incomparable field of merit for the world."

AN 11.12

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"Four types of noble disciples..." "In this community of monks there are monks who are arahants, whose mental effluents are ended, who have reached fulfillment, done the task, laid down the burden, attained the true goal, totally destroyed the fetter of becoming, and who are released through right gnosis: such are the monks in this community of monks.

"In this community of monks there are monks who, with the total ending of the first set of five fetters, are due to be reborn [in the Pure Abodes], there to be totally unbound, never again to return from that world: such are the monks in this community of monks.

"In this community of monks there are monks who, with the total ending of [the first] three fetters, and with the attenuation of passion, aversion, & delusion, are once-returners, who on returning only one more time to this world will make an ending to stress: such are the monks in this community of monks.

"In this community of monks there are monks who, with the total ending of [the first] three fetters, are stream-winners, steadfast, never again destined for states of woe, headed for self-awakening: such are the monks in this community of monks."

MN 118

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"...the eight when taken as individual types" "Just as the ocean is the abode of such mighty beings as whales, whale-eaters, and whale-eater-eaters; asuras, nagas, and gandhabbas, and there are in the ocean beings one hundred leagues long, two hundred... three hundred... four hundred... five hundred leagues long; in the same way, this Doctrine and Discipline is the abode of such mighty beings as stream-winners and those practicing to realize the fruit of stream-entry; once-returners and those practicing to realize the fruit of once-returning; non-returners and those practicing to realize the fruit of non-returning; arahants and those practicing for arahantship... This is the eighth amazing and astounding fact about this Doctrine and Discipline."

Ud 5.5

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Worthy "A monk endowed with eight qualities is worthy of gifts, worthy of hospitality, worthy of offerings, worthy of respect, an incomparable field of merit for the world. Which eight?

[1] "There is the case where a monk is virtuous. He dwells restrained in accordance with the Patimokkha, consummate in his behavior & sphere of activity. He trains himself, having undertaken the training rules, seeing danger in the slightest faults.

[2] "When given food, whether coarse or refined, he eats it carefully, without complaining.

[3] "He feels disgust at bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, mental misconduct, at the development of evil, unskillful [mental] qualities.

[4] "He is composed & easy to live with, and doesn't harass the other monks.

[5] "Whatever tricks or deceits or wiles or subterfuges he has, he shows them as they actually are to the Teacher or to his knowledgeable companions in the holy life, so that the Teacher or his knowledgeable companions in the holy life can try to straighten them out.

[6] "When in training he gives rise to the thought, 'Whether the other monks want to train or not, I'll train here.'

[7] "When going, he goes the straight path; here the straight path is this: right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration.

[8] "He dwells with his persistence aroused, [thinking,] 'Gladly would I let the flesh & blood in my body dry up, leaving just the skin, tendons, & bones, but if I have not attained what can be reached through human steadfastness, human persistence, human striving, there will be no relaxing my persistence.'"

"Endowed with these eight qualities, a monk is worthy of gifts, worthy of hospitality, worthy of offerings, worthy of respect, an incomparable field of merit for the world."

AN 8.13

"Monks, this assembly is free from idle chatter, devoid of idle chatter, and is established on pure heartwood: such is this community of monks, such is this assembly. The sort of assembly that is worthy of gifts, worthy of hospitality, worthy of offerings, worthy of respect, an incomparable field of merit for the world: such is this community of monks, such is this assembly. The sort of assembly to which a small gift, when given, becomes great, and a great gift greater: such is this community of monks, such is this assembly. The sort of assembly that it is rare to see in the world: such is this community of monks, such is this assembly the sort of assembly that it would be worth traveling for leagues, taking along provisions, in order to see."

MN 118

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A community supreme "Among whatever communities or groups there may be, the Sangha of the Tathagata's disciples is considered supreme i.e., the four types [of noble disciples] when taken as pairs, the eight when taken as persons. Those who have confidence in the Sangha have confidence in what is supreme; and for those with confidence in the supreme, supreme will be the result."

Iti 90

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Recollecting the Sangha "At any time when a disciple of the noble ones is recollecting the Sangha, his mind is not overcome with passion, not overcome with aversion, not overcome with delusion. His mind heads straight, based on the Sangha. And when the mind is headed straight, the disciple of the noble ones gains a sense of the goal, gains a sense of the Dhamma, gains joy connected with the Dhamma. In one who is joyful, rapture arises. In one who is rapturous, the body grows calm. One whose body is calmed experiences ease. In one at ease, the mind becomes concentrated."

AN 11.12

"When you recollect the Sangha, monks, any fear, terror, or horripilation you may have will be abandoned."

SN 11.3

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See also: Refuge: An Introduction to the Buddha, Dhamma, and Sangha by Thanissaro Bhikkhu

"I hear the word "sangha" used a lot these days in Buddhist circles. What does it really mean? (Frequently Asked Question About Buddhism)

Stream-entry (Study Guide)

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e-Books

Amaravati Buddhist Monastery (Amaravati Buddhist Monastery, UK; PDF and HTML) offers a chanting guide and books by monastics from the Amaravati Buddhist sangha. Annotated Bibliography of Buddhism (Gregory Smith, USA) provides brief synopses of hundreds of books on Buddhism, and was prepared by the authors of the exceptionally clear and useful textbook The Buddhist Religion: A Historical Introduction (Fourth Edition). Aruna Publications (Aruna Ratanagiri Buddhist Monastery, UK; PDF and HTML) offers chanting guides and books by monastics from the Amaravati Buddhist sangha. Beyond the Net (Damrivi Foundation, Sri Lanka; HTML) has a collection of good short introductory articles about Theravada Buddhism by such authors as Bhikkhu Bodhi, Piyadassi Thera, Mithra Wettimuny, and Lily de Silva. (Warning: this site makes heavy use of frames, graphics, and applets. Extra patience required.) BuddhaDust (Michael Olds) is a fascinating and often illuminating practical guide through the Buddha's teachings, based on Olds's refreshing translations of the Pali texts. BuddhaNet (Buddhanet, Australia; PDF, HTML, and other formats) has a large archive of Buddhist texts in a variety of formats. BuddhaSasana (Binh Anson; HTML) offers a good selection of articles and translations by contemporary authors (mostly Theravadan), in a very readable format. Going Forth (Malaysia) offers a collection of links to sites offering personal reflections on life as a Theravada Buddhist monk or nun. Letchworth Dhamma Nikethanaya Buddhist Centre (UK) offers an excellent chanting guide (in Pali and English) as well as a few introductory readings on Theravada Buddhism. Metta Forest Monastery (Metta Forest Monastery, USA; HTML) offers several articles by Ajaan Geoff (Thanissaro Bhikkhu). Treasures of Pariyatti (Pariyatti, USA; PDF) offers a growing collection of out of print Dhamma articles and periodicals. Theravada Buddhist Women's Resources (Steve Russell; HTML) has a collection of writings by Buddhist women teachers, ancient and modern. Wat Pah Baan Taad (Thailand; PDF) offers a number of books by Ajaan Maha Boowa. Yellow Robe (Yi-Lei Wu; mostly PDF) offers a number of books by Bhikkhu Pesala, Mahasi Sayadaw, Sayadaw U Silananda, and others. Audio recordings and streams If you need assistance with any aspect of accessing audio Dhamma (i.e., if you have trouble downloading any of the audio recordings listed below, or if you'd like help burning audio Dhamma CDs, or making MP3 files) please contact Michael Sproul (email: michaelalansproul [AT] yahoo [DOT] com), who has kindly volunteered his time to help make audio Dhamma available to all.

The audio on the sites

listed below is in English unless otherwise noted.

Suttas in English SuttaReadings (USA; MP3): Suttas selected and read aloud by Theravada teachers.

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Pali chanting

Aruna Ratanagiri Buddhist Monastery (UK; RealAudio & Windows Media Audio): A collection of chants from the Mahanikaya Thai forest tradition (in Pali and English). BuddhaNet Audio (Australia; RealAudio and MP3): A collection of chants from various Theravada traditions (in Pali and English). Dhamma Talks (USA; MP3): Pali chanting from the Metta Forest Monastery, California

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Dhamma talks (downloads and streams) Abhayagiri Monastery (USA; MP3 and RealAudio): Dhamma talks by monastics from Abhayagiri. Aruna Ratanagiri Buddhist Monastery (UK; MP3): Dhamma talks by monastics from Ratanagiri. Audio Dharma (USA; MP3): An extensive catalogue of Dhamma talks by more than two dozen western teachers, including Thanissaro Bhikkhu. Beyond the Net (Sri Lanka; MP3): Sutta discussions with Bhikkhu Bodhi and Dhamma talks by several Sri Lankan teachers. Bodhi Monastery (USA; MP3): Bhikkhu Bodhi's excellent series of ten lectures on the Buddha's teachings, as well his weekly lectures on selected suttas from the Majjhima Nikaya. BuddhaNet Audio (Australia; RealAudio and MP3): Dhamma talks by a wide assortment of teachers. Buddhist Society of Western Australia (Australia; MP3): Dhamma talks by several western monastics and senior Thai monks. Corporate Body of the Buddha Educational Foundation (Taiwan; MP3): Dhamma talks by Bhikkhu Bodhi and others. Dhamma Talks (USA; MP3): Dhamma talks by Thanissaro Bhikkhu of Metta Forest Monastery. Dhamma Talks (UK; MP3): Dhamma talks by western disciples of Ajahn Chah, including Ajaans Sumedho, Pasanno, Tiradhammo, Viradhammo, Brahmavamso, Sucitto, Munindo, Amaro, Nyanadhammo, Sundara, Candasiri, Vayama, and Thanasanti. Dharmaseed.org (USA): A nonprofit publisher and distributor of recordings of meditation instructions and teachings by teachers from the Insight Meditation Society. Dharmastream (USA; MP3): Dhamma talks by the teachers from the Insight Meditation Society (USA). eDhamma: A Window to Theravada Buddhism (USA; RealAudio): Dhamma talks by Burmese teachers. The Forest Hermitage (UK; Windows Media Audio): Dhamma talks by Ajahn Khemadhammo. Forest Dhamma Books (Thailand; zipped MP3): Dhamma talks by Ajahn Paavaddho. Forest Monastery of Barn Tard (Thailand; RealAudio & Windows Media Audio): Dhamma talks by Ajaan Maha Boowa. Kalyanamitta.net (MP3): Dhamma talks in English by several teachers, including the late Ayya Khema and Leigh Brasington. Metta Forest Monastery (USA; MP3): Dhamma talks given at the monastery by Ajaan Geoff (Thanissaro Bhikkhu), in both English and Thai. Pariyatti (USA; MP3): Dhamma Podcasts from S.N. Goenka and others. Tathagata Meditation Center (USA; MP3, RealAudio): Dhamma talks by Sayadaws U Pandita, U Silananda, and Beeling.

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Dhamma talks (cassettes and CDs) Audio Dharma (USA): An extensive catalogue of Dhamma talks by more than two dozen western teachers, including Thanissaro Bhikkhu. Bhavana Society (USA): A series of Dhamma talks by Bhante Gunaratana from meditation retreats he conducted at the Bhavana Society. Audio cassettes of Dhamma talks by Sister Ayya Khema, from retreats given in the USA, are available from Carl Provder. For a list of tapes, send US$2.00 to: Carl Provder 1416 Elva Terrace Encinitas, CA 92024 USA

The proceeds benefit Buddha Haus.

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Index by Title

Clicking on a title in the index below will take you directly to the text or to another page that will tell you more about it. The date accompanying each text indicates the year of the edition on which the transcription is based. Only the major divisions of the Pali canon are listed here; for individual suttas, please see the Index of Suttas.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V WXYZ

A

Abhidhamma Pitaka Abhidhamma in Practice, The (N.K.G. Mendis; BPS WH 322, 1985) "Advantages of Realizing the Doctrine of Anatta, The" (Ledi Sayadaw, in Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 3, Egolessness (BPS WH 202, 1984)) Affirming the Truths of the Heart: The Buddhist Teachings on Samvega and Pasada (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 1997) Agendas of Mindfulness, The (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, 2002) Aims of Buddhist Education (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1997) All About Change (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 2004) All of Us (Beset by Birth, Decay and Death) (Ayya (Sister) Khema; 1988) Amata Dhamma see To the Last Breath (Ajaan Maha Boowa; 1992) Ananda: The Guardian of the Dhamma (Hellmuth Hecker; BPS WH 273, 1980) Anapana Sati: Meditation on Breathing (Ariyadhamma Mahathera; BPS BL 115, 1988) Anathapindika: The Great Benefactor (Hellmuth Hecker; BPS WH 334, 1986) "Anatta According to Theravada" (Bhikkhu anamoli, in Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 3, Egolessness (BPS WH 202, 1984)) Angulimala: A Murderer's Road to Sainthood (Hellmuth Hecker; BPS WH 312, 1984) Anguttara Nikaya Anguttara Nikaya: An Anthology (Part III: Books Eight to Eleven) (Nyanaponika Thera, ed.; BPS WH 238, 1976) "Anicca (Impermanence) According to Theravada" (Bhikkhu anamoli, in Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 1, Impermanence (BPS WH 186, 1981)) "Aniccam: The Buddhist Theory of Impermanence" (Bhikkhu anajivako, in Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 1, Impermanence (BPS WH 186, 1981)) Anicca Vata Sankhara (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1999) Answer Key to Warder's Introduction to Pali (John Kelly; 2003) Association with the Wise (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1994) Atthakavagga (The Octet Chapter), The: An Introduction (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 1997) Auspicious Month, An (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1991) Autobiography of a Forest Monk, The (Ajaan Thate; 1996) Autobiography of Phra Ajaan Lee, The (Ajaan Lee; 1994) Awareness Itself (Ajaan Fuang; 1999)

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B

Bag of Bones: A Miscellany on the Body (Bhikkhu Khantipalo; BPS WH 271/272, 1980) Balanced Way, The (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1987) Ballad of Liberation from the Khandhas, The (Ajaan Mun; 1995) Basic Breath Meditation Instructions (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 1994) Basic Themes (Ajaan Lee; 1994) Befriending the Suttas: Tips on Reading the Pali Discourses (John Bullitt) Beginning Insight Meditation, and Other Essays (Dorothy Figen; BPS BL 85, 1988) Beginnings: Suggested Entry Points to this Website Benefits of Walking Meditation, The (Sayadaw U Silananda; BPS BL 137, 1995) Better Than a Hundred Years (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1999) Beyond Coping: The Buddha's Teachings on Aging, Illness, Death, and Separation (Study Guide) (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, ed.; 1999) Beyond the Tipitaka: A Field Guide to Post-canonical Pali Literature (John Bullitt; 2002) Bhikkhu Patimokkha, The: The Bhikkhus' Code of Discipline (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, trans.) Bhikkhu Tissa Dispels Some Doubts (Leonard Price; BPS BL 102, 1985) Bhikkhuni Patimokkha, The: The Bhikkhunis' Code of Discipline (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, trans.) Bhikkhus' Rules A Guide for Laypeople: The Theravadin Buddhist Monk's Rules Compiled and Explained, The (Bhikkhu Ariyesako; 1999) Blatantly Clear in the Heart (Ajaan Suwat; 2001) Blessed One's City of Dhamma, The: From the Milindapaha (I.B. Horner; BPS BL 130, 1993) Blessings of Pindapata, The (Bhikkhu Khantipalo; 1964) Bodhinyana: A Collection of Dhamma Talks (Ajaan Chah; 1982) Body Contemplation (Study Guide) (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, ed.; 2003) The Book of Protection (Paritta) (Piyadassi Thera; 1999) Breath Meditation Condensed (Upasika Kee Nanayon; 1995) Buddha and His Dhamma, The (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS WH 433, 1999) Buddha's Encounters With Mara, The (Ananda W.P. Guruge; BPS WH 419, 1997) Buddha's Words on Kamma, The (anamoli Thera; BPS WH 248, 1993) Buddhism: A Method of Mind Training (Leonard Bullen; BPS BL 42, 1991) Buddhism and Death (M. O'C. Walshe; BPS WH 261, 1978) Buddhism and Sex (M. O'C. Walshe; BPS WH 225, 1986) Buddhism and Social Action (Ken Jones; BPS, 1981) Buddhism and the God-idea (Nyanaponika Thera; 1994) Buddhism in a Nutshell (Narada Thera; BPS, 1982) Buddhism in Myanmar: A Short History (Roger Bischoff; BPS WH 399, 1995) Buddhism in Sri Lanka: A Short History (H.R. Perera; BPS WH 100, 1988) Buddhism in Thailand: Its Past and Its Present (Karuna Kusalasaya; BPS WH 85, 2005) Buddhist Attitude Towards Nature, The (Lily de Silva; from BPS WH 346, 1987) Buddhist Ceremonies and Rituals of Sri Lanka (A.G.S. Kariyawasam; BPS WH 402-4, 1995) Buddhist Culture, the Cultured Buddhist (Robert Bogoda; BPS BL 139, 1996) "Buddhist Doctrine of Anicca (Impermanence), The" (Y. Karunadasa, in Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 1, Impermanence (BPS WH 186, 1981)) The Buddhist Layman (Bogoda/Jootla/Walshe; BPS WH 294, 1982) Buddhist Meditation (Francis Story; BPS BL 15, 1986) Buddhist Meditation and Depth Psychology (Douglas M. Burns; BPS WH 88, 1994) Buddhist Monastic Code, Volume I: The Patimokkha Training Rules Translated and Explained (2nd ed.) (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 2007) Buddhist Monastic Code, Volume II: The Khandhaka Rules Translated and Explained (2nd ed.) (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 2007) Buddhist Monk's Discipline, The: Some Points Explained for Laypeople (Bhikkhu Khantipalo; BPS WH 130, 1984) Buddhist Publication Society Newsletter Essays (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS 1985-1997) Buddhist Reflections on Death (V.F.Gunaratna; BPS WH 102, 1982) Buddhist Response to Contemporary Dilemmas of Human Existence, A (Bhikkhu Bodhi, 1994) Buddhist Stories from the Dhammapada Commentary (Part II) (E.W. Burlingame; BPS WH 324, 1985) Buddhist Women at the Time of the Buddha (Hellmuth Hecker; BPS WH 292, 1982) Buddho (Ajaan Thate; 1994)

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C

Case for Study, The (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1986) To the Cemetery and Back (Leonard Price; BPS BL 96, 1983) Chanting Guide, A: Pali Passages with English Translations (Dhammayut Order in the United States of America; 1998) To Comprehend Suffering (Ajaan Suwat; 2002) Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma, A (Introduction) (Bhikkhu Bodhi, ed.; BPS, 1993) Consciousnesses (Ajaan Lee; 1997) Contemplation of Feeling: The Discourse Grouping on the Feelings (Nyanaponika Thera; BPS WH 303, 1983) Courageous Faith (Nyanaponika Thera; 1994) Craft of the Heart, The (Ajaan Lee; 1994) Crossing the Ocean of Life (Ajaan Lee; 1998) Customs of the Noble Ones, The (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 1999) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

D

Dana: The Practice of Giving (Bhikkhu Bodhi, ed.; BPS WH 367, 1990) Demons of Defilement, The (Kilesa Mara) (Ajaan Lee; 1961 [1997]) De-perception (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, 2002) Detachment and Compassion in Early Buddhism (Elizabeth J. Harris; BPS BL 141, 1997) Devotion in Buddhism (Nyanaponika Thera; 1994) Dhamma and Non-duality (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1994-95) Dhamma for Everyone (Ajaan Lee; 1960 [2003]) Dhamma Teaching of Acariya Maha Boowa in London, The (Maha Boowa; 1980) Dhamma Without Rebirth? (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1987) Dhammapada: A Translation (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 1997) Dhammapada, The: The Buddha's Path of Wisdom (Acharya Buddharakkhita; BPS 1985) Digha Nikaya Directions for Insight (Upasika Kee Nanayon; 1995) Discipline of Sobriety, A (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1997) Discourse Collection, The: Selected Texts from the Sutta Nipata (John D. Ireland, trans.; BPS WH 82, 1983) Discourse on Right View, The (Bhikkhu anamoli and Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS WH 377, 1991) Discourse on the Snake Simile, The (Nyanaponika Thera; BPS WH 48, 1974) Discourses of the Ancient Nuns (Bhikkhu Bodhi, trans.; BPS BL 143, 1997) Disenchantment (Ajaan Suwat; 2001) Divine Mantra, The (Ajaan Lee; 2006) Does Rebirth Make Sense? (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 2000) Duties of the Sangha (Ajaan Lee; 1995)

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E

Economy of Gifts, The (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 1997) Edicts of King Asoka, The (Ven. S. Dhammika; BPS WH 386, 1993) Educating Compassion (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 2006) "Egolessness" (Nyanatiloka Mahathera, in Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 3, Egolessness (BPS WH 202, 1984)) Elements of ATI Style, The (Bullitt) Elimination of Anger, The (Piyatissa Thera; BPS BL 68, 1975) Emptiness (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 1997) Essentials of Buddha Dhamma in Meditative Practice, The (U Ba Khin, with an essay on U Ba Khin by Eric Lerner; BPS WH 231, 1981) Essential Practice, The: Dhamma Discourses of Venerable Webu Sayadaw (Part I) (Webu Sayadaw; BPS WH 375, 1991) Essential Practice, The: Dhamma Discourses of Venerable Webu Sayadaw (Part II) (Webu Sayadaw; BPS WH 384, 1992) Ever-present Truth, The: Teachings of Phra Ajaan Mun Bhuridatta Mahathera (Ajaan Mun; 1995) Everyman's Ethics (Narada Thera; BPS WH 14, 1985) Eye of Discernment, The: An Anthology from the Teachings of Phra Ajaan Lee Dhammadaro (Ajaan Lee; 1999)

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F

"Fact of Impermanence, The" (Piyadassi Thera, in Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 1, Impermanence (BPS WH 186, 1981)) Faith in Awakening (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 2006) Fistful of Sand, A (Ajaan Suwat; 1999) Five Aggregates, The (Study Guide) (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, ed.; 2002) Five Mental Hindrances and Their Conquest, The (Nyanaponika Thera; BPS WH 26, 1993) Five Piles of Bricks: The Khandhas as Burden & Path (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 2002) Five Spiritual Faculties, The (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1992-93) Food for the Heart (Ajaan Chah; 1992) Food for Thought (Ajaan Lee; 1995) Food of Kindness, The (Ayya Medhanandi; 2005) For the Welfare of Many (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1994) Forest Meditations: The Verses of the Arahant Talaputa (Bhikkhu Khantipalo, trans.; BPS WH 243, 1983) Foundations of Mindfulness, The (Nyanasatta Thera; BPS WH 19, 1993) Four Noble Truths, The (Study Guide) (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, ed.; 1999) Four Nutriments of Life, The (Nyanaponika Thera; BPS WH 105, 1981) Four Sublime States, The (Nyanaponika Thera; BPS WH 6, 1993) Frames of Reference (Ajaan Lee; 1994) Freedom from Fear (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 2002) Frequently Asked Questions About Access to Insight (Bullitt) Frequently Asked Questions About Buddhism (Bullitt) From Views to Vision (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1993-94) Fundamentals of Buddhism: Four Lectures (Nyanatiloka Mahathera; BPS WH 394, 1994)

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G

Gemstones of the Good Dhamma (Saddhamma-maniratana): An Anthology of Verses from the Pali Scriptures (Ven. S. Dhammika; BPS WH 342, 1987) "Generosity: The Inward Dimension" (Nina van Gorkom, in Dana: The Practice of Giving (BPS WH 367, 1990)) Getting the Message (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, 2006) Gifts He Left Behind: The Dhamma Legacy of Ajaan Dune Atulo (Bodhinandamuni; 2005) Giving Dignity to Life (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1998) "Giving from the Heart" (M. O'C. Walshe, in Dana: The Practice of Giving (BPS WH 367, 1990)) "Giving in the Pali Canon" (Lily de Silva, in Dana: The Practice of Giving (BPS WH 367, 1990)) Going for Refuge/Taking the Precepts (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS WH 282, 1981) Going Forth: A Call to Buddhist Monkhood (Sumana Samanera; BPS WH 27, 1983) Going Against the Flow (Upasika Kee Nanayon; 1995) Good Dose of Dhamma for Meditators When They Are Ill, A (Upasika Kee Nanayon; 1995) Guardians of the World, The (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1993) Guided Meditation, A (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, 1999) Guide to Awareness, A: Dhamma Talks on the Foundations of Mindfulness (Satipatthana Sutta) (Somdet Phra anasamvara, 1997)

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H

Handbook for the Relief of Suffering, A (Ajaan Lee; 1995) Happy Married Life, A: A Buddhist Perspective (Ven. K. Sri Dhammananda; 1987) Healing of the Bull, The: A Story (Suvimalee Karunaratna; 1996) Healing Power of the Precepts, The (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 1997) Heart Awakened, The (Eileen Siriwardhana; BPS BL 93, 1983) Heart Released, A (Ajaan Mun; 1995) (To be Seen) Here and Now (Ayya (Sister) Khema; 1989) Home for the Mind, A (Ajaan Suwat; 2002)

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I

Ideal Solitude: An Exposition of the Bhaddekaratta Sutta (Bhikkhu anananda; BPS WH 188, 1973) Inner Strength (Ajaan Lee; 1998) Inspiration from Enlightened Nuns (Susan Elbaum Jootla; BPS WH 349, 1988) Integrity of Emptiness, The (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 2006) Introduction to the Patimokkha Training Rules, An (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 1994) Investigation for Insight (Susan Elbaum Jootla; BPS WH 301, 1983) Iridescence on the Water, An (Chao Khun Nararatana Rajamanit) Itivuttaka: The Buddha's Sayings (excerpts) (John D. Ireland; BPS, 1997) Itivuttaka This Was Said by The Buddha (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, trans.; 2001)

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J

Jataka Tales of the Buddha, Part I (Ken and Visakha Kawasaki; BPS BL 135, 1995) Jataka Tales of the Buddha, Part II (Ken and Visakha Kawasaki; BPS BL 138, 1996) Jataka Tales of the Buddha, Part III (Ken and Visakha Kawasaki; BPS BL 142, 1997) Jataka Tales of the Buddha, Part IV (Ken and Visakha Kawasaki; BPS BL 144, 1998) Jataka Tales of the Buddha, Part V (Ken and Visakha Kawasaki; BPS BL 158, 2002) Jhana Not by the Numbers (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 2005) Jhanas in Theravada Buddhist Meditation, The (Henepola Gunaratana; BPS WH 351/353, 1988) Journey into Buddhism, A (Elizabeth J. Harris; BPS BL 134; 1994)

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K

Kalama Sutta: The Buddha's Charter of Free Inquiry (Soma Thera, tr; with an essay by Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS WH 8, 1981) Kamma and its Fruit (Nyanaponika Thera; 1994) Kamma (Study Guide) (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, ed.; 2000) Karma (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 1996) Karma of Questions, The: Essays on the Buddhist Path (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, 2002) (Upasika) Kee Nanayon and the Social Dynamic of Theravadin Buddhist Practice (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 1995) Keeping the Breath in Mind & Lessons in Samadhi (Ajaan Lee; 2000) Key to to the Exercises in A.K. Warder's Introduction to Pali, A (Brahmali Bhikkhu; 2005) Khuddaka Nikaya Knowledge (Ajaan Lee; 1997)

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L

Lay Buddhist Practice (Bhikkhu Khantipalo; BPS WH 206, 1982) Laying Down the Rod (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1991) Legends of Somdet Toh (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 2006) Lessons in Samadhi (Ajaan Lee) see Keeping the Breath in Mind & Lessons in Samadhi Life Isn't Just Suffering (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 2000) Life of Maha-Moggallana (Hellmuth Hecker; BPS WH 263, 1979) Life of Sariputta, The (Nyanaponika Thera; BPS WH 90, 1987) Life's Highest Blessings: The Maha Mangala Sutta (Dr. R.L. Soni; BPS WH 254, 1987) Lifestyles and Spiritual Progress (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1998) To Light a Fire (Webu Sayadaw; BPS BL 122, 1990) Light of Discernment, The (Ajaan Suwat; 2002) Lion's Roar, The: Two Discourses of Buddha (Bhikkhu anamoli, trans.; Bhikkhu Bodhi, ed.; BPS WH 390, 1993) Listen Well (Ajaan Fuang Jotiko; 2001) Living Dhamma (Ajaan Chah; 1992) Living Message of the Dhammapada, The (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS BL 129, 1993) Look at the Kalama Sutta, A (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1988) Looking Inward (Upasika Kee Nanayon; 1995) Loyalty to Your Meditation (Ajaan Lee; 2001)

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M

Maha Kaccana: Master of Doctrinal Exposition (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS WH 405, 1995) Maha Kassapa: Father of the Sangha (Hellmuth Hecker; BPS WH 345, 1987) Majjhima Nikaya Making the Dhamma Your Own (Phra Ajaan Khamdee Pabhaso; 1999) Mastery of Pride (Brian Fawcett; BPS BL 14, 1962) Matrceta's Hymn to the Buddha: An English Rendering of the Satapancasatka (Ven. S. Dhammika; BPS WH 360, 1989) Meaning of the Buddha's Awakening, The (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 1997) Meditating on No-self (Ayya (Sister) Khema; BPS BL 95, 1984) Meditations: Forty Dhamma Talks (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, 2003) Meditations 2 (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, 2006) Meditations 3 (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, 2006) Meeting the Divine Messengers (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1996) Merit (Study Guide) (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, ed.; 2005) Message for a Globalized World (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1996) Metta: The Philosophy and Practice of Universal Love (Acharya Buddharakkhita; BPS WH 365, 1989) Mind Like Fire Unbound, The: An Image in the Early Buddhist Discourses (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; Barre, MA: Dhamma Dana Publications, 1993) Of Mindsets and Monkeypots (Petr Karel Ontl; BPS BL 131, 1993) Ministering to the Sick and Terminally Ill (Lily de Silva; BPS BL 132, 1994) Mudita: The Buddha's Teaching on Unselfish Joy (various; BPS WH 170, 1983)

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N

Navigating the New Millennium (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 2000) New Undertaking, A (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1985) Nibbana (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 1996) Nibbana As Living Experience/The Buddha and The Arahant: Two Studies from the Pali Canon (Lily de Silva; BPS WH 407/408, 1996) Nobility of the Truths, The (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1991-92) Noble Conversation (Study Guide) (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, ed.; 2003) Noble Eightfold Path, The: The Way to the End of Suffering (Bhikkhu Bodhi; 1994) Noble Strategy: Essays on the Buddhist Path (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, 1999) Non-violence (Study Guide) (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, ed.; 2001) No-self or Not-self? (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 1996) No-self Characteristic, On the (N.K.G. Mendis; BPS WH 268, 1979) Not-self Strategy, The (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 1993) Note on Openness, A (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1991) Nothing Higher to Live For (Bhikkhu Nyanasobhano; BPS BL 124, 1991) Nourishing the Roots: Essays on Buddhist Ethics (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS WH 259, 1990)

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O

One Foot in the World: Buddhist Approaches to Present-day Problems (Lily de Silva; BPS WH 337, 1986) One Tool Among Many: The Place of Vipassana in Buddhist Practice (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 1998) Opening the Door to the Dhamma: Respect in Buddhist Thought & Practice (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 2001) Our Reactions to Dukkha (Elizabeth Ashby; BPS BL 26, 1965) Our Real Home (Ajaan Chah; BPS BL 111, 1987)

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P

Pali Verb Conjugation and Noun/Pronoun Declension Tables (Bhikkhu Nyanatusita, 2005) Parayana Vagga (The Chapter on the Way to the Far Shore), The: An Introduction (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 1997) Path of Concentration and Mindfulness, The (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, 1997) Path to Peace and Freedom for the Mind, The (Ajaan Lee) "Physical and Biological Aspects of Anatta" (Edward Greenly, in Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 3, Egolessness (BPS WH 202, 1984)) Position of Women in Buddhism, The (Dr. (Mrs.) L.S. Dewaraja; BPS WH 280, 1981) Positive Response: How to Meet Evil with Good (Acharya Buddharakkhita; BPS BL 109, 1987) Power of Good Will, The (Ajaan Lee; 2003) Power of Goodness, The (Ajaan Lee; 2004) Power of Mindfulness, The (Nyanaponika Thera; BPS WH 121, 1986) Practical Advice for Meditators (Bhikkhu Khantipalo; BPS WH 116, 1986) Practice in a Word, The (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 2004) "The Practice of Giving" (Susan Elbaum Jootla, in Dana: The Practice of Giving (BPS WH 367, 1990)) Practice of Loving-kindness (metta), The (anamoli Thera; BPS WH 7, 1987) Pride and Conceit (Dr. Elizabeth Ashby and Brian Fawcett; BPS BL 14, 1962) Prisoners of Karma: A Story (Suvimalee Karunaratna; 1991) Problem of Conflict, The (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1989) Progress of Insight, The (Mahasi Sayadaw; BPS, 1994) Protection Through Satipatthana (Nyanaponika Thera; BPS BL 34, 1990) Psychology of Emotions in Buddhist Perspective, The (Dr. Padmasiri de Silva; BPS WH 237, 1976) Pure & Simple (Upasika Kee Nanayon; 2003) Purification of Mind (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1986) Purity of Heart (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, 2006) Pushing the Limits: Desire & Imagination in the Buddhist Path (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 2006)

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Q

Quest for Meaning, The (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1989) Questions of Skill (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, 2001)

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R

Radical Buddhism (Leonard Price; BPS BL 92, 1982) Radical Therapy: Buddhist Precepts in the Modern World (Lily de Silva; BPS BL 123, 1991) Reading the Mind (Upasika Kee Nanayon; 1995) Recognizing the Dhamma (Study Guide) (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, ed.; 2000) Reconciliation, Right & Wrong (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 2004) Refuge: an Introduction to the Buddha, Dhamma, and Sangha (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 2001) Refuge in Awakening, A (Ajaan Lee; 1998) Refuge in the Buddha (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1992) Remedy for Despair, A (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1989) Reminiscence of Phra Ajaan Sao Kantasilo, A (Phra Ajaan Phut Thaniyo) Removal of Distracting Thoughts, The (Soma Thera; BPS WH 21, 1981) Renunciation (T. Prince; BPS BL 36, 1986) Respect in Buddhist Thought & Practice: See Opening the Door to the Dhamma: Respect in Buddhist Thought & Practice (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 2001) Right to Ask Questions, The (Larry Rosenberg; 2003) Right Attitude (Ajaan Suwat; 2001) Right Concentration (Ajaan Suwat; 2001) Right Speech (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 1999) Road to Nirvana is Paved with Skillful Intentions, The (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 1999)

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S

Samsara (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, 2002) Samsara Divided by Zero (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, 2000) Samyutta Nikaya Samyutta Nikaya: An Anthology (Part I) (John D. Ireland; BPS WH 107, 1981) Samyutta Nikaya: An Anthology (Part II) (Bhikkhu anananda; BPS WH 183, 1983) Samyutta Nikaya: An Anthology (Part III) (M. O'C. Walshe; BPS WH 318, 1985) Satipatthana Vipassana: Insight Through Mindfulness (Mahasi Sayadaw; BPS WH 370, 1990) Search for Security, The (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1990) "Search for a Self or Soul, The" (C.F. Knight, in Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 3, Egolessness (BPS WH 202, 1984)) Seeing Things as They Are (Nyanaponika Thera; 1994) "Self" (G.N. Lewis, in Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 3, Egolessness (BPS WH 202, 1984)) Self-made Private Prison, The (Lily de Silva; BPS BL 120, 1990) Self-transformation (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1990) Seven Factors of Enlightenment, The (Piyadassi Thera; BPS WH 1, 1960) Shelter (Ajaan Lee; 2000) Simile of the Cloth and the Discourse on Effacement, The (Nyanaponika Thera, ed.; BPS WH 61, 1988) Simple Guide to Life, A (Robert Bogoda; BPS WH 397, 1994) Simply So (Ajaan Sim; 1995) Single Mind, A (Ajaan Fuang; 1999) Sketch of the Buddha's Life: Readings from the Pali Canon, A" (in the Path to Freedom pages) Skill of Release, The (Ajaan Lee; 1995) "Soul and Substance" (William Gilbert, in Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 3, Egolessness (BPS WH 202, 1984)) "Spell of Narcissism and the Anatta Doctrine, The" (M.W. Padmasiri de Silva, in Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 3, Egolessness (BPS WH 202, 1984)) Starting Out Small: A Collection of Talks for Beginning Meditators (Ajaan Lee; 2000) Starting Out Small: A Collection of Talks for Beginning Meditators (Portfolio 2) (Ajaan Lee; 2003) Starting Out Small: A Collection of Talks for Beginning Meditators (Portfolio 3) (Ajaan Lee; 2005) Statement of Conscience, A (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1988) Steps Along the Path (Ajaan Thate; 1994) Stop, Look, and Let Go (Upasika Kee Nanayon; 1999) Straight from the Heart (Ajaan Maha Boowa; 1996) Straightening Out Your Views (Ajaan Suwat; 2002) Strategy of a Peaceful Mind, The (Ajaan Suwat; 2005) Stream-entry and After (Study Guide) (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, ed.; 2004) Strength Training for the Mind (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 2007) Study Guides Subrahma's Problem (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1997) Sutta Nipata Sutta Pitaka

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T

Taking Stock of Oneself (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1987) Taming the Mind: Discourses of the Buddha (editors of the BPS; BPS WH 51, 1983) Taste of Freedom, A (Ajaan Chah; 1991) Taste of the Holy Life, A: An Account of an International Ordination in Myanmar (Susan Elbaum Jootla; BPS BL 133; 1994) Taste of Freedom, The (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS BL 71, 1976) Teacher of the Devas (Susan Elbaum Jootla; BPS WH 414, 1997) Teachings of Ajahn Chah, The (Ajaan Chah; 2004) Technical Notes (Bullitt) Ten Perfections, The (Study Guide) (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, ed.; 1999) Ten Recollections, The (Study Guide) (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, ed.; 1999) That the True Dhamma Might Last a Long Time: Readings Selected by King Asoka (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, ed. and trans.; 1996) Theragatha (Verses of the Elder Monks) Theravada Buddhism: A Chronology (Bullitt) Therigatha (Verses of the Elder Nuns) Things As They Are (Ajaan Maha Boowa; 1996) Thoughts on the Dhamma (Mahasi Sayadaw; BPS WH 298, 1983) Three Cardinal Discourses of the Buddha (Bhikkhu anamoli; BPS WH 17, 1981) Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 1, Impermanence (Nyanaponika Thera, ed.; BPS WH 186, 1981) Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 3, Egolessness (Nyanaponika Thera, ed.; BPS WH 202, 1984) Threefold Refuge, The (Nyanaponika Thera; BPS WH 76, 1983) Timeless and True (Ajaan Fuang Jotiko; 1998) Tipitaka To the Last Breath: Dhamma Talks on Living and Dying (Ajaan Maha Boowa; 1992) Tolerance and Diversity (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1993) Toward a Threshold of Understanding (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1995) Trading Candy for Gold: Renunciation as a Skill (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 1999) Transcendental Dependent Arising: A Translation and Exposition of the Upanisa Sutta (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS WH 277, 1980) Treatise on the Paramis, A (Acariya Dhammapala (6th c.), translated by Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS WH 409/411, 1996) Tribute to Two Monks, A (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1998) Two Dialogues on Dhamma (Bhikkhu Nyanasobhano; BPS WH 363/364, 1989) Two Faces of the Dhamma (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1985) Two Paths to Knowledge (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1999) Two Styles of Insight Meditation (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 2000)

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U

Udana Unentangled Knowing, An: The Teachings of a Thai Buddhist Lay Woman (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, trans.; 1995) Untangling the Present: The Role of Appropriate Attention (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 2006) Uposatha Sila: The Eight-Precept Observance (anavara Thera (Somdet Phra Buddhaghosacariya); 1993) Using Meditation to Deal with Pain, Illness, and Death (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, 1993)

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V

Vangisa: An Early Buddhist Poet (John D. Ireland; 1997) Vedanta and Buddhism: A Comparative Study (Helmuth von Glasenapp; BPS WH 2, 1978) Ven. Balangoda Ananda Maitreya: A Personal Appreciation (Bhikkhu Bodhi; 1998) Verb for Nirvana, A (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, 2005) Vinaya Pitaka Violence and Disruption in Society: A Study of the Early Buddhist Texts (Elizabeth J. Harris; BPS WH 392, 1994) Visakha Puja (Ajaan Lee; 1998) Vision and Routine (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1985) Vital Link, The (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1988)

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WXYZ

"Walk in the Woods, A" (Khantipalo Bhikkhu, in Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 1, Impermanence (BPS WH 186, 1981)) Walking Even Amidst the Uneven (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1996) Way of Mindfulness, The: The Satipatthana Sutta and Its Commentary (Soma Thera; BPS, 1999) Way of Wisdom, The (Edward Conze; BPS WH 65, 1993) Way to Stream-entry, The (Study Guide) (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, ed.; 1999) Weight of Mountains, The (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 2001) What Can Be Done About Conceit? (Dr. Elizabeth Ashby; BPS BL 14, 1962) What is the Triple Gem? (Ajaan Lee; 1994) What is Theravada Buddhism? (Bullitt) Wheel of Birth and Death, The (Bhikkhu Khantipalo; BPS WH 147, 1970) "When you know for yourselves...": The Authenticity of the Pali Suttas (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 2002) Why End Suffering (Nyanaponika Thera; 1994) Wings to Awakening, The: An Anthology from the Pali Canon (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 1996) With Robes and Bowl (Bhikkhu Khantipalo; BPS WH 83, 1986) Women in Early Buddhist Literature (I.B. Horner; BPS WH 30, 1982) Words Leading to Disenchantment: Two Essays (Soma Thera; BPS BL 79, 1978) Worn-Out Skin, The (Nyanaponika Thera; BPS WH 83, 1989) Young People's Life of the Buddha, A (Bhikkhu Silacara; 1953)

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Index by Author

Click on a title to read the article or book. Click on the author's name to read a brief biographical note. The date accompanying each text indicates the year of the edition on which the transcription is based.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W XYZ

A

Ariyadhamma Mahathera Anapana Sati: Meditation on Breathing (BPS BL 115; 1988) Ariyesako, Bhikkhu Bhikkhus' Rules, The A Guide for Laypeople: The Theravadin Buddhist Monk's Rules Compiled and Explained (1999) Ashby, Dr. Elizabeth What Can Be Done About Conceit? (BPS BL 14; 1962) Our Reactions to Dukkha (BPS BL 26; 1965)

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B

Bischoff, Roger Buddhism in Myanmar: A Short History (BPS WH 399; 1995) Bodhi, Bhikkhu Buddhist Publication Society Newsletter Essays: Aims of Buddhist Education (1997) Anicca Vata Sankhara (1999) Association with the Wise (1994) Auspicious Month, An (1991) Balanced Way, The (1987) Better Than a Hundred Years (1999) Case for Study, The (1986) Dhamma and Non-duality (1994-95) Dhamma Without Rebirth? (1987) Discipline of Sobriety, A (1997) Does Rebirth Make Sense? (2000) Five Spiritual Faculties, The (1992-93) For the Welfare of Many (1994) From Views to Vision (1993-94) Giving Dignity to Life (1998) Guardians of the World, The (1993) Laying Down the Rod (1991) Lifestyles and Spiritual Progress (1998) Look at the Kalama Sutta, A (1988) Meeting the Divine Messengers (1996) Message for a Globalized World (1996) Navigating the New Millennium (2000) New Undertaking, A (1985) Nobility of the Truths, The (1991-92) Note on Openness, A (1990-91) Problem of Conflict, The (1989) Purification of Mind (1986) Quest for Meaning, The (1989) Refuge in the Buddha (1992) Remedy for Despair, A (1989) Search for Security, The (1990) Self-transformation (1990) Statement of Conscience, A (1988) Subrahma's Problem (1997) Taking Stock of Oneself (1987) Tolerance and Diversity (1993) Toward a Threshold of Understanding (1995) Tribute to Two Monks, A (1998) Two Faces of the Dhamma (1985) Two Paths to Knowledge (1999) Two Styles of insight Meditation (2000) Vision and Routine (1985) Vital Link, The (1988) Walking Even Amidst the Uneven (1996) Buddha and His Dhamma, The (BPS WH 433, 1999) Buddhist Response to Contemporary Dilemmas of Human Existence, A (1994) Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma (Introduction only), A (Bhikkhu Bodhi, ed.; BPS, 1993) Dana: The Practice of Giving (BPS WH 367; 1990) Discourses of the Ancient Nuns (BPS BL 143, 1997)

Going for Refuge/Taking the Precepts (BPS WH 282; 1981) Living Message of the Dhammapada, The (BPS BL 129; 1993) Maha Kaccana: Master of Doctrinal Exposition(BPS WH 405; 1995) Noble Eightfold Path: The Way to the End of Suffering, The (BPS, 1994) Nourishing the Roots: Essays on Buddhist Ethics (BPS WH 259; 1990) Taste of Freedom, The (BPS BL 71; 1976) Treatise on the Paramis, A (by Acariya Dhammapala (6th c.), Bhikkhu Bodhi trans.; BPS WH 409/411; 1996) Transcendental Dependent Arising: A Translation and Exposition of the Upanisa Sutta (BPS WH 277; 1980) Ven. Balangoda Ananda Maitreya: A Personal Appreciation (1998) Bodhinandamuni, Phra Gifts He Left Behind: The Dhamma Legacy of Ajaan Dune Atulo (2005) Bogoda, Robert Buddhist Culture, the Cultured Buddhist (BPS BL 139; 1996) "Principles of Lay Buddhism" in Buddhist Layman, The (BPS WH 294; 1982) Simple Guide to Life, A (BPS WH 397; 1994) Boowa, Phra Ajaan Maha Dhamma Teaching of Acariya Maha Boowa in London, The (1980) Straight from the Heart (1996) Things as They Are (1996) To the Last Breath: Dhamma Talks on Living and Dying (1992) Brahmali Bhikkhu Key to to the Exercises in A.K. Warder's Introduction to Pali, A (2005) Buddhaghosacariya, Somdet Phra (anavara Thera) Uposatha Sila: The Eight-Precept Observance (1993) Buddharakkhita, Acharya Dhammapada, The: The Buddha's Path of Wisdom (BPS, 1985) Metta: The Philosophy and Practice of Universal Love (BPS WH 365; 1989) Positive Response: How to Meet Evil with Good (BPS BL 109; 1987) Bullen, Leonard Buddhism: A Method of Mind Training (BPS BL 42; 1991) Burlingame, E.W. Buddhist Stories from the Dhammapada Commentary (Part II) (BPS WH 324; 1985) Burns, Douglas Buddhist Meditation and Depth Psychology (BPS WH 88; 1994)

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C

Chah, Phra Ajaan Bodhinyana (1982) Food for the Heart (1992) Living Dhamma (1992) Our Real Home (BPS BL 111; 1987) Taste of Freedom, A (1991) Teachings of Ajahn Chah, The (2004) Conze, Edward Way of Wisdom, The (BPS WH 65; 1993)

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D

DeGraff, Geoffrey see Thanissaro Bhikkhu. de Silva, Lily "Buddhist Attitude Towards Nature, The" (from BPS WH 346; 1987) "Giving in the Pali Canon," in Dana: The Practice of Giving (BPS WH 367; 1990) Ministering to the Sick and Terminally Ill (BPS BL 132; 1994) Nibbana As Living Experience/The Buddha and The Arahant: Two Studies from the Pali Canon (BPS WH 407/408, 1996) One Foot in the World: Buddhist Approaches to Present-day Problems (BPS WH 337; 1986) Radical Therapy: Buddhist Precepts in the Modern World (BPS BL 123; 1991) Self-made Private Prison, The (BPS BL 120; 1990) de Silva, Dr. M.W. Padmasiri Psychology of Emotions in Buddhist Perspective, The (BPS WH 237; 1976) "Spell of Narcissism and the Anatta Doctrine, The" in Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 3, Egolessness (BPS WH 202; 1984) Dewaraja, Lorna Srimathie Position of Women in Buddhism, The (BPS WH 280; 1981) Dhammananda, Ven. K. Sri Happy Married Life, A: A Buddhist Perspective (1987) Dhammayut Order in the United States of America Chanting Guide, A: Pali Passages with English Translations (1998) Dhammika, Ven. Shravasti Edicts of King Asoka, The (BPS WH 386; 1993) Gemstones of the Good Dhamma (Saddhamma-maniratana): An Anthology of Verses from the Pali Scriptures (BPS WH 342; 1987) Matrceta's Hymn to the Buddha: An English Rendering of the Satapancasatka (BPS WH 360; 1989) Dune, Phra Ajaan Gifts He Left Behind: The Dhamma Legacy of Ajaan Dune Atulo (2005)

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E

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F

Fawcett, Brian The Mastery of Pride (BPS BL 14; 1962) Figen, Dorothy Beginning Insight Meditation, and Other Essays (BPS BL 85; 1988) Fuang, Phra Ajaan Awareness Itself (1999) Listen Well (2001) Single Mind, A (1999) Timeless and True (1998)

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G

Gilbert, William "Soul and Substance" in Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 3, Egolessness (BPS WH 202; 1984) Greenly, Edward "Physical and Biological Aspects of Anatta" in Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 3, Egolessness (BPS WH 202; 1984) Gunaratana, Henepola Jhanas in Theravada Buddhist Meditation, The (BPS WH 351; 1988) Gunaratna, V.F. Buddhist Reflections on Death (BPS WH 102; 1982) Guruge, Ananda W.P. Buddha's Encounters With Mara, The (BPS WH 419; 1997)

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H

Harris, Elizabeth J. Detachment and Compassion in Early Buddhism (BPS BL 141; 1997) Journey into Buddhism, A (BPS BL 134; 1994) Violence and Disruption in Society: A Study of the Early Buddhist Texts (BPS WH 392; 1994) Hecker, Hellmuth Ananda: The Guardian of the Dhamma (BPS WH 273; 1980) Anathapindika: The Great Benefactor (BPS WH 334; 1986) Angulimala: A Murderer's Road to Sainthood (BPS WH 312; 1984) Buddhist Women at the Time of the Buddha (BPS WH 292; 1982) Maha Kassapa: Father of the Sangha (BPS WH 345; 1987) Life of Maha-Moggallana (BPS WH 263; 1979) Horner, I.B. Blessed One's City of Dhamma, The: From the Milindapaha (BPS BL 130, 1993) Women in Early Buddhist Literature (BPS WH 30; 1982)

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------------------ I

Ireland, John D. Discourse Collection, The: Selected Texts from the Sutta Nipata (BPS WH 82; 1983) Itivuttaka: The Buddha's Sayings (excerpts) (BPS; 1997) Samyutta Nikaya: An Anthology (Part I) (BPS WH 107; 1981) Vangisa: An Early Buddhist Poet (BPS WH 417/418; 1997)

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J

Jackson, Natasha "Unselfish Joy: A Neglected Virtue" (in BPS WH 170; 1983) Jones, Ken Buddhism & Social Action (BPS WH 285; 1981) Jootla, Susan Elbaum Inspiration from Enlightened Nuns (BPS WH 349; 1988) Investigation for Insight (BPS WH 301; 1983) "The Practice of Giving," in Dana: The Practice of Giving (BPS WH 367; 1990) "Right Livelihood" in Buddhist Layman, The (BPS WH 294; 1982) Taste of the Holy Life, A: An Account of an International Ordination in Myanmar (BPS BL 133; 1994) Teacher of the Devas (BPS WH 414; 1997)

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K

Kariyawasam, A.G.S Buddhist Ceremonies and Rituals of Sri Lanka (BPS WH 402-404; 1995) Karunadasa, Y. "Aniccam: The Buddhist Doctrine of Anicca (Impermanence)" in Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 1, Impermanence (BPS WH 186; 1981) Suvimalee Karunaratna Healing of the Bull, The: A Story (BPS BL 140; 1996) Prisoners of Karma: A Story (BPS BL 125; 1991) Kawasaki, Ken & Visakha Jataka Tales of the Buddha, Part I (BPS BL 135; 1995) Jataka Tales of the Buddha, Part II (BPS BL 138; 1996) Jataka Tales of the Buddha, Part III (BPS BL 142; 1997) Jataka Tales of the Buddha, Part IV (BPS BL 144; 1998) Jataka Tales of the Buddha, Part V (BPS BL 158; 2002) Kee Nanayon, Upasika (K. Khao-suan-luang) Breath Meditation Condensed (1998) Directions for Insight (1995) Going Against the Flow (1998) Good Dose of Dhamma for Meditators When They Are Ill, A (1998) Looking Inward (1998) Pure & Simple (2003) Reading the Mind (1998) Stop, Look, and Let Go (1999) Unentangled Knowing, An: The Teachings of a Thai Buddhist Lay Woman (1998) Kelly, John Answer Key to Warder's Introduction to Pali (2003) Khamdee, Phra Ajaan Making the Dhamma Your Own (1999) Khantipalo, Bhikkhu Bag of Bones: A Miscellany on the Body (BPS WH 271/272, 1980) Blessings of Pindapata, The (BPS WH 73, 1964) Buddhist Monk's Discipline, The: Some Points Explained for Laypeople (BPS WH 130, 1984) Forest Meditations: The Verses of the Arahant Talaputa (BPS WH 243; 1983) Lay Buddhist Practice (BPS WH 206; 1982) Practical Advice for Meditators (BPS WH 116; 1986) "Walk in the Woods, A" in Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 1, Impermanence (BPS WH 186; 1981) Wheel of Birth and Death, The (BPS WH 147; 1970) With Robes and Bowl (BPS WH 83; 1986) Khema, Ayya All of Us (Beset by Birth, Decay and Death) (1988) (To be Seen) Here and Now (1989) Meditating on No-self (BPS BL 95; 1984) Khin, U Ba Essentials of Buddha Dhamma in Meditative Practice, The (with an essay on U Ba Khin by Eric Lerner; BPS WH 231; 1981) Knight, C.F "Mudita" (in BPS WH 170; 1983) "Search for a Self or Soul, The" in Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 3, Egolessness (BPS WH 202; 1984) Kusalasaya, Karuna Buddhism in Thailand: Its Past and Its Present (BPS WH 85; 2005)

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L

Ledi Sayadaw "The Advantages of Realizing the Doctrine of Anatta" in Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 3, Egolessness (BPS WH 202; 1984) Lee, Phra Ajaan Autobiography of Phra Ajaan Lee, The (1994) Basic Themes (1994) Craft of the Heart, The (1994) Consciousnesses (1997) Crossing the Ocean of Life (1998) Demons of Defilement (Kilesa Mara), The (1998) Dhamma for Everyone (2003) Divine Mantra, The (2006) Duties of the Sangha (1995) Eye of Discernment, The: An Anthology from the Teachings of Phra Ajaan Lee Dhammadaro (1999)

Food for Thought (1995) Frames of Reference (1994) Handbook for the Relief of Suffering, A (1995) Inner Strength (1998) Keeping the Breath in Mind & Lessons in Samadhi (2000) Knowledge (1997) Lessons in Samadhi see Keeping the Breath in Mind & Lessons in Samadhi Loyalty to Your Meditation (2001) Path to Peace and Freedom for the Mind, The (1995) Power of Good Will, The (2003) Power of Goodness, The (2004) Refuge in Awakening, A (1998) Shelter (2000) Skill of Release, The (1995) Starting Out Small: A Collection of Talks for Beginning Meditators (2000) Starting Out Small: A Collection of Talks for Beginning Meditators (Portfolio 2) (2003) Starting Out Small: A Collection of Talks for Beginning Meditators (Portfolio 3) (2005) Visakha Puja (1998) What is the Triple Gem? (1994) Lewis, G.N. "Self" in Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 3, Egolessness (BPS WH 202; 1984)

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M

Mahasi Sayadaw Progress of Insight, The (BPS, 1994) Satipatthana Vipassana: Insight Through Mindfulness (BPS WH 370; 1990) Thoughts on the Dhamma (BPS WH 298; 1983) Medhanandi, Ayya Food of Kindness, The (2005) Mendis, N.K.G. The Abhidhamma in Practice (BPS WH 322, 1985) The No-self Characteristic (BPS WH 268, 1979) Mun, Phra Ajaan Ballad of Liberation from the Khandhas, The (1995) Ever-present Truth, The: Teachings of Phra Ajaan Mun Bhuridatta Mahathera (1995) Heart Released, A (1995)

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N

anananda, Bhikkhu Ideal Solitude: An Exposition of the Bhaddekaratta Sutta (BPS WH 188, 1973) Samyutta Nikaya: An Anthology (Part II) (BPS WH 183-185; 1983) Nanayon, Upasika Kee see Kee Nanayon, Upasika anamoli Thera "Anatta According to Theravada" in Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 3, Egolessness (BPS WH 202; 1984) "Anicca (Impermanence) According to Theravada" in Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 1, Impermanence (BPS WH 186; 1981) Buddha's Words on Kamma, The (BPS WH 248; 1993) Discourse on Right View, The (Bhikkhu anamoli and Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS WH 377, 1991) Lion's Roar, The: Two Discourses of Buddha (Bhikkhu anamoli, trans.; Bhikkhu Bodhi, ed.; BPS WH 390; 1993) Practice of Loving-kindness (metta), The (BPS WH 7; 1987) Three Cardinal Discourses of the Buddha (BPS WH 17; 1981) anasamvara, Somdet Phra (Venerable Suvaddhano Bhikkhu, HH the Supreme Patriarch of Thailand) Guide to Awareness, A: Dhamma Talks on the Foundations of Mindfulness (Satipatthana Sutta) (1997) anajivako, Bhikkhu "Aniccam: The Buddhist Theory of Impermanence" in Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 1, Impermanence (BPS WH 186; 1981) anavara Thera (Somdet Phra Buddhaghosacariya) Uposatha Sila: The Eight-Precept Observance (1993) Narada Thera Buddhism in a Nutshell (BPS, 1982) Everyman's Ethics (BPS WH 14; 1985) Nararatana Rajamanit, Chao Khun (Tryk Dhammavitakko) Iridescence on the Water, An (1997) Nyanaponika Thera Anguttara Nikaya: An Anthology (Part III: Books Eight to Eleven) (BPS WH 238; 1976) Buddhism and the God-idea (1994) Contemplation of Feeling: The Discourse Grouping on the Feelings (BPS WH 303; 1983) Courageous Faith (1994) Devotion in Buddhism (1994) Discourse on the Snake Simile, The (BPS WH 48; 1974) Five Mental Hindrances and Their Conquest, The (BPS WH 26; 1993) Four Nutriments of Life, The (BPS WH 105; 1981) Four Sublime States, The (BPS WH 6; 1993) "Is Unselfish Joy Practicable?" (in BPS WH 170; 1983) Kamma and its Fruit (1994) Life of Sariputta, The (BPS WH 90; 1987) Power of Mindfulness, The (BPS WH 121; 1986) Protection Through Satipatthana (BPS BL 34; 1990) Seeing Things as They Are (1994) Simile of the Cloth and the Discourse on Effacement, The (BPS WH 61; 1988) Threefold Refuge, The (BPS WH 76; 1983) Why End Suffering? (1994) Worn-Out Skin, The (BPS WH 83; 1989) Nyanasatta Thera Foundations of Mindfulness, The (BPS WH 19; 1993) Nyanatusita Thera Pali Verb Conjugation and Noun/Pronoun Declension Tables (2005) Nyanasobhano, Bhikkhu see Price, Leonard Nyanatiloka Mahathera "Egolessness" in Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 3, Egolessness (BPS WH 202; 1984) Fundamentals of Buddhism: Four Lectures (BPS WH 394; 1994)

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O

Oates, L.R. "Nature and Implications of Mudita, The" (in BPS WH 170; 1983) Ontl, Petr Karel Of Mindsets and Monkeypots(BPS BL 131, 1993)

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P

Perera, H.R. "Buddhism in Lanka Sri: A Short History" (WH 100; 1988) Phut Thaniyo, Phra Ajaan Ajaan Sao's Teaching: A Reminiscence of Phra Ajaan Sao Kantasilo (1997) Piyadassi Thera Book of Protection (Paritta), The (BPS; 1999)

"Fact of Impermanence, The" in Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 1, Impermanence (BPS WH 186; 1981) Seven Factors of Enlightenment, The (BPS WH 1; 1960) Piyatissa Thera Elimination of Anger, The (BPS BL 68; 1975) Price, Leonard (Nyanasobhano, Bhikkhu) Bhikkhu Tissa Dispels Some Doubts (BPS BL 102; 1985) Nothing Higher to Live For (BPS BL 124; 1991) Radical Buddhism (BPS BL 92; 1982) To the Cemetery and Back (BPS BL 96; 1983) Two Dialogues on Dhamma (BPS WH 363/364; 1989) Prince, T Renunciation (BPS BL 36; 1986)

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Q

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R

Rosenberg, larry Right to Ask Questions, The (2003)

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S

Sao Kantasilo, Phra Ajaan See Ajaan Sao's Teaching: A Reminiscence of Phra Ajaan Sao Kantasilo (Ajaan Phut Thaniyo; 1997) Sayadaw, Mahasi see Mahasi Sayadaw Sayadaw, Webu see Webu Sayadaw Silacara, Bhikkhu Young People's Life of the Buddha, A (1953) Silananda, Sayadaw U Benefits of Walking Meditation, The (BPS BL 137; 1995) Sim, Phra Ajaan Simply So (1995) Siriwardhana, Eileen Heart Awakened, The (BPS BL 93; 1983) Soma Thera Kalama Sutta: The Buddha's Charter of Free Inquiry (Soma Thera, tr; with an essay by Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS WH 8; 1981) Removal of Distracting Thoughts, The (BPS WH 21; 1981) Way of Mindfulness, The: The Satipatthana Sutta and Its Commentary (BPS; 1999) Words Leading to Disenchantment: Two Essays (BPS BL 79; 1978) Soni, Dr. R.L. Life's Highest Blessings: The Maha Mangala Sutta (revised by Khantipalo Bhikkhu; BPS WH 254; 1987) Story, Francis Buddhist Meditation (BPS BL 15; 1986) Sumana, Samanera Going Forth: A Call to Buddhist Monkhood (BPS WH 27; 1983) Suwat Suvaco, Phra Ajaan Blatantly Clear in the Heart (2001) To Comprehend Suffering (2002) Disenchantment (2001) Fistful of Sand, A (1999) Home for the Mind, A (2002) Light of Discernment, The (2002) Right Attitude (2001) Right Concentration (2001) Straigthening Out Your Views (2002) Strategy of a Peaceful Mind, The (2005)

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T

Thanissaro Bhikkhu (Geoffrey DeGraff) Books and sutta anthologies: Buddhist Monastic Code, Volume I, The : The Patimokkha Training Rules Translated and Explained (2nd ed.) (2007) Buddhist Monastic Code, Volume II, The : The Khandhaka Rules Translated and Explained (2nd ed.) (2007) Dhammapada: A Translation (1997) Introduction to the Patimokkha Training Rules, An (1994) Itivuttaka: This Was Said by the Buddha (1999) Karma of Questions, The (2002) Meditations: Forty Dhamma Talks (2003) Meditations 2 (2006) Meditations 3 (2006) Mind Like Fire Unbound, The: An Image in the Early Buddhist Discourses (Barre, MA: Dhamma Dana Publications, 1993) Noble Strategy (1999) Refuge: an Introduction to the Buddha, Dhamma & Sangha (1997) Strength Training for the Mind (2007) Study Guides That the True Dhamma Might Last a Long Time: Readings Selected by King Asoka (1996) Wings to Awakening, The: An Anthology from the Pali Canon (1996) Essays and Dhamma talks: Affirming the Truths of the Heart: The Buddhist Teachings on Samvega & Pasada (1997) All About Change (2004) Agendas of Mindfulness, The (2002) Atthakavagga (Octet Chapter), The: An Introduction (1997) Customs of the Noble Ones, The (1999) De-perception (2002) Economy of Gifts, The (1997) Educating Compassion (2006) Emptiness (1997) Faith in Awakening (2006) Five Piles of Bricks: The Khandhas as Burden & Path (2002) Freedom from Fear (2002) Getting the Message (2006) Healing Power of the Precepts, The (1997) Integrity of Emptiness, The (2006) Jhana not by the Numbers (2005) Karma (1997) Legends of Somdet Toh (2006) Life Isn't Just Suffering (2000) Meaning of the Buddha's Awakening, The (1997) Nibbana (1996) Noble Strategy: Essays on the Buddhist Path (1999) No-self or Not-self? (1996) Not-self Strategy, The (1993) One Tool Among Many: The Place of Vipassana in Buddhist Practice (1998) Opening the Door to the Dhamma: Respect in Buddhist Thought & Practice (2001) Parayanavagga (The Chapter on the Way to the Far Shore): An Introduction (1997) Path of Concentration & Mindfulness, The (1997) Practice in a Word, The (2004) Purity of Heart (2006) Pushing the Limits: Desire & Imagination in the Buddhist Path (2006) Questions of Skill (2001) Reconciliation, Right & Wrong (2004) Right Speech (1999) Road to Nirvana is Paved with Skillful Intentions, The (1999) Samsara (2002) Samsara Divided by Zero (2000) Trading Candy for Gold: Renunciation as a Skill (1999) Untangling the Present: The Role of Appropriate Attention (2006) Upasika Kee Nanayon and the Social Dynamic of Theravadin Buddhist Practice (1995) Verb for Nirvana, A (2005) Weight of Mountains, The (2001) "When you know for yourselves...": The Authenticity of the Pali Suttas (2002) Meditation: Basic Breath Meditation Instructions (1993) De-perception (2002) Guided Meditation, A (2001) Using Meditation to Deal with Pain, Illness & Death (1993) See also Ven. Thanissaro's translations of books by Phra Ajaan Lee, Phra Ajaan Fuang, Upasika Kee Nanayon, Phra Ajaan Thate, and Phra Ajaan Maha Boowa. Thate, Phra Ajaan Autobiography of a Forest Monk, The (1996) Buddho (1994) Steps Along the Path (1994)

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U

U Ba Khin see Khin, U Ba U Silananda see Silananda, Sayadaw U

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V

van Gorkom, Nina "Generosity: The Inward Dimension," in Dana: The Practice of Giving (BPS WH 367; 1990) Various authors Dana: The Practice of Giving (Bhikkhu Bodhi, ed.; BPS WH 367; 1990) Buddhist Layman, The (Bogoda/Jootla/Walshe; BPS WH 294; 1982) Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 1, Impermanence (Nyanaponika Thera, ed.; BPS WH 186; 1981) von Glasenapp, Helmuth Vedanta & Buddhism: A Comparative Study (BPS WH 2; 1978)

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W

Walshe, Maurice O'Connell Buddhism and Death (BPS WH 261; 1978) Buddhism and Sex (BPS WH 225; 1986) "Giving from the Heart," in Dana: The Practice of Giving (BPS WH 367; 1990) "Detachment" in Buddhist Layman, The (BPS WH 294; 1982) "Having Taken the First Step" in Buddhist Layman, The (BPS WH 294; 1982) Samyutta Nikaya: An Anthology (Part III) (BPS WH 318; 1985) Webu Sayadaw Essential Practice, The: Dhamma Discourses of Venerable Webu Sayadaw (Part I) (BPS WH 375; 1991) Essential Practice, The: Dhamma Discourses of Venerable Webu Sayadaw (Part II) (BPS WH 384; 1992) To Light a Fire (BPS BL 122; 1990)

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Study Guides

These anthologies on particular topics are designed as aids for individual or group study. The texts are drawn from the Pali canon, teachings of the great Thai forest ajaans, and other sources. Unless otherwise indicated, they were prepared and introduced by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.

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Beyond Coping: The Buddha's Teachings on Aging, Illness, Death, and Separation Body Contemplation An overview of the Buddha's teachings on contemplation of the body, and its role in the development of mindfulness, jhana, and discernment. The Five Aggregates This anthology of short readings from the suttas explains how the teachings on the five aggregates (pacakkhandha) form, feeling, perception, mental fabrications, and consciousness function in the Buddhist path to liberation. The Four Noble Truths An introduction to the Four Noble Truths, the basic framework on which all the Buddha's teachings are built. Kamma An overview of the Buddha's teachings on kamma (karma; intentional action). Merit Often misunderstood in the West as quaint and irrelevant to serious practice, the Buddha's teachings on pua (merit) actually play an essential role in the development of a wise sense of self. This anthology explores the meaning of merit and how it functions to instill in the practitioner the qualities necessary to carry him or her to stream-entry and beyond. Noble Conversation An exploration of right speech, based on the Buddha's list of ten ideal topics for conversation. Non-violence Recognizing the Dhamma In an age when the marketplace is teeming with spiritual books and teachings of every description, it is reassuring to know that the Buddha left behind clear guidelines by which we can judge the validity of a spiritual teaching. These eight principles, sometimes called the "Constitution of Buddhism," show us that any teaching must finally be judged by the results that come from putting it into practice. Stream-entry "Stream-entry" (sotapatti) is the first of the four stages of Awakening. This study guide is in two parts: Part 1: The Way to Stream-entry. Sutta readings in this guide are organized around the four factors that lead to the attainment of stream-entry and address questions of interest to all meditators, whether or not their practice aims all the way to Awakening. Part 2: Stream-entry and After. Selections from the Canon that explore stream-entry from several angles: How is stream-entry experienced? What transformations of mind and character occur as a result? What are its rewards? Once it is attained, what next? Also included is some helpful advice to meditators who have been "certified" as stream-winners. The Ten Perfections The ten paramis (perfections) are skillful qualities that develop perhaps over many lifetimes as one follows the Buddha's path of practice. This study guide includes readings both from the Pali canon and from the teachings of Ajaan Lee Dhammadharo. The Ten Recollections The ten anussati (recollections) are a set of practical tools for meditators to use when confronted with particular challenges (physical pain, for example) or unskillful states of mind (doubt, restlessness, complacency, etc.).

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See also: The Eye of Discernment: An Anthology from the Teachings of Phra Ajaan Lee Dhammadharo "The Path to Freedom: A Self-guided Tour of the Buddha's Teachings"


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Thai Forest Traditions

selected teachers

Teachers are listed below in roughly chronological order. For some notes on the names and titles of Thai monks, see the endnotes.1

From the Kammathana2 forest tradition: Sao Kantasilo, Phra Ajaan (1861-1941) Ajaan Sao and his student Ajaan Mun established the Kammatthana tradition. A true forest-dweller, Ajaan Sao left no written records of his teachings. Another of his students Phra Ajaan Phut Thaniyo did, however, record some of them in Ajaan Sao's Teaching: A Reminiscence of Phra Ajaan Sao Kantasilo, giving us a tantalizing glimpse into Ajaan Sao's terse but powerful teaching style.

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Mun Bhuridatto, Phra Ajaan (1870-1949) Ajaan Mun was born in 1870 in Baan Kham Bong, a farming village in Ubon Ratchathani province, northeastern Thailand. Ordained as a Buddhist monk in 1893, he spent the remainder of his life wandering through Thailand, Burma, and Laos, dwelling for the most part in the forest, engaged in the practice of meditation. He attracted an enormous following of students and, together with his teacher, Phra Ajaan Sao Kantasilo Mahathera (1861-1941), established the forest meditation tradition (the Kammatthana tradition) that subsequently spread throughout Thailand and to several countries abroad. He passed away in 1949 at Wat Suddhavasa, Sakon Nakhorn province. Adapted from A Heart Released.

A newly revised biography of Ajaan Mun, written by Ajaan Maha Boowa, is available from Wat Pah Baan Taad. For more about Ajaan Mun and the history of the Kammatthana tradition, see the essay "The Customs of the Noble Ones," by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.

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Dune Atulo, Phra Ajaan (1888-1983) Ajaan Dune Atulo was born on October 4, 1888 in Praasaat Village in Muang District, Surin province. At the age of 22 he ordained in the provincial capital. Six years later, disillusioned with his life as an uneducated town monk, he left to study in Ubon Ratchathani, where he befriended Ajaan Singh Khantiyagamo and reordained in the Dhammayut sect. Shortly thereafter, he and Ajaan Singh met Ajaan Mun, who had just returned to the Northeast after many years of wandering. Impressed with Ajaan Mun's teachings and with his deportment, both monks abandoned their studies and took up the wandering meditation life under his guidance. They were thus his first two disciples. After wandering for 19 years through the forests and mountains of Thailand and Cambodia, Ajaan Dune received an order from his ecclesiastical superiors to head a combined study and practice monastery in Surin. It was thus that he took over the abbotship of Wat Burapha, in the middle of the town, in 1934. There he remained until his death in 1983. From Gifts He Left Behind.

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Thate Desaransi, Phra Ajaan (1902-1994) Ajaan Thate was internationally recognized as a master of meditation. In addition to his large following in Thailand, Ajaan Thate has trained many western disciples.

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Lee Dhammadharo, Phra Ajaan (1907-1961) Ajaan Lee was one of the foremost teachers in the Thai forest ascetic tradition of meditation founded at the turn of the century by his teacher, Phra Ajaan Mun Bhuridatta. His life was short but eventful. Known for his skill as a teacher and his mastery of supranatural powers, he was the first to bring the ascetic tradition out of the forests of the Mekhong basin and into the mainstream of Thai society in central Thailand. From The Autobiography of Phra Ajaan Lee.

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Khamdee Pabhaso, Phra Ajaan (1902-1984) Ajaan Khamdee was born into a farming family in Khon Kaen province in northeastern Thailand. At the age of 22 he ordained at the local temple in line with Thai custom, but was dissatisfied with the type of practice customary at village temples. As a result, in 1928 he reordained in the Dhammayut sect, and in the following year became a student of Ajaan Singh Khantiyagamo, a senior disciple of Ajaan Mun. Taking up the life of a wandering monk, he sought out quiet places in various parts of northeastern Thailand until coming to Tham Phaa Puu (Grandfather Cliff Cave) in Loei province, near the Laotian border, in 1955. Finding it an ideal place to practice, he stayed there for most of the remainder of his life, moving down to the foot of the hill below the cave when he became too old to negotiate the climb. Well-known as a teacher of strong character and gentle temperament, he attracted a large following of students, both lay and ordained. By the time of his death, a sizable monastery had grown up around him at the foot of Grandfather Cliff.

From Making the Dhamma Your Own.

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Sim Buddhacaro, Phra Ajaan (1909-1992) Looang Boo Sim Buddhacaro was born on the 26th November 1909 in Sakhon Nakhon Province, North-East Thailand. His parents were farmers and dedicated supporters of the local monastery. At the age of 17 Looang Boo Sim took novice ordination and shortly afterwards became a disciple of the Ajaan Mun. Looang Boo Sim stayed with Ajaan Mun and various of his senior disciples for many years, taking full ordination at the age of 20 at Wat Sri Candaravasa, Khon Kaen. In later years he was the Abbot of a number of monasteries in various parts of Thailand and was given the ecclesiastical title of Phra Khroo Santivaranana in 1959. In 1967 he established a monastery in the remote mountains of Chiang Dao in Chiang Mai province that remained his residence until his death in 1992.

Adapted from Simply So.

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Maha Boowa anasampanno, Phra Ajaan (1913- ) Venerable Ajaan Maha Boowa was born in Udorn-thani, North-east Thailand in 1913. He became a monk in the customary way at a local monastery and went on to study the Pali language and texts. At this time he also started to meditate but had not yet found a suitable Teacher. Then he caught sight of the Ven. Ajaan Mun and immediately felt that this was someone really special, someone who obviously had achieved something from his Dhamma practice. After finishing his Grade Three Pali studies he therefore left the study monastery and followed Ven. Ajaan Mun into the forests of N.E. Thailand. When he caught up with Ven. Ajaan Mun, he was told to put his academic knowledge to one side and concentrate on meditation. And that was what he did. He often went into solitary retreat in the mountains and jungle but always returned for help and advice from Ven. Ajaan Mun. He stayed with Ven. Ajaan Mun for seven years, right until the Ven. Ajaan's passing away.

The vigor and uncompromising determination of his Dhamma practice attracted other monks dedicated to meditation and this eventually resulted in the founding of Wat Pa Bahn Tahd, in some forest near the village where he was born. This enabled his mother to come and live as a nun at the monastery.

Ven. Ajaan Maha Boowa is well known for the fluency and skill of his Dhamma talks, and their direct and dynamic approach. They obviously reflect his own attitude and the way he personally practiced Dhamma. This is best exemplified in the Dhamma talks he gives to those who go to meditate at Wat Pa Bahn Tahd. Such talks usually take place in the cool of the evening, with lamps lit and the only sound being the insects and cicadas in the surrounding jungle. He often begins the Dhamma talk with a few moments of stillness this is the most preparation he needs and then quietly begins the Dhamma exposition. As the theme naturally develops, the pace quickens and those listening increasingly feel its strength and depth.

The formal Dhamma talk might last from thirty-five to sixty minutes. Then, after a more general talk, the listeners would all go back to their solitary huts in the jungle to continue the practice, to try to find the Dhamma they had been listening about inside themselves. From To the Last Breath.

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Fuang Jotiko, Phra Ajaan (1915-1986) Ajaan Fuang was one of Ajaan Lee's most devoted students, spending some 24 rains retreats in the company of his renowned teacher. After Ajaan Lee's death, Ajaan Fuang continued on at Wat Asokaram, Ajaan Lee's bustling monastery near Bangkok. A true forest monk at heart, Ajaan Fuang left Wat Asokaram in 1965 in search of greater solitude more conducive to meditation, and ultimately ended up at Wat Dhammasathit in Rayong province, where he lived as abbot until his death in 1986. Adapted from Awareness Itself.

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Chah Subhaddo, Phra Ajaan (1918-1992) Ajaan Chah was born in 1918 in a village in the northeastern part of Thailand. He became a novice at a young age and received higher ordination at the age of twenty. He followed the austere Forest Tradition for years, living in forests and begging for almsfood as he wandered about on mendicant pilgrimage. He practiced meditation under a number of masters, including Ajaan Mun, who had an indelible influence on Ajaan Chah, giving his meditation the direction and clarity that it lacked. Ajaan Chah later became an accomplished meditation teacher in his own right, sharing his realization of the Dhamma with those who sought it. The essence of the teaching was rather simple: be mindful, don't hang on to anything, let go and surrender to the way things are.

Ajaan Chah's simple yet profound teaching style had a special appeal to Westerners, and in 1975 he established Wat Pah Nanachat, a special training monastery for the growing number of Westerners who sought to practice with him. In 1979 the first of several branch monasteries in Europe was established in Sussex, England by his senior Western disciples (among them Ajaan Sumedho, who is presently senior incumbent at the Amaravati Buddhist Monastery, England). Today there are ten branch monasteries in Europe, Australia, and New Zealand.

Ajaan Chah passed away in January, 1992 following a long illness. Adapted from A Tree in a Forest (Chungli, Taiwan: Dhamma Garden, 1994) and Bodhinyana. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Suwat Suvaco, Phra Ajaan (1919-2002) Born on August 29, 1919, Ajaan Suwat ordained at the age of 20 and became a student of Ajaan Funn Acaro two or three years later. He also studied briefly with Ajaan Mun. Following Ajaan Funn's death in 1977, Ajaan Suwat stayed on at the monastery to supervise his teacher's royal funeral and the construction of a monument and museum in Ajaan Funn's honor. In the 1980's Ajaan Suwat came to the United States, where he established four monasteries: one near Seattle, Washington; two near Los Angeles; and one in the hills of San Diego County (Metta Forest Monastery). He returned to Thailand in 1996, and died in Buriram on April 5, 2002 after a long illness. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- From other Thai traditions: Kee Nanayon, Upasika (Kor Khao-suan-luang) (1901-1979) Upasika Kee Nanayon, who wrote under the penname, K. Khao-suan-luang, was one of the foremost woman teachers of Dhamma in modern Thailand. Born in 1901, she started a practice center for women in 1945 on a hill in the province of Rajburi, to the west of Bangkok, where she lived until her death in 1979. Known for the simplicity of her way of life, and for the direct, uncompromising style of her teaching, she had a way with words evident not only in her talks, which attracted listeners from all over Thailand, but also in her poetry, which was widely published. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Nararatana Rajamanit, Chao Khun (Tryk Dhammavitakko) (1898-1971) Prior to his ordination, Chao Khun Nararatana was a member of King Rama VI's personal staff, and was so trusted by the king that he was given the rank of Chao Phraya the highest Thai rank of conferred nobility when he was only 25. After the king's death in 1926, he ordained at Wat Thepsirin in Bangkok, and remained a monk until passing away from cancer in 1971. From the year 1936 until his death, he never left the wat compound. Even though the wat was one of the most lavishly endowed temples in Bangkok, Chao Khun Nararatana lived a life of exemplary austerity and was well known for his meditative powers. He left no personal students, however, and very few writings. From An Iridescence on the Water. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Notes 1. The long names and titles of Buddhist monks sometimes bewilder Westerners who are new to these teachings. Once the basic principles and customs are understood, however, the names of Thai monks are easily grasped. Phra: "Venerable." An honorific that refers to a monk of any rank or seniority. In informal situations Than ("reverend" or "venerable") is used. Ajaan, Ajarn, Ajahn, etc.: "Teacher" or "mentor" (derived from the Pali acariya, "teacher"). This title may be applied to monks and laypeople, alike. Chao Khun: One of several ecclesiastical titles conferred upon senior monks selected by the King. Maha: A prefix given to a monk who has passed the third level of the standard Pali exams. Looang Boo, Luang Pu: "Venerable grandfather". A term of respectful affection applied to a senior monk. Luang Phaw: "Venerable father." A term of respectful affection applied to a senior monk. Upasika: A female lay-follower of the Buddha. Upasaka is the corresponding term for a male. If the title "Mahathera" is applied to a monk's name, then the terminal vowel in his name changes. For example: Ajaan Mun Bhuridatto or Ajaan Mun Bhuridatta Mahathera; Ajaan Sao Kantasilo or Ajaan Sao Kantasila Mahathera; etc. For more on the use of personal titles in Thailand, see "Part I: Personal Titles" in The Autobiography of Phra Ajaan Lee. 2. Kammatthana: Literally, "basis of work" or "place of work." The word refers to the "occupation" of a meditating monk: namely, the contemplation of certain meditation themes by which the forces of defilement (kilesa), craving (tanha), and ignorance (avijja) may be uprooted from the mind. Although every meditator who practices meditation in line with the Buddha's teachings engages in kammatthana, the term is most often used specifically to identify the forest tradition lineage founded by Phra Ajaans Mun and Sao. See the Glossary for more about the general meaning of the word. For an introduction to the history of the Kammatthana tradition, see the essay "The Customs of the Noble Ones," by Thanissaro Bhikkhu. See also: "Legends of Somdet Toh," by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.


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Contributing Authors and Translators

Biographical Notes

These biographical notes were adapted from the sources that follow each entry.

This is a work in progress. I welcome your help in filling any of the gaping biographical holes. If you have any information to provide, please let me know. I'd be especially grateful for references to previously published sources (book, newspaper, magazine, official website, etc.) that I can cite as trustworthy references.

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Amaravati Sangha ( - ) [amar] "Amaravati Sangha" refers to the community of monastics (bhikkhus and ten-precept siladharas) in the Thai forest lineage of Ajaan Chah that are associated with the Amaravati Buddhist Monastery near Hemel Hempstead, England, and its several branch monasteries across Europe, Australia, and North America. The community has kindly provided a number of sutta translations for distribution on Access to Insight. Ariyadhamma Mahathera ( - ) (No information available.) Ariyesako, Bhikkhu ( - ) (No information available.) Ashby, Dr. Elizabeth ( - ) (No information available.) Bischoff, Roger ( - ) (No information available.) Bodhi, Bhikkhu (1944- ) [bodh] Bhikkhu Bodhi (Jeffrey Block), Ph.D., is an American Buddhist monk and Pali scholar. After completing his university studies in philosophy at the Claremont Graduate School, he traveled to Sri Lanka, where he received full ordination in 1973 under the late Ven. Ananda Maitreya. He served as editor of the Buddhist Publication Society (Sri Lanka) from 1984-1988 and and has been its president since 1988. His translations The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha (Somerville: Wisdom Publications, 1995) and The Connected Discourses of the Buddha (Somerville: Wisdom Publications, 2000) are highly regarded by Buddhist scholars and practitioners around the world. He is currently the president of the Sangha Council of Bodhi Monastery (USA) and the chairman of the Yin Shun Foundation. [Source: Bodhi Monastery website and other sources.] Bodhinandamuni, Phra ( - ) Phra Bodhinandamuni (Phra Khru Nandapaabharana) is a Thai Buddhist monk. Bogoda, Robert (1918- ) Robert Bogoda was born in 1918 in Colombo, Sri Lanka. His secondary education was cut short by the sudden demise of his father, which compelled him to work at a modest job as a teacher. While engaged in teaching, he obtained by self study the B.Sc. (Econ.) and M.Sc. (Econ.) degrees from the University of London, specializing in Social Administration. [Source: A Simple Guide to Life (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1994).]

Boowa anasampanno, Phra Ajaan Maha (1913- ) (See his entry on the Thai Forest Traditions page.) Brahmali Bhikkhu ( - ) (No information available.) Buddharakkhita, Acharya ( - ) [budd]

Acharya Buddharakkhita was born in Manipur, India. He is the founder and current director of the Maha Bodhi Society in Bangalore. In 1956 he served on the editorial board of the Sixth Buddhist Council in Rangoon. He is the author of numerous books and translations from Pali and also edits and publishes the monthly Buddhist journal Dhamma. [Source: Mind Overcoming its Cankers (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 2004).]

Bullen, Leonard (1909-1984) Leonard A. Bullen was one of the pioneers of the Buddhist movement in Australia. He was the first president of the Buddhist Society of Victoria when it was established in 1953 and one of the first office-bearers of the executive committee of the Buddhist Federation of Australia. He was also a co-editor of the Buddhist journal Metta. [Source: Buddhism: A Method of Mind Training (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1969).]

Bullitt, John (1956- ) John Bullitt is an American lay Buddhist and long-time student of the Dhamma. He received a B.A. in physics from Grinnell College and an M.A. in geophysics from the University of California, Berkeley. In the early 1990s he helped Ajaan Suwat establish Metta Forest Monastery in California and edited Bhikkhu Bodhi's manuscript of The Middle Length Discourses (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1995). In 1993 he launched Access to Insight, an online distributor of free Dhamma texts, of which he continues to serve as Editor. Burlingame, E.W. ( - ) (No information available.) Burns, Douglas ( -1975?) Douglas Burns was an American psychiatrist who intensely studied and practiced Buddhism in Thailand. He was last seen in Bangkok in 1975 before leaving on a trip to southern Thailand. He was presumed dead, but mystery surrounds his disappearance. [Source: Paul Daniels]

Chah Subhaddo, Phra Ajaan (1918-1992) (See his entry on the Thai Forest Traditions page.) Conze, Edward ( - ) (No information available.) DeGraff, Geoffrey see Thanissaro Bhikkhu. de Silva, Lily ( - ) Lily de Silva was educated at the University of Ceylon, Peradeniya, where she received a B.A. with First Class Honors in Pali and the Woodward Prize for Pali and, in 1967, a Ph.D. She taught at the University for many years and served as Chair of the Department of Pali and Buddhist Studies until her retirement in 1994. Dr. de Silva was the editor of the Digha Nikaya Atthakatha Tika (Subcommentary to the Digha Nikaya), published by the Pali Text Society in three volumes, and has long been a regular contributor to Buddhist scholarly and popular journals. [Source: One Foot in the World: Buddhist Approaches to Present-day Problems (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1986) and the Department of Pali & Buddhist Studies, University of Peradeniya (www.pdn.ac.lk/arts/pali/pali.html).] de Silva, M.W. Padmasiri ( - ) (No information available.) Dewaraja, Lorna Srimathie ( - ) Lorna Dewaraja, M.A. (Ceylon), Ph.D. (London), formerly Associate Professor of History, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka, is currently the Director of the Bandaranaike International Diplomatic Training Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka. [Source: International Centre for Ethnic Studies, Sri Lanka.] Dhammapala, Acariya ( - ) (No information available.) Dhammananda, Ven. K. Sri (1919-2006) Born in Kirinde (Matara) Sri Lanka, Martin Garmage was given the name Dhammananda when he ordained as a novice monk at the age of twelve. At age twenty-two he received higher ordination. He pursued scholarly studies in Sanskrit, Pali, Hindi, and Buddhist Philosophy at universities in Sri Lanka and India, eventually receiving a Master of Arts degree in Indian Philosophy and a Doctor of Literature degree from the Benares Hindu University. He then returned to Sri Lanka, where he established the Sudharma Buddhist Institute, which tended to the educational, welfare, and religious needs of local villagers. In 1952 he traveled to Malaysia as a Buddhist missionary, and in 1962 founded the Buddhist Missionary Society to help disseminate the Buddha's teachings across Malaysia and beyond. He wrote more than 60 books (in English) which have been widely distributed worldwide and translated into more than a dozen languages. He passed away in August 2006. [Source: Adapted from "Life Story Of Ven Dr. K Sri Dhammananda" (http://www.ksridhammananda.com/)]

Dhammayut Order in the United States of America The Dhammayut Order in the USA is the administrative organization that oversees the Thai Dhammayut temples and monasteries in the USA. Dhammika, Ven. Shravasti (1951- ) Ven. Shravasti Dhammika was born in Australia and developed an interest in Buddhism in his early teens. At the age of twenty-two he went to India and was ordained as a Buddhist monk under the Ven. M. Sangharatana Mahathera. He later lived in Sri Lanka where he became well-known for his efforts to promote Buddhism. He worked in Singapore in 1985 as a spiritual Advisor to the Dhamma Mandala Society and several other Buddhist groups. He taught at the Curriculum Development Institute of Singapore's Education Department and made several television films for the Institute. He currently resides in Singapore. [Source: Gemstones of the Good Dhamma (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1987) and Singapore Dharmanet (www.buddha.sg/sd.htm).]

Dune Atulo, Phra (1888-1983) (See his entry on the Thai Forest Traditions page.) Fawcett, Brian ( - ) (No information available.) Figen, Dorothy ( - ) (No information available.) Fuang Jotiko, Phra Ajaan (1915-1986) (See his entry on the Thai Forest Traditions page.) Gilbert, William ( - ) (No information available.) Greenly, Edward ( - ) (No information available.) Gunaratana, Ven. Henepola (1927- ) Ven. Gunaratana (Ekanayaka Mudiyanselage Ukkubana) was born in Henepola, Sri Lanka and became a novice monk at the age of 12. He received his higher education at Vidyalankara College and Buddhist Missionary College, Colombo, and in 1947 received higher ordination in Kandy. He worked for five years as a Buddhist missionary among the Harijans (Untouchables) in India and for ten years with the Buddhist Missionary Society in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In 1968 he came to the United States to serve as general secretary of the Buddhist Vihara Society at the Washington Buddhist Vihara. In 1980 he was appointed president of the Society. He received a B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. from The American University, where he also served for many years as Buddhist Chaplain. He is now President of the Bhavana Meditation Center in West Virginia, about 100 miles from Washington, D.C. [Source: "Bhante Henepola Gunaratana," The Bhavana Society ( http://www.bhavanasociety.org/bhavana.asp?f=about/bhanteG.] Gunaratna, V.F. ( - ) (No information available.) Guruge, Ananda W.P. ( - ) Ananda W.P. Guruge is a retired Sri Lankan diplomat and a scholar in the field of Indology and Buddhist Studies. He is the author of over thirty books, among the most recent a complete translation of the Sinhalese chronicle, The Mahavamsa, and a biography of King Asoka. [Source: The Buddha's Encounters with Mara the Tempter (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1997).]

Harris, Elizabeth J. ( - ) Elizabeth J. Harris studied Buddhism in Sri Lanka from 1986 to 1993 and obtained a Ph.D. degree from the Postgraduate Institute of Pali and Buddhist Studies, University of Kelaniya. She is now Secretary for Inter-faith Relations in The Methodist Church in London. [Source: Detachment and Compassion in Early Buddhism, by Elizabeth J. Harris (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1997).]

Hecker, Hellmuth ( - ) [heck, hekh] Hellmuth Hecker is a leading German writer on Buddhism and a translator from the Pali canon. His books include a german translation of the Samyutta Nikaya (parts 4 & 5) a two-volume chronicle on Buddhism in Germany, and a biography of Ven. Nyanatiloka Mahathera, the first German Buddhist monk. [Source: Great Disciples of the Buddha, by Nyanaponika Thera and Hellmuth Hecker (Somerville: Wisdom Publications, 1997).] Horner, I.B. (1896-1981) [horn]

"Isaline Blew Horner was born in Walthamstow, 1896. She was educated at Prior's Field, Surrey, and Newnham College, Cambridge, BA, 1917, MA, 1934. She remained at Newnham College as Assistant Librarian, 1918-20, and Acting Librarian, 1920-1. She gave up her post to travel in Ceylon, India and Burma, where she became interested in Buddhism, 1921-3. She returned to Newnham College as Librarian and Fellow, 1923-36; Sarah Smithson Research Fellow, 1928-31; Associate, 1931-59 and 1962-76; and Associate Fellow, 1939-49. She also served on the Governing Body, 1939-49, and gave a donation for the building of the Horner Library, 1961-2. She lived and worked in Manchester, 1936-43, and London, 1943-81, and continued to travel extensively in Ceylon, India and Burma. She was Honorary Secretary of the Pali Text Society, 1942-59, and President and Honorary Treasurer, 1959-81. She was awarded the OBE, 1980. She lived with her companion Elsie Butler, 1926-59. She died in London, May 1981." [Source: University of Cambridge Faculty Library Archive Collections ( http://www.oriental.cam.ac.uk/archive/horner.html).]

Ireland, John D. (1932-1998) [irel] John D. ("Jack") Ireland was born in North London, England. He became a Buddhist at age eighteen and soon began studying Pali. From the 1960's onward he was a frequent contributor to the Buddhist Publication Society's Wheel and Bodhi Leaves series of booklets. But he is perhaps best known for his combined translation, The Udana & the Itivuttaka (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1997), in reference to which he wrote to a friend shortly before his death: "I feel I could die contented in the knowledge that I have done something to repay the great happiness the Buddha-dhamma has brought me in this life." [Source: BPS Newlsetter No. 43 (33d mailing 1999).] Jackson, Natasha ( - ) (No information available.) Jones, Ken ( - ) (No information available.) Jootla, Susan Elbaum (1945- ) Susan Elbaum was born in New York City and obtained B.A. and M.A. degrees in Library Science from the University of Michigan. She lives in the Western Himalayan hill station of Dalhousie with her husband, Balbir S. Jootla. They have both been practicing Vipassana meditation in the tradition of the late Sayagyi U Ba Khin of Burma since 1970 and are now students of his leading disciple, Mother Sayama, who directs the International Meditation Centres in England and Rangoon. [Source: Inspiration from Enlightened Nuns (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1988).]

Kantasilo, Bhikkhu ( - ) [kant] (No information available.) Kariyawasam, A.G.S (1933-2004) Born in Sri Lanka, Siri Kariyawasam graduated from the Peradeniya University with Second Class Honors in Sanskrit with Sinhalese. He joined the teaching staff of St. Anthony's College, Baddegama for two years. In 1960 he became Assistant Editor of the Buddhist Encyclopaedia, to which he contributed sixty-six articles, and of which later served as Deputy Chief Editor until his retirement in 1989. He worked at the Buddhist Publication Society from 1991-1998 editing Bhikkhu Bodhi's publications and in 1998 he succeeded the late Ven. Piyadassi Maha Thera as Editor of Sinhala Buddhist publications. [Source: "Loss of Buddhist scholar, Mr. Kariyawasam passes away," Dhammathai.org ( http://www.dhammathai.org/e/news/m01/bnews07_5.php).]

Karunadasa, Y. ( - ) Obtained a PhD in London. No further information available. Karunaratna, Suvimalee (1939- ) Suvimalee Karunaratna was born in Sri Lanka in 1939 and received her early education in Washington, D.C. and in Colombo. While living in Rangoon, where her father was posted as the Sri Lankan ambassador to Burma from 1957-61, she received meditation instructions from the Ven. Mahasi Sayadaw and the Ven. Webu Sayadaw. Her first volume of short stories was published in 1973, and several of her short stories have appeared in anthologies of modern writing from Sri Lanka as well as in literary journals. She is the author of several titles in the BPS's Bodhi Leaves series of booklets, including The Healing of the Bull, Prisoners of Karma, and The Walking Meditation. [From The Healing of the Bull.]

Kawasaki, Ken & Visakha ( - ) Ken and Visakha Kawasaki live in Michigan, where they publish Relief Notes, an annual newsletter highlighting the activities of the Buddhist Relief Mission and Burmese Relief Center-USA. [Source: Relief Notes 2004.]

Kee Nanayon, Upasika (K. Khao-suan-luang) (1901-1979) (See her entry on the Thai Forest Traditions page.) Kelly, John (1952- ) [kell]

John Kelly is a lay Buddhist and student of the Dhamma and the Pali language, currently living with his wife and family in Brisbane, Australia. Khamdee Pabhaso, Phra Ajaan (1902-1984) (See his entry on the Thai Forest Traditions page.) Khantipalo, Bhikkhu (1932- ) [khan]

Bhikkhu Khantipalo (Laurence Mills) ordained a Buddhist monk in the late 1950s in India. He studied meditation in India and Thailand until 1973, when he arrived in Australia. In 1978 he co-founded (with Ayya Khema) Wat Buddha Dhamma, where he served for many years as teacher-in-residence. He later returned to the lay life and co-founded the Bodhi Citta Buddhist Centre. [Source: "Book Review, January 2003," Kagyu E-vam Buddhist Institute (http://www.evaminstitute.org.au/akshara/Reviews/BkReview_03.htm) and other sources.]

Khema, Ayya (1923-1997) [khem, hekh] Ayya Khema (ne Ilse Kussel) was born in Berlin, Germany, educated in Scotland and China, and later became a U.S. citizen. In 1979 she ordained in Sri Lanka, becoming the first western Theravada Buddhist nun. In 1982 she established Parappuduwa Nuns Island in southern Sri Lanka as a training center for Buddhist nuns and other women of all nationalities wishing to lead a contemplative life. In 1989 she returned to her homeland to found the Buddha-Haus im Allgu, where she passed away in 1997. [Source: I Give You My Life: The Autobiography of a Western Buddhist Nun (Boston: Shambhala Publications, 1997).]

Khin, U Ba (1899-1971) Sayagyi U Ba Khin was born in Rangoon, Burma. Though a gifted young student, family pressures forced him to turn down a college scholarship and to earn a living instead; he soon entered civil service. In 1937 he learned meditation from Saya Thetgyi, and although Webu Sayadaw urged him in 1941 to consider teaching meditation, it was not until a decade later that he formally accepted this role. In 1950 he founded the Vipassana Association of the Accountant General's Office where lay people, mainly civil servants, could learn meditation. In 1950 he co-founded two organizations which were later merged to become the Union of Burma Buddha Sasana Council, the main planning body for the Sixth Buddhist Council, and in 1952 established the International Meditation Centre in Rangoon in 1952. He retired from an outstanding career in government service in 1967. From that time until his death in 1971 he stayed at I.M.C., teaching meditation. [Source: "Sayagyi U Ba Khin," Vipassana Research Institute, http://www.vri.dhamma.org/general/subk.html.] Knight, C.F. ( - ) (No information available.) Kumara Bhikkhu (1972- ) [kuma] Liew Chin Leag was born in Malaysia, where he received a degree in education from the University of Malaya. After university he was active at Subang Jaya Buddhist Association and Buddhist Wisdom Centre, and became a volunteer teacher in the Brickfields temple's Sunday Dhamma school. An active contributor to the online Buddhist community, he served as a co-maintainer of the original "Sadhu! The Theravada Buddhism Web Directory" and "Dhamma-list," an email discussion group. He received the monastic name Kumara at his bhikkhu ordination in 1999. He currently resides at Sasanarakkha Buddhist Sanctuary, furthering his monastic training under the guidance of Ven. Aggacitta Bhikkhu. [Source: Notes provided by the author, 2005.] Karuna Kusalasaya ( - ) (No information available.) Ledi Sayadaw (1846-1923) For biographical information, see "Biography of the Venerable Mahathera Ledi Sayadaw, Aggamahapandita, D.Litt." [2006.12.03] Lee Dhammadharo, Phra Ajaan (1907-1961) (See his entry on the Thai Forest Traditions page.) Lewis, G.N. ( - ) (No information available.) Mahasi Sayadaw (1904-1982) [msyd] Ven. Mahasi Sayadaw (U Sobhana Mahathera) began his studies at a monastic school in rural Burma. At age 12 he ordained as a novice monk, and in 1923 took higher ordination. After passing all three of the Government Pali examinations he traveled to Mandalay, where he studied under several renowned scholar-monks. He then studied meditation with U Narada and in 1941 returned to his native village, where he introduced the systematic practical course of Satipatthana meditation for which he would eventually become known worldwide. In 1949 he moved to Rangoon, where he taught meditation at an international meditation center for many years. In 1954-56, at the Sixth Buddhist Council in Rangoon, he carried out the duties of the Questioner (pucchaka) the same role played by the Buddha's disciple Ven. Maha-Kassapa at the First Buddhist Council, some 2,500 years prior. [Source: The Progress of Insight (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1994).] Medhanandi, Ayya (1949- ) Ayya Medhanandi was born Mary Fiksel in Montral, Canada. After university and working with the elderly and disabled, she went on pilgrimage to India. There, an Advaita sage became her guru and for several years she lived as a nun in the rural villages. She continued to receive guidance from him until his death thirteen years later. Following a postgraduate degree at Tufts University, she served as a project manager of international aid programs in Thailand, Senegal, Ecuador and Nepal. In 1987, she took ordination in Myanmar with Sayadaw U Pandita and later joined the Amaravati Nuns' Community in England where she spent ten years under the tutelage of Ajaan Sumedho. Since 1999, she has been based in New Zealand. [Source: personal communication, 2006.]

Mendis, N.K.G. ( - ) Dr. N.K.G. Mendis graduated from the Medical Faculty of the University of Sri Lanka in 1946 and did his post-graduate training in India and the U.K. He is a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh and of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. He specialized in thoracic surgery and practiced in Sri Lanka, England and Ghana. Since 1972 he has been in general practice in Nova Scotia, Canada. He acknowledges that, though born to devout Buddhist parents, he has been devoted to Dhamma practice only since 1975, when the circumstances of his life led him to seek refuge in the Triple Gem. He is a supporter of the Buddhist Vihaaras in Washington D.C. and Toronto. [Source: The Abhidhamma in Practice (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1985).]

Mun Bhuridatto, Phra Ajaan (1870-1949) (See his entry on the Thai Forest Traditions page.) Nanayon, Upasika Kee see Kee Nanayon, Upasika anajivako, Bhikkhu ( - ) No information available. anamoli Thera (1905-1960) [nymo]

Bhikkhu anamoli (Osbert Moore) was born in England and graduated from Exeter College, Oxford. In 1948 he came to Sri Lanka, where he was ordained the following year. During his eleven years as a monk, he translated from Pali into lucid English some of the most difficult texts of Theravada Buddhism, including the Visuddhimagga. His original draft translation of the Majjhima Nikaya was posthumously edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi and published as The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha (Somerville: Wisdom Publications, 1995). Other books include Mindfulness of Breathing and The Life of the Buddha, both published by the Buddhist Publication Society. [Source: The Life of the Buddha (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1992) and other sources.] anananda, Bhikkhu ( - ) [nana] Bhikkhu anananda is a Buddhist monk of Sri Lanka. Before his ordination, he was an assistant lecturer in Pali at the University of Peradeniya. After entering the Buddhist order in 1969 he resided mostly in remote hermitages. [Source: The Magic of the Mind (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1974)]

anasamvara, Somdet Phra (Venerable Suvaddhano Bhikkhu, HH the Supreme Patriarch of Thailand) (1913- ) HH Somdet Phra anasamvara was born in Kanchanaburi Province, about 130 kilometers northwest of Bangkok, in 1913. At age thirteen he became a novice and in 1933 he received the higher ordination. On going back to continue his studies in Bangkok he was given new ordination as venerable Bhikkhu Suvaddhano, with the Supreme Patriarch Vajiranyanavong as Preceptor, at Wat Bovornives Vihara the next year. After furthering and completing his Dhamma and Pali studies to the highest grade (grade nine), he succeeded venerable Chao Khun Phra Brahmamuni as abbot in 1960. He was awarded the ecclesiastical title of Somdet in 1972 and has held various positions in the administration of the Thai Sangha. He was made supreme patriarch of Thailand in 1989. [Source: A Guide to Awareness (Bangkok: Mahamakut Rajavidyalaya Press, 1997).]

anavara Thera (Somdet Phra Buddhaghosacariya) ( - ) [nyva] (No information available.) Narada Thera (1898-1983) [nara]

Ven. Narada (Sumanapala) was born in Kotahena, Sri Lanka. A talented student, he attended St. Benedict's College, a Catholic secondary school. On his eighteenth birthday he became a novice; two years later he received higher ordination. He continued his scholarly studies at University College, Colombo. He spent the last fifty years of his life writing, translating, and tirelessly conducting missionary work, spreading the Dhamma across Asia, Europe, Australia, Africa, and the Americas. [Source: "Venerable Narada Maha Thera: A Buddhist Missionary Par Excellence," by Olcott Gunasekera ( http://www.budsas.org/ebud/ebdha296.htm;originally appeared in "The Island," Sri Lanka, Sunday 03 August 2003, http://www.island.lk).]

Nararatana Rajamanit, Chao Khun (Tryk Dhammavitakko) (???-1971) (See his entry on the Thai Forest Traditions page.) Norman, K.R. ( - ) [norm] K.R. Norman is the current vice president of the Pali Text Society. Nyanaponika Thera (1901-1994) [nypo]

Nyanaponika Thera (Siegmund Feniger) left his native Germany in 1936 for Sri Lanka, where he was ordained as a Buddhist monk by Ven. Nyanatiloka Thera (1878-1957). In 1958 he helped to found the Buddhist Publication Society, of which he served as editor-in-chief until 1984, and as president until his retirement in 1988. He passed away peacefully at his residence, the Forest Hermitage in the Udawattakele Reserve outside of Kandy, on the last day of his 57th rains retreat. His many widely-acclaimed books include The Heart of Buddhist Meditation, The Vision of Dhamma, Abhidhamma Studies, and (with Bhikkhu Bodhi) Numerical Discourses of the Buddha. [Source: Introduction to The Vision of the Dhamma (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1992) and "For the Welfare of Many" by Bhikkhu Bodhi.]

Nyanasatta Thera ( - ) [nysa] (No information available.) Nyanasobhano, Bhikkhu see Price, Leonard ( - ) Nyanatiloka Mahathera (1878-1957) Ven. Nyanatiloka Mahathera was the first Continental European in modern times to become a Buddhist monk and one of the foremost Western exponents of Theravada Buddhism in the twentieth century. Born in Germany, he developed a keen interest in Buddhism in his youth and came to Asia intending to enter the Buddhist Order. He received ordination in Burma in 1903. The greatest part of his life as a monk was spent in Sri Lanka, where he established the Island Hermitage at Dodanduwa as a monastery for Western monks. His translations into German include the Anguttara Nikaya, the Visuddhimagga, and the Milindapaha. Ven. Nyanatiloka passed away in Colombo in 1957. [Source: Fundamentals of Buddhism: Four Lectures by Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1994).]

Nyanatusita, Bhikkhu (1967- ) Bhikkhu Nyanatusita was born in the Netherlands and was ordained in Sri Lanka in 1993. In 2005 he was appointed editor of the Buddhist Publication Society (Sri Lanka). [Source: personal communication, 2007.] Oates, L.R. ( - ) (No information available.) Olendzki, Andrew ( - ) [olen] Andrew Olendzki, Ph.D., is a Pali scholar who trained in Buddhist Studies at Lancaster University in England, as well as at Harvard and the University of Sri Lanka. The former executive director of the Insight Meditation Society (USA), he is currently the executive director of the Barre Center for Buddhist Studies (USA). [Source: Barre Center for Buddhist Studies website.]

Many of Olendzki's translations that appear on Access to Insight were originally published in Insight Journal. Ontl, Petr Karel (1942- ) Petr Karel Ontl was born into a Bohemian-American family in Prague, Czechoslovakia, in 1942, and emigrated to the United States in 1949. A certified foreign language teacher, he has worked in the fields of teaching, photography, care for the elderly, and translation. He has been a Theravada Buddhist for the past twenty years and is affiliated with the Bhavana Society in High View, West Virginia. [Source: Of Mindsets and Monkeypots by Petr Karel Ontl (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1993)] Perera, H.R. ( - ) (No information available.) Phut Thaniyo, Phra Ajaan (1921-1999) A student of Ajaan Sao. (See Ajaan Sao's entry on the Thai Forest Traditions page.) Piyadassi Thera (1914-1998) [piya]

Piyadassi Thera was born in Colombo, Sri Lanka and attended Nalanda College and the University of Sri Lanka. In 1934 he ordained under the tutelage of Ven. Vajiraana, Sangha Nayaka, a respected authority on Buddhism. The author of some sixty books, Ven. Piyadassi was a popular television and radio lecturer of Dhamma, both in Sinhala and in English. He represented Sri Lanka at several international religious and cultural conferences. He passed away in Colombo in 1998 after a brief illness. [Source: The Daily News (Sri Lanka), 18 August 2001 and The Buddha's Ancient Path] Piyatissa Thera ( - ) (No information available.) Price, Leonard (Nyanasobhano Bhikkhu) ( - ) Born in Louisville, Kentucky, Leonard Price graduated from Dartmouth College, where he majored in English. He subsequently worked as an actor and writer. In 1987 he ordained in Bangkok at Wat Mahadhatu and took the name Nyanasobhano Bhikkhu. He has spent time in Thailand and Sri Lanka, and currently resides in the United States. [From Bhikkhu Tissa Dispels Some Doubts and Nothing Higher to Live For, both published by the Buddhist Publication Society.] Prince, T ( - ) (No information available.) Rhys Davids, C.A.F. (1857-1942) [rhyc] "Caroline Augusta Foley was born in Wadhurst, Sussex, 27 September 1857. She was educated at home and at University College, London, BA, 1886, MA, 1889. She was a member of staff of the Economic Journal, 1891-5. She worked on behalf of various societies for the welfare of women and children, 1890-4, and was a campaigner for women's suffrage, 1896-1914. She married Thomas Rhys Davids, 1894. She was appointed Lecturer in Indian Philosophy at Manchester University, 1910-13, and Lecturer in the History of Buddhism at the School of Oriental and African Studies, London, 1918-33. She was Honorary Secretary, 1907-22, and President, 1923-42, of the Pali Text Society. She died in Chipstead, Surrey, 26 June 1942." [Source: University of Cambridge Faculty Library Archive Collections ( http://www.oriental.cam.ac.uk/archive/rhys.html#cafrd).]

Rosenberg, Larry ( - ) Larry Rosenberg is the founder of, and a guiding teacher at, the Cambridge Insight Meditation Center. He is also a senior teacher at the Insight Meditation Society. Larry's spiritual practice began more than 30 years ago with J. Krishnamurti and Vimala Thakar. He received Zen training with Korean Master Seung Sahn and Japanese Master Katagiri Roshi for 8 years before coming to Vipassana. Anagarika Munindra was his first Vipassana teacher. Larry's main influence has been the Thai Forest tradition. He has practiced with Ajahn Maha Boowa, Ajahn Suwat, and Ajahn Buddhadasa. Larry has also practiced with Thich Nhat Hanh. He is the author of Breath by Breath: The Liberating Practice of Insight Meditation and, more recently, Living in the Light of Death: On the Art of Being Fully Alive. [Source: CIMC Teachers and Instructors, May 2006.] Sao Kantasilo, Phra Ajaan (1861-1941) (See his entry on the Thai Forest Traditions page.) Sayadaw, Mahasi see Mahasi Sayadaw ( - ) Sayadaw, Webu see Webu Sayadaw ( - ) Silacara, Bhikkhu (J.F. McKechnie) (1871-1950) J.F. McKechnie was born in Hull, Yorkshire, on October 22nd, 1871. After attending school he worked first as an apprentice stock-cutter in a clothing factory, then emigrated to the United States to work on a fruit and dairy farm. Around the turn of the century he came across the magazine Buddhism in a public library. He answered an advertisement from the magazine's editor, the Bhikkhu Ananda Metteyya (Alan Bennett), for an editorial assistant in Rangoon, Burma, and soon found himself working for the magazine in Burma. He worked for the magazine for several years, and then ordained in the bhikkhu sangha in 1906. After many years of writing, teaching, and missionary work, in 1925 ill-health forced him to disrobe and return to England, where he continued lecturing and writing. During World War II he moved to an Old Person's Home, where he died in 1950. [Source: A Young People's Life of of the Buddha.]

Silananda, Sayadaw U (1927-2005) The Ven. Sayadaw U Silananda was born in Mandalay, Burma. He became a novice monk in 1943; four years later he received higher ordination. A natural scholar, by 1948 he had passed all three of the Government Pali examinations. In the next six years he received two more advanced scholarly degrees. In 1954-56 he served as one of the distinguished editors of the Tipitaka and Commentaries at the Sixth Buddhist Council in Rangoon. In 1979 he traveled to the US with Ven. Mahasi Sayadaw to teach meditation and Dhamma, after which he stayed on to continue teaching. He served as Spiritual Advisor of the Theravada Buddhist Society of America and was Spiritual Director of four other Buddhist centers across the country. He passed away peacefully on 13 August 2005. [Source: "Sayadaw U Silananda," by the Theravada Buddhist Society of America ( http://www.tbsa.org/articles/SayadawUSilanandaBio.html) and "Newsflash".] Sim Buddhacaro, Phra Ajaan (1909-1992) (See his entry on the Thai Forest Traditions page.) Siriwardhana, Eileen ( - ) Mrs. Eileen Siriwardhana graduated from the University of Ceylon in English, Singhalese and Pali. She is now the Principal of Visakha Vidyalaya, the premier Buddhist Girl's School in Colombo. She is also a distinguished writer in Singhalese. [Source: The Heart Awakened (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1983).] Soma Thera (1898-1960) [soma]

Ven. Soma Thera (Victor Emmanuel Perera Pulle) was educated at St. Benedict's College in Kotahena. After traveling widely in Burma, Thailand, China, and Japan, studying and translating Buddhist texts, he returned to Burma where he was ordained in 1936. He was a member of the Buddhist Mission of Goodwill to India in 1940, and the Buddhist mission to China in 1946. In 1946 he led the first Buddhist mission to Germany. He died suddenly of pulmonary thrombosis in 1960. [Source: The Way of Mindfulness (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1975).] Soni, Dr. R.L. ( - ) [soni] (No information available.) Story, Francis (1910-1972) [stor]

Francis Story (Anagarika Sugatananda) was born in England in 1910 and became acquainted with Buddhist teachings early in life. For 25 years he lived in Asian countries India, Burma, and Sri Lanka where he deeply studied the Buddhist philosophy of life. With that background and endowed with a keen analytical mind, he produced a considerable body of writings, collected and published in three volumes by the Buddhist Publication Society. [Source: Rebirth as Doctrine and Experience: Essays and Case Studies, by Francis Story (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 2000).]

Sumana, Samanera (???-1910) Samanera Sumana (Fritze Stange) was born in Germany and traveled to Sri Lanka, where he ordained as a novice in 1906. He and a Dutchman named Bergendahl (Samanera Suo) were the first two pupils of Ven. Nyanatiloka. Sumana's ill health forced his return to Germany, but that same year he returned to Sri Lanka, re-ordained. He passed away in 1910. [Source: Going Forth: A Call to Buddhist Monkhood, by Samanera Sumana (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1983).]

Suwat Suvaco, Phra Ajaan (1919-2002) (See his entry on the Thai Forest Traditions page.) Thanissaro Bhikkhu (1949- ) [than]

Thanissaro Bhikkhu (Geoffrey DeGraff) is an American Buddhist monk of the Thai forest kammathana tradition. After graduating from Oberlin College in 1971 with a degree in European Intellectual History, he traveled to Thailand, where he studied meditation under Ajaan Fuang Jotiko, himself a student of the late Ajaan Lee. He ordained in 1976 and lived at Wat Dhammasathit, where he remained following his teacher's death in 1986. In 1991 he traveled to the hills of San Diego County, USA, where he helped Ajaan Suwat Suvaco establish Wat Mettavanaram ("Metta Forest Monastery"). He was made abbot of the monastery in 1993. His long list of publications includes translations from Thai of Ajaan Lee's meditation manuals; Handful of Leaves, a four-volume anthology of sutta translations; The Buddhist Monastic Code, a two-volume reference handbook for monks; Wings to Awakening; and (as co-author) the college-level textbook Buddhist Religions: A Historical Introduction. Thate Desaransi, Phra Ajaan (1902-1994) (See his entry on the Thai Forest Traditions page.) U Ba Khin see Khin, U Ba ( - ) U Silananda see Silananda, Sayadaw U ( - ) Vajira, Sister ( - ) [vaji] A german nun. van Gorkom, Nina (1928- ) "Nina van Gorkom was born in 1928 to a family of socialist intellectuals. Her father was a member of the Dutch parliament. She studied at Leyden University and during this time she became a Catholic. In 1952, she married Lodewijk van Gorkom, a Dutch diplomat. In 1965, Lodewijk was posted to Thailand and Nina started learning Thai language. She took a keen interest in Buddhism, attending classes for foreigners at Wat Mahathat. There she met, in the summer of 1966, Sujin Boriharnwanaket. Impressed by the profundity of the Buddhist teachings, she became convinced of the truth of the Buddha's words and later assisted Khun Sujin in discussions about Buddhism for Thai radio stations. These talks were later published as Buddhism in Daily Life, her first book. Nina and Lodewijk left Thailand in 1970 and lived in Japan, New York, Indonesia (where Lodewijk was the Dutch ambassador) and Austria. Lodewijk retired in 1990 and they now live in The Hague in Holland." [Source: "Interview with Nina van Gorkom, September 1999, by Robert Kirkpatrick," Abhidhamma.org (http://www.abhidhamma.org/interview%20with%20nina.html) von Glasenapp, Helmuth (1891-1963) Helmuth von Glasenapp was an eminent West German Indologist. He taught at the University of Knigsberg and occupied the indological chair of the University of Tbingen. Among his many scholarly publications are books on Buddhism, Hinduism, Jainism and comparative religion. [Source: Vedanta and Buddhism: A Comparative Study (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1978).]

Walshe, Maurice O'Connell (1911-1998) Maurice O'Connell Walshe was born in London and studied German at the universities of London, Berlin, Vienna, and Freiburg, eventually becoming Deputy Director at the Institute of Germanic Studies, London. An active Buddhist since 1951, he was Vice-President of the English Sangha Trust, as well as author of numerous articles on Buddhism. His published works include a three volume set of essays of the 13th century mystic, Meister Eckhart and, in 1987, Thus Have I Heard, a new translation of the Digha Nikaya. A few months before he died he completed a Buddhist Pali dictionary. [Source: Thus Have I Heard (London: Wisdom Publications, 1987) and "Maurice O'Connell Walshe A Tribute" in Forest Sangha Newsletter, July 1998.]

Webu Sayadaw (1896-1977) Webu Sayadaw was born in Upper Burma. He ordained as a novice at age nine and took higher ordination at twenty, assuming the monastic name U Kumara. He studied for seven years at a monastery in Mandalay, after which time he wandered for four years in the solitude of the forest wilderness, practicing the ascetic dhutanga practices. He returned to his native village and began teaching the meditation techniques he had mastered in the wilds. Once he became an established teacher he assumed the name Webu Sayadaw. He continued teaching meditation until his death in 1977. [Source: The Essential Practice: Dhamma Discourses of Venerable Webu Sayadaw (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1991).]

Woodward, F.L. (1871-1952) [wood] "In 1919, F.L. Woodward, who for 16 years had been principal of Mahinda College in Galle, Sri Lanka, arrived in Australia. He settled on an apple orchard near Launceston in Tasmania, and for the next 33 years devoted his time to translations of the Pali canon for the Pali Text Society. He is perhaps best known for his anthology, Some Sayings of the Buddha, first published in 1925."[1] He died peacefully at age 81 at Beaconfield in Tasmania.[2] [Sources: [1] "A multi-faceted religious community," University of Canberra, Australia (www.ce.canberra.edu.au/nowuc/Shades%20of%20Australia/Shades%20of%20Australia/communities_buddhist.html); and [2] Pali Tipitakam Concordance, Vol I (Oxford: PTS, 1990).]

Yahoo! Pali Group [yaho] The Yahoo! Pali Group is an online forum where Pali students and scholars gather to discuss the Pali language and to make collaborative translations of texts from the Tipitaka. Contributors to the translations on Access to Insight include: Derek Cameron, Dimitri Ivakhnenko, and Piya Tan.

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Note: The four characters in square brackets that follow the names of translators are Reserved Translator Codes, which are used in assigning file names to Pali translations.


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Buddha Overcoming Mara While Phra Siddhartha was meditating under the bodhi tree, the all powerful Mara began to notice that he was slipping away from his domination, so he attacked him with his army to divert his purpose. Undaunted, Phra Sidhharta gathered up all of the ten virtues

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Tipitaka :

Index of Proper Names

This is a partial index of the people and places that appear in the suttas available at Access to Insight. Significant life transitions (e.g., going for refuge, enlightenment, death) are shown in square brackets []. Sources for certain biographical details are indicated by braces {} and are found at the bottom of this page.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V WXYZ

A

Abhaya, Prince: MN 58; [goes for refuge] Abhaya, Ven.: Thag 1.26 Abhibhuta, Ven.: Thag 3.13 Accuta (private Buddha): MN 116 Accuta (devas): DN 20 Accutagamabyamaka (private Buddha): MN 116 Aciravata (novice): MN 125 Aciravati (river): AN 10.15, Ud 5.5 Adhikakka (river): MN 7 Adhimutta, Ven.: Thag 16.1 Aggalava shrine: AN 8.23, AN 8.24 Ajatasattu (king of Magadha; son of Queen Videha; nephew of King Pasenadi; father of Prince Udayibhadda): DN 2, DN 16, MN 108, SN 3.14, SN 3.15; [goes for refuge] Ajita (brahman ascetic): Sn 5.1 Ajita Kesakambalin: DN 2 (1), DN 2 (2), DN 16, SN 3.1, SN 44.9 Ajjheya (town):SN 35.200 Akasa (clan): MN 90 Akkosaka Bharadvaja, Ven.: SN 7.2; [goes for refuge; goes forth; becomes an arahant] Alakamanda (deva city): DN 16, DN 32 Alara Kalama (Buddha's first meditation teacher): DN 16, MN 26, MN 36 Alavaka (yakkha): DN 32, SN 10.12, Sn 1.10 Alavi (city): SN 10.12, AN 3.34, AN 8.23, AN 8.24, Sn 1.10 Allakappa (city): DN 16 Ambalatthika (city): DN 16 Ambapali, Ven. Sister (formerly the courtesan): DN 16, Thig 13.1 Ambara-ambaravati (deva city): DN 32 Ananda (private Buddha): MN 116 Ananda, Ven. (a.k.a. the "Guardian of the Dhamma"; Buddha's cousin; half-brother to Ven. Anuruddha; Buddha's chief personal attendant for the last 25 years of the Buddha's life {2}): Mv 8.26.1-8, DN 15, DN 16, MN 18, MN 26, MN 52, MN 53, MN 59, MN 90, MN 108, MN 118, MN 121, MN 122, MN 136, MN 143, MN 152, SN 12.68, SN 12.70, SN 6.15, SN 8.4, SN 12.25, SN 21.2, SN 22.81, SN 22.83,SN 22.90, SN 35.85, SN 35.193, SN 36.15, SN 44.10, SN 45.2, SN 47.13, SN 48.41, SN 51.15, SN 54.13, SN 56.45, AN 3.60, AN 3.71, AN 3.72, AN 3.73, AN 3.78, AN 4.159, AN 4.170, AN 4.179, AN 5.114, AN 5.180, AN 9.37, AN 9.41, AN 9.43, AN 9.44, AN 9.45, AN 10.6, AN 10.7, AN 10.95, AN 10.96, AN 11.1, AN 11.17, Ud 5.2, Ud 5.5, Ud 5.6, Ud 3.3, Ud 7.9, Thag 21 [recalls the teachings that brought him to stream-entry; for a biography see Ananda: The Guardian of the Dhamma] Anasava (private Buddha): MN 116 Anathapindika, the wealthy householder (lit. "Almsgiver to those without protection"; his given name was Sudatta): MN 143, SN 10.8, AN 3.105, AN 4.62, AN 5.41, AN 5.43, AN 5.176, AN 5.179, AN 10.92; AN 10.93; [first meets the Buddha; teaches Dhamma; dies] Anathapindika's park/monastery (Jeta's Grove): DN 9, MN 2, MN 4, MN 7, MN 8, MN 9, MN 11, MN 13, MN 19, MN 20, MN 22, MN 24, MN 26, MN 27, MN 28, MN 33, MN 43, MN 59, MN 62, MN 63, MN 72, MN 78, MN 86, MN 87, MN 111, MN 117, MN 119, MN 131, MN 135, MN 137, MN 138, MN 146, MN 149, SN 1.1, SN 1.41, SN 3.1, SN 4.8, SN 8.4, SN 11.3, SN 11.5, SN 12.11, SN 12.31, SN 16.13, SN 23.2, SN 13.1, SN 22.5, SN 22.57, SN 22.85, SN 44.1, SN 45.1, SN 45.8, SN 47.13, SN 54.13, AN 3.51, AN 3.52, AN 3.71, AN 4.45, AN 4.67, AN 5.28, AN 5.49, AN 6.49, AN 9.1, AN 10.51, AN 10.60, AN 10.70, AN 10.71, AN 11.1, Sn 2.4, Sn 2.14, Sn 3.3, Ud 1.10, Ud 2.2, Ud 2.3, Ud 2.4, Ud 2.5, Ud 2.6, Ud 2.7, Ud 3.1, Ud 3.2, Ud 3.3, Ud 3.4, Ud 3.5, Ud 3.8, Ud 4.6, Ud 4.7, Ud 4.10, Ud 5.1, Ud 5.2, Ud 5.4, Ud 5.6, Ud 5.7, Ud 5.10, Ud 6.3, Ud 6.4, Ud 6.5, Ud 6.6, Ud 6.7, Ud 6.9, Ud 7.1, Ud 7.2, Ud 7.3, Ud 7.4, Ud 7.6, Ud 8.1, Ud 8.2, Ud 8.3, Ud 8.4, Ud 8.9, Ud 8.10, Thag 17.3 [for a biography see Anathapindika: The Great Benefactor] Andhakavinda (city): SN 6.13, AN 5.114 Anejaka (devas): DN 20 Anga (private Buddha): MN 116 Anga (country): MN 39, AN 3.70, Thag 5.9 Angirasa (brahman sage): MN 95, AN 7.49 Angulimala (bandit; a.k.a. Gagga Mantaniputta): MN 86, Thag 16.8 Anguttarapan (people): MN 66 Anigha (private Buddha): MN 116 Anopama, the millionaire's daughter: Thig 6.5 Anotatta (lake).: Thag 6.10 Anupiya (city): Ud 2.10 Anuradha, Ven.: SN 22.86 Anuruddha, Ven. (Buddha's cousin; half-brother to Ven. Ananda; a.k.a. "Master of the Divine Eye"): DN 16, SN 6.15, SN 9.6, SN 52.10, AN 8.30, Thag 6.10; [becomes an arahant] Apana (town): MN 66 Aparajita (private Buddha): MN 116 Araka (brahman): AN 7.70 Arittaka (devas): DN 20 Arittha Formerly-of-the-Vulture-Killers: MN 22 Arittha, Ven.: SN 54.6 Arittha (private Buddha): MN 116 Arittho (yakkha): DN 32 Ariya (private Buddha): MN 116 Asama (deva): DN 20 Asayha (private Buddha): MN 116 Asibandhakaputta (headman and disciple of the Niganthas): SN 42.6, SN 42.8; SN 42.9; [goes for refuge: a, b] Asita (private Buddha): MN 116 Asita (the seer): Sn 3.11 Assaji, Ven.: MN 70, Mv 1.23.1 Assaka (country): AN 3.70 Assapura (town): MN 39 Assatara (city): DN 20 Asuras (demons): DN 20, Ud 5.5, Sn 3.11 Atanata (deva city): DN 32 Atthaka (private Buddha): MN 116 Atthaka (brahman sage): MN 95, AN 7.49 Atthakanagara (town): MN 52, AN 11.17 Atthama (private Buddha): MN 116 Atula: Dhp 227 Avanti (country): SN 22.3, SN 41.3, AN 3.70, Ud 5.6 Avici (hell realm): Iti 89 Ayojjhans (people): SN 22.95

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Bahiya of the Bark-cloth (praised by the Buddha as being foremost among the bhikkhus in terms of the speed of his understanding {1}): Ud 1.10; [becomes an arahant; killed by a cow] Bahuka (river): MN 7 Bahumati (river): MN 7 Bahuna, Ven.: AN 10.81 Bahuputta (shrine): DN 16 Bali (asura demon): DN 20 Bandhuma (private Buddha): MN 116 Banyan Park: AN 3.73, AN 11.13, AN 11.12 Baranasi see Varanasi Belatthasisa, Ven.: Thag 1.16 Beluva (village): DN 16 Bhadda: DN 16 Bhadda Kapilani, Ven. Sister (former wife of Maha Kassapa): Thig 4.1 Bhadda Kundalakesa, Ven. Sister (praised by the Buddha as being foremost among the bhikkhunis in terms of the speed of her understanding {2}: Thig 5.9 Bhaddiya Kaligodha, Ven.: Ud 2.10 Thag 16.7 Bhaddiya the Dwarf, Ven.: Ud 7.1, Ud 7.2; [becomes an arahant] Bhadraka see Gandhabhaka Bhadravudha (brahman ascetic): Sn 5.12 Bhagga (people): SN 22.1, AN 4.55, AN 6.16, AN 7.58, AN 8.30 Bhaggava (a potter): MN 140 Bhagu (brahman sage): MN 95, AN 7.49 Bhalliya, Ven.: Thag 1.7 Bhanda (village): DN 16, AN 4.1 Bhaa: MN 117 Bharadvaja (private Buddha): MN 116 Bharadvaja, Ven. Akkosaka see Akkosaka Bharadvaja, Ven. Bharadvaja, Ven. Jata see Jata Bharadvaja, Ven. Bharadvaja, Kasi see Kasi Bharadvaja Bharadvaja, Navakammika see Navakammika Bharadvaja Bharadvaja, Ven. Pindola see Pindola Bharadvaja, Ven. Bharadvaja, Ven. Sundarika see Sundarika Bharadvaja, Ven. Bharadvaja (ancient brahman sage): MN 95, AN 7.49 Bharadvaja (clan): SN 7.18 Bharadvaja (yakkha): DN 32 Bhavitatta (private Buddha): MN 116 Bhesakala (grove): SN 22.1, AN 4.55, AN 6.16, AN 8.30, Thag 1.18 Bhoganagara (city): DN 16 Bhoja (sky-walking deva): AN 4.45 Bhumija, Ven.: SN 12.25 Bhuta, Ven.: Thag 9 Bimbisara, King Seniya (of Magadha): MN 14, MN 86, Sn 3.1, Ud 2.2, Thag 9 Bodhi (private Buddha): MN 116 Brahma: DN 2, DN 11 (1), DN 11 (2), MN 1, MN 22, SN 6.2, SN 56.11, AN 4.28, Ud 7.6, Thig 12 Brahmadatta, Ven.: Thag 6.12 Brahmadatta (king of Kasi): Mv 10.2.3-20 Buli (clan): DN 16

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Cakkhupala, Ven.: Thag 1.95 Cala, Ven. Sister: SN 5.6 Calika (mountain): Ud 4.1 Campa (city): DN 16, AN 7.49, AN 10.81, AN 10.94 Canda, the beggar: Thig 5.12 Candana (deva): DN 20, DN 32 Canki (brahman): MN 95 Capala (shrine): DN 16 Ceti (people): AN 3.70, AN 8.30, AN 6.46, AN 10.24 Chabyaputta (royal snake lineage): AN 4.67 Channa, Ven. (formerly, the Buddha's horseman): DN 16, SN 22.90 Channa (wandering ascetic): AN 3.71 Ciravasi (son of Gandhabhaka): SN 42.11 Citra (garuda): DN 20 Citta the elephant trainer's son: DN 9; [goes for refuge; goes forth; becomes an arahant] Citta the householder (praised by the Buddha both as a role-model for the lay disciples and as an expounder of Dhamma {2}): SN 41.3, SN 41.4, SN 41.6, SN 41.7, SN 41.10; [dies] Cittaka, Ven.: Thag 1.22 Cittasena (deva): DN 20, DN 32 Crocodile Haunt: SN 22.1, AN 4.55, AN 6.16, AN 7.58 Cula Panthaka, Ven.: Ud 5.10 Culaka, Ven.: Thag 2.46 Cunda (the novice): SN 47.13 Cunda (the silversmith): DN 16, AN 10.176, Sn 1.5; [goes for refuge] Cunda, Ven. Maha: MN 8, MN 118, SN 46.16, AN 6.46, AN 10.24 Cundaka, Ven.: DN 16

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Dabba Mallaputta, Ven.: Ud 8.9, Ud 8.10; [attains Parinibbana] Dabbila (private Buddha): MN 116 Dadamukkha (yakkha): DN 32 Dakkhinagiri (town): SN 7.11, Sn 1.4 Dandapani: MN 18 Dantika, Ven. Sister: Thig 3.4 Dasaka, Ven.: SN 22.89 Dasama: MN 52, AN 11.17 Dasaraha (people): SN 20.7 Devadaha (town): MN 101, SN 22.2 Devadatta (Buddha's cousin): MN 58, Iti 89 Devasata (yakkha): DN 32 Dhamma, Ven. Sister: Thig 1.17 Dhammadinna, Ven. Sister (praised by the Buddha as being the foremost Dhamma teacher among the bhikkhunis {2}): MN 44 Dhammika, Ven.: AN 6.54, Thag 4.10 Dhammika: Sn 2.14 Dhanapalaka (elephant): Dhp 324 Dharani (lake): DN 32 Dhatarattha (deva): DN 20 DN 32 Dhatarattha (naga): DN 20 Dhotaka (brahman ascetic): Sn 5.5 Dighajanu (Vyagghapajja; "TigerPaw"): AN 8.54 Dighavu (son of King Dighiti): Mv 10.2.3-20 Dighanakha Aggivessana ("LongNails"; a brahman ascetic): MN 74 [goes for refuge] Dighiti (king of Kosala; father of Dighavu): Mv 10.2.3-20 Dona (brahman): DN 16, AN 4.36 Durannaya (private Buddha): MN 116

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Ekanala (village): Sn 1.4 Ekuddaniya, Ven.: Thag 1.68 Eraka, Ven.: Thag 1.93 Erapatha (royal snake lineage): AN 4.67 Eravanna (naga): DN 20

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Frying Pan (the acrobat): see Medakathalika

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Gagga (clan): MN 86 Gaggara (lake): AN 7.49, AN 10.81, AN 10.94 Ganaka Moggallana (brahman): MN 107; [goes for refuge] Gandhabhaka (a.k.a. Bhadraka): SN 42.11 Gandhara (private Buddha): MN 116 Gandhara (country): AN 3.70 Ganges (Ganga) river: DN 16, MN 21, SN 10.12, SN 22.95, SN 35.200, AN 3.99, AN 10.15, Ud 5.5, Sn 1.10, Thag 2.24 Gavesin, Ven.: AN 5.180; [goes forth; becomes an arahant] Gaya (city): MN 26, SN 35.28 Gaya (river): MN 7 Gaya Head (mountain): SN 35.28 Ghata (a Sakyan): MN 122 Ghosita's Park: AN 3.72, AN 4.159, AN 4.170, SN 12.68, SN 51.15, SN 22.85, SN 35.127, SN 35.193, SN 48.53, Ud 7.10 Gijjhakuta (mountain): MN 116 Giribajja (mountains): Thag 10.2 Godatta, Ven.: SN 41.4, Thag 14.2 Godha (father of Bhaddiya): Thag 16.7 Gopala (yakkha): DN 32 Gosala, Ven.: Thag 1.23 Gotama, Ven.: Thag 3.14 Gotamaka, Dark (royal snake lineage): AN 4.67 Gotamaka (shrine): DN 16, AN 3.123 Gula (yakkha): DN 32 Gunda (forest): AN 2.38 Gutijjita (private Buddha): MN 116 Gutta, Ven. Sister: Thig 6.7

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Haliddakani: SN 22.3 Haliddavasana (town): MN 57 Haragaja (devas): DN 20 Harita, Ven.: Thag 1.29, Thag 3.15 Hatthaka (wealthy prince): AN 3.35, AN 8.23, AN 8.24 Hatthigama (village): DN 16 Hemaka (brahman ascetic): Sn 5.8 Hemavata (yakkha): DN 32 Himalaya (Himavanta) mountains: DN 20, SN 4.20, SN 46.1, SN 47.7, AN 3.48, AN 5.196, Dhp 304, Sn 3.1 Hinga (private Buddha): MN 116 Hiraavati (river): DN 16 Hiri (yakkha): DN 32

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Icchanangala (village): AN 5.30 AN 6.42 AN 8.86 Inda (yakhka): DN 32 Indra (deva): DN 20, MN 22, SN 22.79, AN 11.10, Dhp 95, Sn 3.11, Thig 5.11, Thag 12.2 Isana (deva king): SN 11.3 Isidatta, Ven.: SN 41.3, Thag 1.120 Isigili (mountain): DN 16, MN 14, MN 116 Isipatana (suburb of Varanasi): MN 26, MN 141, SN 12.67, SN 22.59, SN 22.90, SN 22.122, SN 35.191, SN 44.3, SN 44.4, SN 44.5, SN 44.6, SN 56.11, AN 3.15, AN 3.126

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Jains (practitioners of Jainism; Niganthas): AN 3.70 Jali (private Buddha): MN 116 Jalini (devata; former consort to Ven. Anuruddha): SN 9.6 Janesabha (yakkha): DN 32 Janogha (deva city): DN 32 Jantu (village): Ud 4.1 Janussonin (brahman): MN 4, MN 27, AN 4.184, AN 10.177; [goes for refuge: 1, 2] Jata Bharadvaja, Ven.: SN 7.6; [goes for refuge (MN 27, SN 7.6); goes forth; becomes an arahant] Jatila Bhagika, Ven. Sister: AN 9.37 Jatukannin (brahman ascetic): Sn 5.11 Jayanta (private Buddha): MN 116 Jayasena, Prince (son of king Bimbisara): MN 125, MN 126 Jenta, Ven. (the Royal Chaplain's Son): Thag 1.111, Thag 6.9 Jeta (private Buddha): MN 116 Jeta's Grove (see Anathapindika's park/monastery): SN 35.101 Jita (private Buddha): MN 116 Jiva (Ubbiri's daughter): Thig 3.5 Jivaka Komarabhacca: AN 8.26 Jivaka, Ven.: Thig 14 Jotinama (devas): DN 20

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Kaccana, Ven. Maha (praised by the Buddha for his mastery in analyzing the Dhamma and explaining it to others {2}): MN 18, MN 118, MN 138, SN 22.3, AN 2.38, Ud 5.6 [for a biography see Maha Kaccana: Master of Doctrinal Exposition] Kaccayana Gotta, Ven.: SN 12.15, SN 22.90 Kajjangala (people): MN 152 Kakkarapatta: AN 8.54 Kakusanda (a previous Buddha; the fourth of the Buddhas mentioned in the Canon): DN 32 Kakuttha (river): DN 16 Kala (private Buddha): MN 116 Kala-khemaka (a Sakyan): MN 122 Kalakajas (a race of asura demons): DN 20 Kalama (region): AN 3.65 Kali (slave): MN 21 Kalinga: DN 16 Kallavalaputta (city): AN 7.58 Kamabhu, Ven.: SN 41.6 Kamada (deva): SN 2.6 Kamasettha (yakkha): DN 32 Kambala (city): DN 20 Kamboja (country): AN 3.70 Kammasadhamma (town): DN 15, DN 22, MN 106, AN 10.20 Kanha (private Buddha): MN 116 Kanhadinna, Ven.: Thag 2.30 Kankharevata, Ven. (Revata the Doubter): Ud 5.7, Thag 1.3 Kannakathala (city): MN 90 Kapadika (brahman student): MN 95 [goes for refuge] Kapilavata (deva city): DN 32 Kapilavatthu (city): DN 16, DN 20, MN 14, MN 18, MN 53, MN 122, SN 22.80, SN 55.21, SN 55.22, SN 55.40, SN 35.202, AN 3.73, AN 8.25, AN 10.46, AN 11.12, AN 11.13 Kappa (brahman ascetic): Sn 5.10 Kappa, Ven.: Thag 10.5 Kappina, Ven. Maha: MN 118 Karamvi (forest): Thag 1.22 Karatiya (yakkha): DN 32 Kasi (country): Mv 10.2.3-20, DN 12, MN 70, MN 87, SN 3.14, SN 3.15, AN 3.70, AN 10.29, Thig 14, Ud 6.2, Thag 5.9 Kasi Bharadvaja (brahman): Sn 1.4; [goes for refuge and goes forth; becomes an arahant] Kassapa (a previous Buddha; the sixth of the Buddhas mentioned in the Canon): DN 32, AN 5.180 Kassapa (brahman sage): MN 95, AN 7.49 Kassapa, Ven. Maha (a.k.a. "Father of the Sangha"; former husband to Bhadda Kapilani): DN 16, MN 118, SN 16.5, SN 46.14, Thag 18, Ud 1.6, Ud 3.7 [for a biography see Maha Kassapa: Father of the Sangha] Kassapa (clothless ascetic): SN 12.17 [goes for refuge; goes forth; becomes an arahant] Katissabha: DN 16 Katthaka (devas): DN 20 Kesaputta (city): MN 82, AN 3.65 Kesi (private Buddha): MN 116 Kesi the horsetrainer: AN 4.111; [goes for refuge] Ketuma (private Buddha): MN 116 Ketumbaraga (private Buddha): MN 116 Kevatta the householder: DN 11 Khema, Ven.: AN 6.49 Khema, Ven. Sister: SN 44.1 Khemabhirata (private Buddha): MN 116 Khemaka, Ven.: SN 22.89 Khemiya (devas): DN 20 Khitaka, Ven.: Thag 1.104 Khujjuttara (servant to Queen Samavati; praised by the Buddha as being foremost among the female lay disciples in terms of her learning): Itivuttaka (Translator's Introduction) Kimbila, Ven.: Kimbila (Thag 1.118) Kimikala (river): Ud 4.1 Kimila, Ven.: AN 7.56 Kinnughandu (deva): DN 20, DN 32 Kisa Gotami, Ven. Sister: SN 5.3, Thig 10; ThigA X.1; [becomes a stream-enterer; becomes an arahant] Kitagiri (town): MN 70 Kokanuda (wandering ascetic): AN 10.96 Kolita (given name of Ven. Moggallana): see Ven. Moggallana Koliyan (clan): DN 16, MN 57, AN 8.54 Komarabhacca, Jivaka: DN 2 Konagamana (previous Buddha; the fifth of the Buddhas mentioned in the Canon): DN 32 Kondaa, Ven.: SN 56.11, Ud 7.6, Thag 21; [becomes a stream-winner; becomes an arahant] Koravya, King.: MN 82 Kosala (private Buddha): MN 116 Kosala (country): Mv 10.2.3-20, DN 12, MN 41, MN 87, SN 4.20, SN 7.17, SN 7.18, SN 9.1, SN 9.6, SN 9.11, SN 9.14, SN 42.9, AN 3.65, AN 5.30, AN 6.42, AN 7.68, AN 8.86 AN 10.29, Sn 3.1, Ud 5.9, Thag 5.9 Kosambi: DN 16, SN 22.81, SN 22.89, SN 35.127, SN 35.193, SN 51.15, SN 56.31, SN 48.53, AN 3.72, AN 4.159, AN 4.170, AN 5.159, AN 9.37, Ud 4.5 Ud 7.10 Kotigama (village): DN 16 Kotthita, Ven. Maha: MN 43, MN 118, SN 12.25, SN 22.122, SN 35.191, SN 44.3, SN 44.4, SN 44.5, SN 44.6, AN 4.174, AN 9.13, Thag 1.2 Kukkata (monastery): MN 52, AN 11.17 Kumbhira (deva): DN 20 Kuru (country): DN 15, DN 22, MN 82, MN 106 AN 3.70, AN 10.20 Kusavati (city; later became Kusinara): DN 16 Kusinara (city; formerly Kusavati): DN 16, SN 6.15 Kusinata (deva city): DN 32 Kutiviharin, Ven.: Thag 1.56 Kuvera (deva king): DN 20, DN 32

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Lama (devas): DN 20 Lambitaka (devas): DN 20 Licchavi (clan): DN 16, MN 12, MN 86, SN 55.30, SN 56.45 Lohicca (brahman): DN 12; [goes for refuge] Lomahamsa (private Buddha): MN 116 Lumbini (Buddha's birthplace): Sn 3.11

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Maccha (country): AN 3.70 Macchikasanda (city): SN 41.3, SN 41.4, SN 41.6, SN 41.7 Maddakucchi (deer reserve): SN 1.38, SN 4.13 Magadha (country): DN 16, MN 14, MN 26, MN 108, MN 140, SN 38.14, SN 47.13, AN 3.70, AN 4.35, AN 4.183, AN 5.114, AN 7.58, Sn 1.4, Sn 3.1, Iti 24, Thag 5.9 Madhura (town): AN 2.38 Magandiya (wandering ascetic): MN 75, Sn 4.9 [goes for refuge; goes forth; becomes an arahant] Mahaka, Ven.: SN 41.4 Mahakala, Ven.: Thag 2.16 Mahali the Licchavi: SN 22.60 Mahanama (private Buddha): MN 116 Mahanama, the Sakyan (a cousin to the Buddha; brother of Ven. Anuruddha): MN 14, MN 53, SN 55.21, SN 55.22, AN 3.73, AN 8.25, AN 11.12, AN 11.13 Mahapajapati Gotami, Ven. Sister (Buddha's aunt and stepmother): MN 146, AN 8.53, Thig 6.6 Mahasudassana, King: DN 16 Mahi (river): AN 10.15, Ud 5.5 Majjha: Thig 6.5 Makkhali Gosala: DN 2 (1), DN 2 (2), DN 16, SN 3.1, SN 44.9 Makuta-bandhana (Buddha's cremation site): DN 16 Malla (clan): DN 16, SN 6.15, SN 42.11, AN 3.70, AN 9.41, Ud 7.9 Mallika, Queen: DN 9, MN 78, MN 87, AN 5.49, Ud 5.1; [dies] Malunkyaputta, Ven.: MN 63, SN 35.95; [becomes an arahant] Manatthaddha (private Buddha): MN 116 Mandiya (yakkha): DN 32 Mangala (private Buddha): MN 116 Maniculaka: SN 42.10 Manomaya (private Buddha): MN 116 Mantani (clan): MN 86 Manusa (devas): DN 20 Mara (a.k.a. Namuci, "Kinsman of the heedless"): DN 16, DN 20, DN 32, MN 26, MN 34, MN 106, SN 4.8, SN 4.19, SN 4.20, SN 5.1, SN 5.2, SN 5.3, SN 5.4, SN 5.5, SN 5.6, SN 5.7, SN 5.8, SN 5.9, SN 5.10, SN 6.2, SN 17.3, SN 35.115, SN 35.189, SN 35.199, SN 35.202, SN 35.207, SN 47.6, SN 47.7, SN 56.11, AN 4.49, AN 7.63, Dhp 7, Dhp 34, Dhp 37, Dhp 40, Dhp 46, Dhp 57, Dhp 104, Dhp 175, Dhp 274, Dhp 337, Dhp 350, Iti 38, Iti 46, Iti 57, Iti 58, Iti 59, Iti 62, Iti 68, Iti 82, Iti 93, Sn 3.2, Sn 3.12, Sn 4.9, Sn 5.10, Thag 1.25, Thag 21, Thig 6.7, Thig 13.5; [tries to outwit the Buddha: SN 4; tries to outwit the nuns: SN 5] Matali (yakkha): DN 20, DN 32, SN 11.4

Matanga (private Buddha): MN 116 Matanga (wilderness area): Dhp 329, Sn 1.3 Matangaputta, Ven.: Thag 3.5 Maya (deva): DN 20 Medakathalika (acrobat; a.k.a. "Frying Pan"): SN 47.19 Megha (private Buddha): MN 116 Meghiya, Ven.: Ud 4.1 Meru (mountain): DN 32, Sn 3.11 Methula (private Buddha): MN 116 Mettagu (brahman ascetic): Sn 5.4 Migacira (garden): MN 82 Migajala, Ven.: SN 35.63 Migara: AN 3.66 Migara's Mother's Palace (see also Visakha, a.k.a. "Migara's Mother"): MN 26, MN 107, MN 109, MN 110, MN 118, MN 121, SN 48.41, AN 3.66, AN 3.70, AN 8.43, Sn 3.12, Ud 2.9, Ud 5.5, Ud 6.2, Ud 8.8 Migara Rohaneyya: AN 7.7 Mithila (city): Thig 6.2 Mittakali, Ven. Sister: Thig 5.6 Moggallana, Ven. Maha (Kolita; praised by the Buddha as being foremost among the bhikkhus in terms of his mastery of psychic powers; he and Ven. Sariputta were the Buddha's two chief disciples): Mv 1.23.1, MN 118, MN 141, SN 44.7, SN 35.202, AN 7.58, Ud 3.5, Ud 4.4, Ud 5.5; Thag 17.2, Thag 21; [becomes a stream-winner; for a biography see Life of Maha-Moggallana] Moggallana (the guardsman): MN 108 Mogharaja (brahman ascetic): Sn 5.15 Moilya Phagguna: SN 12.12 Moliyasivaka (brahman ascetic): SN 36.21; AN 6.47; [goes for refuge: SN 36.21, AN 6.47] Mori (clan): DN 16 Muccalinda, the naga king: Ud 2.1 Mundika: MN 78 Musila, Ven.: SN 12.68 Mutta, Ven. Sister: Thig 1.11

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Nabhasa (lake): DN 20 Nadika (city): DN 16, AN 6.19, AN 11.10 Nagaraka (town): MN 121 Nagasamala, Ven.: MN 12 Nagita, Ven.: AN 5.30, AN 6.42, AN 8.86, Thag 1.86 Nakula's parents (praised by the Buddha for their unwavering faithfulness to each other {2}): AN 4.55, AN 6.16 Nakulapita (Nakula's father): SN 22.1 Nala (yakkha): DN 20, DN 32 Nalaka: Sn 3.11 Nalaka (village): SN 38.14, SN 47.13 Nalanda (city): DN 11, DN 16, SN 42.6, SN 42.8, SN 42.9 Nalijangha (brahman): MN 87 Namuci (a.k.a. Mara): Sn 3.2 Namuci (asura demon): DN 20 Nanda (private Buddha): MN 116 Nanda, Ven. Sister (praised by the Buddha as being foremost among the bhikkhunis in terms of her mastery of jhana {1}): DN 16, Thig 5.4 Nanda, Ven. (half-brother of the Buddha): Ud 3.2; [becomes an arahant] Nanda (brahman ascetic): Sn 5.7 Nanda (cowherd): SN 35.200; [goes forth;becomes an arahant] Nandaka, Ven.: MN 146, AN 3.66, Thag 2.27 Nandaka (chief minister of the Licchavi clan): SN 55.30 Nandana (deva garden): SN 9.6, SN 55.1, AN 5.34 Nandiya, Ven.: Thag 1.25 Nandiya (a Sakyan): SN 55.40 Narada, Ven.: SN 12.68 Nata: DN 2 Natapuriya (deva city): DN 32 Navakammika Bharadvaja (brahman): SN 7.17; [goes for refuge] atika (town): SN 44.11 Navanavati (deva city): DN 32 Nemi (yakkha): DN 32 Nemisa (private Buddha): MN 116 Nerajara (river): SN 6.1, SN 6.2, Sn 3.2, Ud 1.1, Ud 1.2, Ud 1.3, Ud 2.1, Ud 3.10 Netti (yakkha): DN 32 Nigahandu (yakkha): DN 32 Nigantha Nataputta (Jain teacher; see also Niganthas): DN 2 (1), DN 2 (2), DN 16, MN 14, MN 58, SN 3.1, SN 42.8, SN 42.9, SN 44.9 Niganthas (Jains; see also Nigantha Nataputta): AN 3.70, MN 14 Nigrodha, Ven.: Thag 1.21 Nigrodhakappa, Ven.: Thag 21 Nigrodha Park: SN 55.21, SN 55.22, AN 8.25 Nikata: DN 16 Nimmanarati (devas): DN 11, DN 20, SN 56.11 Niraya (hell): Sn 2.6, Sn 2.10 Nita, Ven.:Thag 1.84 Nitha (private Buddha): MN 116

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Ojasi (yakkha): DN 32 Okkala (city): MN 117 Opamanna (yakkha): DN 32

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Pabbata (private Buddha): MN 116 Pacetana, King: AN 3.15 Paduma (private Buddha): MN 116 Padumuttara (private Buddha): MN 116 Paharada (asura demon): DN 20 Pajapati (deva king): DN 32, MN 1, MN 22, SN 11.3, SN 22.79, AN 11.10 Pajjota, King: MN 108 Pajunna (yakkha): DN 20, DN 32 Pakudha Kaccayana: DN 2 (1), DN 2 (2), DN 16, SN 3.1, SN 44.9 Panada (deva): DN 20 Panada (yakkha): DN 32 Pandava (mountain): MN 116, Sn 3.1, Thag 1.41 Panga (private Buddha): MN 116 Pacakanga (carpenter to King Pasenadi): MN 59, MN 59, MN 78, SN 36.19 Pacala (country): AN 3.70 Pacalacanda (deva's son): SN 2.7 Pacalacanda (yakkha): DN 32 Pacasikha (deva): DN 20 Paraga (devas): DN 20 Parakusinata (deva city): DN 32 Paramatta (brahma): DN 20 Paranimmita-vasavatti (devas): DN 11, DN 20, SN 56.11 Parasiri (Parasivi): MN 152 Parileyyaka (Palileyyaka) (city): SN 22.85, Ud 4.5 Pasenadi (king of Kosala; uncle of King Ajatasattu): DN 12, MN 24, MN 86, MN 87, MN 90, SN 3.1, SN 3.4, SN 3.5, SN 3.6, SN 3.7, SN 3.13, SN 3.14, SN 3.15, SN 3.17, SN 3.19, SN 3.20, SN 3.23, SN 3.24, SN 3.25, SN 44.1, AN 5.49, AN 10.29, Ud 2.2, Ud 2.6, Ud 2.9, Ud 5.1, Ud 6.2; [goes for refuge] Passin (private Buddha): MN 116 Pasura: Sn 4.8 Patacara, Ven. Sister (praised by the Buddha as being foremost among the bhikkhunis in terms of her mastery of Vinaya {2}): Thig 5.10, Thig 5.11, Thig 5.12, Thig 6.1 Pataligama (village): DN 16 Pataliputta (city): DN 16, MN 52, AN 11.17 Patibhana ("Inspiration" peak): SN 56.42 Pava (city): DN 16, AN 10.176 Pavarika's mango grove: DN 11, DN 16, SN 42.6, SN 42.8 Pavatta (private Buddha): MN 116 Pavatta (mountain): Ud 5.6 Pavittha, Ven.: SN 12.68 Payaga (city): DN 20 Payaga (river): MN 7 Pekhuniya: AN 3.66 Pigeon Cave: Ud 4.4 Pilotika Vacchayana: MN 27 Pindola (private Buddha): MN 116 Pindola Bharadvaja, Ven.: SN 35.127, Ud 4.6; [goes for refuge] Pingiya (brahman ascetic): Sn 5.16 Pipphali Cave: Ud 1.6, Ud 3.7 Pipphalivana (city): DN 16 Piyadassi (private Buddha): MN 116 Posala (brahman ascetic): Sn 5.14 Potaliputta: MN 136 Potthapada: DN 9; [goes for refuge] Pukkusa: DN 16 Pukkusati, Ven.: MN 140; [killed by a cow] Punabbasu, Ven.: MN 70 Punna, Ven.: SN 35.88; [becomes an arahant; dies] Punna Mantaniputta, Ven.: MN 24, SN 22.83 Punna, Ven. Sister: Thig 1.3 Punna (ox-duty ascetic): MN 57; [goes for refuge] Punnaka (yakkha): DN 32 Punnaka (brahman ascetic): AN 4.41, Sn 5.3 Punnamasa, Ven.: Thag 2.26 Punnika, Ven. Sister: Thig 12 Purana Kassapa: DN 2 (1), DN 2 (2), DN 16, SN 3.1, SN 22.60, SN 44.9

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Radha, Ven.: SN 23.2 Rahu (asura king): AN 4.50 Rahula, Ven. (son of the Buddha): MN 61, MN 62, MN 147, Sn 2.11, Thag 4.8; [becomes an arahant] Raja (yakkha): DN 32 Rajadatta, Ven.: Thag 5.1 Rajagaha (city): Mv 1.23.1, DN 2, DN 16, DN 20, DN 31, MN 14, MN 24, MN 44, MN 58, MN 61, MN 74, MN 108, MN 116, MN 125, MN 126, MN 136, MN 140, MN 141, MN 146, SN 1.20, SN 1.38, SN 2.19, SN 4.13, SN 7.2, SN 10.8, SN 12.17, SN 12.70, SN 16.5, SN 21.10, SN 35.69, SN 36.21, SN 42.2, SN 42.10, SN 46.14, SN 46.16, SN 56.42, AN 4.35, AN 4.183, AN 6.41, AN 6.55, AN 7.21, AN 8.26, AN 9.7, AN 9.34, AN 10.96, Sn 3.1, Ud 1.6, Ud 3.7, Ud 4.4, Ud 4.9, Ud 5.3, Ud 6.8 Rakkhita (private Buddha): MN 116 Ramagama (village): DN 16 Ramaneyyaka, Ven.: Thag 1.49 Rammaka (brahman): MN 26 Ratthapala, Ven.: MN 82 Revata the Doubter see Ven. Kankharevata Revata, Ven. Maha: MN 118, Thag 14.1 Rohana (Pekhuniya's grandson): AN 3.66 Rohini, Ven. Sister Thig 13.2 Rohitassa (son of a deva): AN 4.45 Roja (devas): DN 20 Roruva (hell realm): SN 3.20 Rosika (the barber): DN 12 Rucira (devas): DN 20

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Sabhiya Kaccana, Ven.: SN 44.11 Saccaka Aggivessana: MN 36 Saccanama (private Buddha): MN 116 Sadamatta (devas): DN 20 Sahabhu (devas): DN 20 Sahadhamma (devas): DN 20 Sahajati (city): AN 10.24 Sahali (deva): DN 20 Sahampati, Brahma: MN 26, DN 16, SN 6.1, SN 6.2, SN 6.13, SN 6.15, SN 22.80 Saketa (city): DN 16, MN 24, SN 44.1, AN 4.24, AN 9.37, Thig 6.4 Sakka (deva king; a.k.a. Vasava, "powerful"; born of the Kosiya clan): DN 16, DN 20, DN 21, SN 6.15, SN 11.3, SN 11.4, SN 11.5, SN 35.207, Sn 2.14, Thag 21, Thig 13.5, Ud 3.7 [becomes a stream-winner] Sakkara (town): SN 45.2 Sakula (sister of Soma): MN 90 Sakyan (clan): DN 16, DN 20, MN 14, MN 18, MN 53, MN 101, MN 122, SN 22.2, SN 22.80, SN 45.2, SN 55.21, SN 55.22, SN 55.40, AN 3.73, AN 8.25, AN 10.46, AN 11.12, AN 11.13 Sala (village in Kosala): MN 41 Salavatika (town): DN 12 Salha (Migara's grandson): AN 3.66 Salha, Ven.: DN 16 Samana (devas): DN 20 Samavati, Queen (married to King Udena; praised by the Buddha as being foremost among the female lay disciples in terms of her embodiment of loving-kindness {2}): Ud 7.10, Itivuttaka (Translator's Introduction) Samiddhi, Ven.: MN 136, SN 1.20, AN 9.14 Sanankumara (brahma): DN 20, MN 53 Sandha, Ven.: AN 11.10 Sangarava (brahman): AN 3.60; [goes for refuge] Sangha (private Buddha): MN 116 Sanjatiya (town): AN 6.46 Sankicca, Ven.: Thag 11 Santacitta (private Buddha): MN 116 Santusita (deva): DN 11 Santuttha: DN 16 Sajaya (brahman of Akasa clan): MN 90 Sajaya Belatthaputta: Mv 1.23.1, DN 2 (1), DN 2 (2), DN 16, SN 3.1, SN 44.9 Sappadasa, Ven.: Thag 6.6 Sarabhanga (private Buddha): MN 116 Sarabhu (river): AN 10.15, Ud 5.5 Sarandada (shrine): DN 16 Sarassati (river): MN 7 Sariputta, Ven. (Upatissa; a.k.a. the "Marshal of the Dhamma"; praised by the Buddha as being foremost among the bhikkhus in terms of his discernment {2}; he and Ven. Moggallana were the Buddha's two chief disciples): Mv 1.23.1, DN 16, MN 9, MN 12, MN 24, MN 28, MN 43, MN 111, MN 118, MN 141, MN 143, SN 12.25, SN 12.31, SN 12.67, SN 21.2, SN 22.1, SN 22.2, SN 22.85, SN 22.122, SN 35.69, SN 35.191, SN 38.14, SN 44.3, SN 44.4, SN 44.5, SN 44.6, SN 47.13, SN 48.44, AN 4.79, AN 4.174, AN 4.179, AN 5.162, AN 5.176, AN 5.179, AN 6.41, AN 7.49, AN 9.13, AN 9.14, AN 9.34, AN 10.7, Ud 4.4, Ud 4.7, Ud 4.10, Ud 7.1, Ud 7.2, Sn 4.16, Thag 6.10, Thag 21; [becomes a stream-winner; dies; for a biography see The Life of Sariputta] Sata (mountain): DN 20 Satagira (yakkha): DN 32 Sattambaka (shrine): DN 16 Sattapanni (cave): DN 16 Sattha (private Buddha): MN 116 Satullapa (deva): SN 1.38 Savatthi (city): DN 9, DN 16, MN 2, MN 4, MN 7, MN 8, MN 9, MN 11, MN 13, MN 19, MN 20, MN 21, MN 22, MN 24, MN 26, MN 27, MN 28, MN 33, MN 43, MN 59, MN 62, MN 63, MN 72, MN 78, MN 86, MN 87, MN 107, MN 109, MN 110, MN 111, MN 117, MN 118, MN 119, MN 121, MN 135, MN 137, MN 138, MN 146, MN 149, SN 1.1, SN 1.41, SN 2.7, SN 3.1, SN 3.4, SN 3.5, SN 3.6, SN 3.7, SN 3.14, SN 3.15, SN 3.17, SN 3.19, SN 3.20, SN 3.23, SN 3.24, SN 3.25, SN 4.8, SN 4.19, SN 5.1, SN 5.2, SN 5.3, SN 5.4, SN 5.5, SN 5.6, SN 5.7, SN 5.8, SN 5.9, SN 5.10, SN 7.6, SN 7.14, SN 8.4, SN 11.3, SN 11.5, SN 12.11, SN 12.12, SN 12.46, SN 12.61, SN 13.1, SN 13.2, SN 13.8, SN 12.19, SN 12.25, SN 12.48, SN 12.31, SN 12.44, SN 12.52, SN 15.3, SN 15.9, SN 15.11, SN 15.12, SN 15.14, SN 12.2, SN 12.15, SN 12.20, SN 12.23, SN 12.64, SN 12.65, SN 15.3, SN 16.13, SN 17.5, SN 17.8, SN 20.2, SN 20.4, SN 20.5, SN 20.6, SN 20.7, SN 21.2, SN 22.5, SN 22.22, SN 22.23, SN 22.36, SN 22.39, SN 22.40, SN 22.41, SN 22.42, SN 22.48, SN 22.53, SN 22.54, SN 22.57, SN 22.58, SN 22.79, SN 22.83, SN 22.84, SN 22.85, SN 22.93, SN 22.99, SN 22.100, SN 22.101, SN 22.121, SN 23.2, SN 35.63, SN 35.197, SN 44.1, SN 45.1, SN 45.8, SN 47.13, SN 48.41, SN 48.44, SN 52.10, SN 54.6, SN 54.13, SN 55.1, AN 3.51, AN 3.52, AN 3.66, AN 3.70, AN 3.71, AN 4.45, AN 4.67, AN 5.28, AN 5.49, AN 6.49, AN 5.51, AN 8.43, AN 9.1, AN 10.70, AN 10.71, AN 10.93, AN 10.94, AN 11.1, AN 10.51, AN 10.60, Sn 2.4, Sn 2.14, Sn 3.3, Sn 3.12, Ud 1.10, Ud 2.2, Ud 2.3, Ud 2.4, Ud 2.5, Ud 2.6, Ud 2.7, Ud 2.9, Ud 3.1, Ud 3.2, Ud 3.3, Ud 3.4, Ud 3.5, Ud 3.8, Ud 4.6, Ud 4.7, Ud 4.10, Ud 5.1, Ud 5.2, Ud 5.4, Ud 5.5, Ud 5.6, Ud 5.7, Ud 5.10, Ud 6.2, Ud 6.3, Ud 6.4, Ud 6.5, Ud 6.6, Ud 6.7, Ud 6.8, Ud 6.9, Ud 7.1, Ud 7.2, Ud 7.3, Ud 7.4, Ud 7.6, Ud 8.1, Ud 8.2, Ud 8.3, Ud 8.4, Ud 8.8, Ud 8.9, Ud 8.10 Sayha (private Buddha): MN 116 Sedaka (town): SN 47.19, SN 47.20 Sela, Ven. Sister: SN 5.9 Seniya (dog-duty ascetic): MN 57; [goes for refuge; becomes an arahant] Serisakka (yakkha): DN 32 Setabya (city): AN 4.36 Sidari (private Buddha): MN 116 Sigala: DN 31; [goes for refuge] Siha, General: AN 5.34 Sikhi (a previous Buddha; the second of the Buddhas mentioned in the Canon): DN 32 Sikhi (private Buddha): MN 116 Simsapa (forest): SN 56.31 Sindh (region): Dhp 322 Sineru (mountain): SN 22.99, Thig 14.1 Singalapita, Ven.: Thag 1.18 Sirimanda, Ven.: Thag 6.13 Sirivaddha, Ven.: Thag 1.41 Sisupacala, Ven. Sister: SN 5.8 Sivaka, Ven.: Thag 1.14 Sivaka (yakkha): DN 32, SN 10.8 Sobhita (private Buddha): MN 116 Soma (sister of Sakula): MN 90 Soma, Ven. Sister: SN 5.2 Soma (yakkha): DN 32 Sona, Ven. Sister: (mother of ten; praised by the Buddha as being foremost among the bhikkhunis in terms of her energetic courage {1}): Thig 5.8 Sona Kolivisa, Ven.: AN 6.55, Sn 1.12 (n. 9); [becomes an arahant] Sona Kotikanna: Ud 5.6; [goes forth] Sona Potiriyaputta, Ven.: Thag 2.37 Sorata (private Buddha): MN 116 Subahu (private Buddha): MN 116 Subha (private Buddha): MN 116 Subha, Ven. Sister: Thig 13.5, Thig 14 Subha (brahman, son of Todeyya): MN 135; [goes for refuge] Subhadda (lay follower): DN 16 Subhadda, Ven. ("the Wanderer"; the last bhikkhu ordained by the Buddha): DN 16; [goes for refuge; goes forth; becomes an arahant] Subhadda, Ven.: DN 16 Subhuti, Ven.: Ud 6.7, Thag 1.1 Subrahma (brahma): DN 20 Sucitti (asura demon): DN 20 Sudassana (private Buddha): MN 116 Sudassana (brahman youth): SN 3.13 Sudatha (private Buddha): MN 116 Sudatta: DN 16 Sudatta see Anathapindika Suddhodana (Buddha's father): Sn 3.11 Sujata, Ven. Sister: Thig 6.4 Sujata (laywoman): DN 16 Sujata (asura maiden): Ud 3.7 Suleyya (devas): DN 20 Sumana, Ven.: AN 6.49 Sumana the Novice: Thag 6.10 Sumana (yakkha): DN 32 Sumangala (private Buddha): MN 116 Sumangala, Ven.: Thag 1.43 Sumangala's Mother: Thig 2.3 Sumbha (private Buddha): MN 116 Sumbha (people): SN 47.19, SN 47.20 Sumukha (yakkha): DN 32 Sunaga, Ven.: Thag 1.85 Sunakkhatta (the Licchavin): MN 12, MN 105 Sunaparanta (country): SN 35.88 Sundara (private Buddha): MN 116 Sundara Samudda, Ven.: Thag 7.1 Sundarika (river): MN 7 Sundarika Bharadvaja, Ven.: MN 7; [goes for refuge; goes forth; becomes an arahant] Sunidha (brahman): DN 16 Sunimmita (deva): DN 11 Sunita the Outcaste: Thag 12.2 Supanna (garuda): DN 20 Suppabuddha (the leper): Ud 5.3; [becomes a stream-winner] Suppagedha (yakkha): DN 32 Supparaka (city): Ud 1.10 Suppatitthita (private Buddha): MN 116 Suppiya, Ven.: Thag 1.32 Surasena (country): AN 3.70 Suriyavacchasa (deva): DN 20 Suro (yakkha): DN 32 Susarada, Ven.: Thag 1.75 Susima, Ven.: SN 12.70; [goes forth] Sutava (private Buddha): MN 116 Sutavan, Ven.: AN 9.7 Suyama (deva): DN 11

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Tacchaka (city): DN 20 Tadadhimutta (private Buddha): MN 116 Tagarasikhi (private Buddha): MN 116, SN 3.20, Ud 5.3 Talaputa (the actor): SN 42.2, Thag 19; [goes for refuge; aspires to "go forth"] Tapoda (monastery and hot springs): DN 16, SN 1.20, AN 10.96 Tapussa the householder: AN 9.41 Tatha (private Buddha): MN 116 Tatojasi (yakkha): DN 32 Tatola (yakkha): DN 32 Tattala (yakkha): DN 32 Tejasi (yakkha): DN 32 Thera, Ven.: SN 21.10 Thullakotthita (city): MN 82 Thuna (village): Ud 7.9 Timbaru (deva): DN 20 Tissa (private Buddha): MN 116 Tissa, Ven. (a paternal cousin of the Buddha): SN 22.84, Thag 1.39 Tissa (brahma): DN 20 Tissa-metteyya (brahman ascetic): Sn 4.7, Sn 5.2 Todeyya (brahman ascetic): MN 135, Sn 5.9 Toranavatthu (village): SN 44.1 Tusita (devas): DN 20, SN 56.11, Sn 4.16 Tuttha: DN 16

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Ubbiri, Ven. Sister: Thig 3.5 Uccangamaya (private Buddha): MN 116 Uccaya (private Buddha): MN 116 Udaa (town): MN 90 Udaya (brahman ascetic): Sn 5.13 Udayibhadda, Prince (son of King Ajatasattu): DN 2 (1), DN 2 (2) Udayin, Ven. (a.k.a. Kaludayin): MN 59, MN 59, MN 66, MN 136, SN 36.19, SN 35.193, AN 5.159, AN 9.34, AN 9.43, AN 9.44, AN 9.45, Thag 10.1, Thag 15.2 Uddaka Ramaputta (Buddha's second meditation teacher): MN 13, MN 26 Udena, King (King of Kosambi; married to Queen Samavati): SN 35.127, Ud 7.10 Udena (shrine): DN 16 Ugga: AN 7.7 Uggahamana: MN 78 Ukkattha (city): MN 1, AN 4.36 Unnabha the Brahman: SN 51.15; [goes for refuge] Upacala, Ven. Sister: SN 5.7 Upaka (Ajivaka): MN 26 Upakala (private Buddha): MN 116 Upali, Ven.: AN 7.80 Upananda (private Buddha): MN 116 Upanemisa (private Buddha): MN 116 Upanita (private Buddha): MN 116 Uparittha (private Buddha): MN 116 Upasabha (private Buddha): MN 116 Upasena, Ven.: SN 35.69 Upasena Vangantaputta, Ven.: Ud 4.9 Upasidari (private Buddha): MN 116 Upasiva (brahman ascetic): Sn 5.6 Upatissa (private Buddha): MN 116 Upatissa (given name of Ven. Sariputta): see Ven. Sariputta Upavana, Ven.: DN 16 Upavattana: DN 16, SN 6.15 Uposatha (private Buddha): MN 116 Uppala (private Buddha): MN 116 Uppalavanna, Ven. Sister (praised by the Buddha as being foremost among the bhikkhunis in terms of her mastery of psychic powers {2}): SN 5.5, Thig 13.5 Uruvela (city): MN 26, SN 6.1, SN 6.2, Ud 1.1, Ud 1.2, Ud 1.3, Ud 3.10 Uruvelakappa (city): SN 42.11, AN 9.41 Usabha (private Buddha): MN 116 Uttama, Ven. Sister: Thig 3.2 Uttara (private Buddha): MN 116 Uttara (the Deva's son): SN 2.19 Uttara (brahman; son of Parasiri): MN 152 Uttarakuru (northern continent): DN 32 Uttiya (wandering ascetic): AN 10.95

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Vacchagotta (wandering ascetic): MN 72, SN 44.7, SN 44.8, SN 44.9, SN 44.10, SN 44.11, AN 3.57; [goes for refuge] Vaggamuda (river): Ud 3.3 Vajira, Ven. Sister: SN 5.10 Vajiri, Princess: MN 87 Vajji (country): DN 16, SN 9.9, AN 3.70, AN 4.1, Ud 3.3, Thag 5.9 Vajjiya Mahita: AN 10.94 Vakkali, Ven.: Thag 5.8 Valliya, Ven.: Thag 2.24 Vamadeva (brahman sage): MN 95, AN 7.49 Vamaka (brahman sage): MN 95, AN 7.49 Vanavaccha, Ven.: Thag 1.13, Thag 1.113 Vanavaccha's pupil: Thag 1.14 Vangisa, Ven.: SN 8.4, Sn 3.3 Vansa (country): AN 3.70 Varanasi (Baranasi; city): Mv 10.2.3-20, MN 26, SN 22.59, SN 22.90, SN 35.191, SN 44.3, SN 44.4, SN 44.5, SN 44.6, SN 56.11, AN 3.15, AN 3.126 Varuna (devas): DN 20 Varuna (yakkha): DN 32, SN 11.3 Vasabha, Queen: MN 87 Vasava (deva) see Sakka Vasavanesi (devas): DN 20 Vasavatti (deva): DN 11 Vasettha (brahman sage): MN 95, AN 7.49 Vasitthi, the madwoman: Thig 6.2 Vassa: MN 117 Vassakara, the brahman: DN 16, MN 108, AN 4.35, AN 4.183 Vataraga (private Buddha): MN 116 Vebhara (mountain): DN 16, MN 116, Thag 1.41 Vedehika, Lady: MN 21 Veghana (devas): DN 20 Velugvagamaka (town): MN 52, AN 11.17 Vendu (deva): DN 20 Vepacitti (asura demon): DN 20, SN 11.5, SN 35.207 Vepulla (mountain): DN 20, MN 116, Iti 24 Verambha (wind): AN 3.34 Veroca (asura demon): DN 20 Vesali (city): DN 16, DN 20, MN 12, MN 52, MN 105, MN 108, AN 3.123, AN 5.34, AN 5.121, AN 8.53, AN 11.17, SN 9.9, SN 22.60, SN 22.86, SN 36.7, SN 55.30, SN 56.45 Vessabhu (a previous Buddha; the third of the Buddhas mentioned in the Canon): DN 32 Vessamitta (brahman sage): MN 95, AN 7.49 Vessamitta (yakkha): DN 32 Vessamitta (land): DN 20 Vessavana, King: DN 32 Vetendu (deva): DN 20 Vethadipa (island): DN 16 Vicakkhana (devas): DN 20 Videha, Queen (mother of King Ajatasattu): DN 2, DN 16, SN 3.14 Vidudabha, General (son of King Pasenadi): MN 87, MN 90 Vijaya, Ven. Sister: SN 5.4 Vijita (private Buddha): MN 116 Vijitasena, Ven.: Thag 5.9 Vimala (private Buddha): MN 116 Vimala, the former courtesan: Thig 5.2 Vimila, Ven.:Thag 1.50 Vipassi (a previous Buddha; the first of the Buddhas mentioned in the Canon): DN 32 Virulha (a peta king): DN 20, DN 32 Virupakkha (naga king): DN 20, AN 4.67 Visakha (laywoman; a.k.a. "Migara's Mother"; chief patroness to the Buddha; see also Migara's Mother's Palace): AN 3.70, AN 8.43, Ud 2.9, Ud 8.8 Visakha (layman; former husband of Ven. Sister Dhammadinna): MN 44 Visana (deva kingdom): DN 32 Vitu (deva): DN 20 Vulture Peak: AN 7.21 AN 9.7 Vyagghapajja see Dighajanu

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Yama (deva): DN 11 (1, 2), DN 20, SN 56.11 Yamaka, Ven.: SN 22.85; [becomes an arahant] Yamataggi (brahman sage): MN 95, AN 7.49 Yamuna (river): DN 20, AN 10.15, Ud 5.5 Yasadatta, Ven.: Thag 5.10 Yasassi (private Buddha): MN 116 Yasoja, Ven.: Ud 3.3, Thag 3.8 Yodhajiva (warrior): SN 42.3; [goes for refuge] Yugandhara (yakkha): DN 32

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Sources

1. Buddhist Women at the Time of The Buddha, by Hellmuth Hecker (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1982). 2. Great Disciples of the Buddha: Their Lives, Their Works, Their Legacy, by Nyanaponika Thera and Hellmuth Hecker (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1997).


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Tipitaka :

General Index

This index can help you locate sutta translations, articles, transcribed talks, books, and other things on this website. This is not an exhaustive index: not every text is indexed here, nor have I included references to each and every occurrence of a given topic in the texts. Nevertheless, I hope you find it helpful in steering you in the right direction.

The tilde (~) stands for the head-word in a given entry. Short essays and individual chapters from books are shown in quotation marks. Books and longer works are shown in italics. Links to terms listed elsewhere in this index are shown in bold face.

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Index of Suttas

The suttas listed below are available here at Access to Insight. A handful of sutta-like passages from the Vinaya Pitaka are also listed here.

Sutta references are either to sutta number (in the case of DN, MN, and Iti), samyutta and sutta number (SN), nipata and sutta number (AN), verse number (Dhp), vagga and sutta number (Ud, Sn), or vagga and poem number (Thag, Thig). The translator's name appears in the square brackets []. Suttas marked with the SuttaReadings.net icon ( ) are regarded by senior Theravada Buddhist teachers as being especially noteworthy. Click on the icon to visit SuttaReadings.net and hear a teacher read it aloud.

A B C D EF G H I J K L M N O PQ R S T U V WXYZ

A Abhasita Sutta: What Was Not Said (AN 2.23) [Thanissaro] Abhaya (Thag 1.26) [Thanissaro] Abhaya Sutta: Fearless (AN 4.184) [Thanissaro] Abhaya Sutta (Abhaya-raja-kumara Sutta): To Prince Abhaya (On Right Speech) (MN 58) [Thanissaro] Abhibhuta (Thag 3.13) [Thanissaro] Abhisanda Sutta: Bonanzas (1) (SN 55.31) [Thanissaro] Abhisanda Sutta: Bonanzas (2) (SN 55.32) [Thanissaro] Abhisanda Sutta: Bonanzas (3) (SN 55.33) [Thanissaro] Abhisanda Sutta: Rewards (AN 8.39) [Thanissaro] Accayika Sutta: Urgent (AN 3.91) [Thanissaro] Acela Sutta: To the Clothless Ascetic (SN 12.17) [Thanissaro] Acintita Sutta: Unconjecturable (AN 4.77) [Thanissaro] Adanta Suttas: Untamed (AN 1.31-40) [Woodward] Adhimutta and the Bandits (Thag 16.1) [Thanissaro] Adhipataka Sutta: Insects (Ud 6.9) [Olendzki | Thanissaro] Adhipateyya Sutta: Governing Principles (AN 3.40) [Thanissaro] Aditta Sutta: (The House) On Fire (SN 1.41) [Thanissaro] Aditta-pariyaya Sutta: The Fire Sermon (SN 35.28) [anamoli | Thanissaro] Adiya Sutta: Benefits to be Obtained (From Wealth) (AN 5.41) [Thanissaro] Agara Sutta: The Guest-house (SN 36.14) [Nyanaponika] Agati Sutta: Off Course (AN 4.19) [Thanissaro] Aggikkhandopama Sutta: The Mass of Fire Comparison (AN 7.68) [Thanissaro] Aggi-Vacchagotta Sutta: To Vacchagotta on Fire (MN 72) [Thanissaro] Aghata Sutta: Hatred (AN 10.80) [Thanissaro] Aghatavinaya Sutta: Subduing Hatred (1) (AN 5.161) [anamoli | Thanissaro] Aghatavinaya Sutta: Subduing Hatred (2) (AN 5.162) [Thanissaro] Ahara Sutta: Nutriment (SN 12.11) [Nyanaponika | Thanissaro] Ahina Sutta: By a Snake (AN 4.67) [Piyadassi | Thanissaro] Ahu Sutta: It Was (Ud 6.3) [Thanissaro] Ajaniya Sutta: The Thoroughbred (AN 3.94) [Thanissaro] Ajaa Sutta: The Thoroughbred (AN 8.13) [Thanissaro] Ajita-manava-puccha: Ajita's Questions (Sn 5.1) [Ireland | Thanissaro] Ajivaka Sutta: To the Fatalists' Student (AN 3.72) [Thanissaro] Akankha Sutta: Wishes (AN 10.71) [Thanissaro] Akasa Sutta: In the Sky (1) (SN 36.12) [Nyanaponika] Akkhama Sutta: Not Resilient (AN 5.139) [Thanissaro] Akkosa Sutta: Insult/Bharadvaja the Abusive (SN 7.2) [Buddharakkhita | Thanissaro] Alagaddupama Sutta: The Snake Simile (MN 22) [Nyanaponika | Thanissaro] Alavaka Sutta: To the Alavaka Yakkha (SN 10.12) [Piyadassi | Thanissaro] Alavaka Sutta: To the Alavaka Yakkha (Sn 1.10) [Piyadassi | Thanissaro] Alavika Sutta: Sister Alavika (SN 5.1) [Bodhi | Thanissaro] Ambalatthika-rahulovada Sutta: Instructions to Rahula at Mango Stone (MN 61) [Thanissaro] Ambapali (Thig 13.1) [Thanissaro] Anagata-bhayani Sutta: Future Dangers (1) (AN 5.77) [Thanissaro] Anagata-bhayani Sutta: Future Dangers (2) (AN 5.78) [Thanissaro] Anagata-bhayani Sutta: Future Dangers (3) (AN 5.79) [Thanissaro] Anagata-bhayani Sutta: Future Dangers (4) (AN 5.80) [Thanissaro] Ananda (Thag 17.3) [Hecker/Khema | Olendzki] Anana Sutta: Debtless (AN 4.62) [Thanissaro] Ananda Sutta: Ananda (Instructions to Vangisa) (SN 8.4) [Thanissaro] Ananda Sutta: Ananda (SN 22.83) [Thanissaro] Ananda Sutta: To Ananda (on Self, No Self, and Not-self) (SN 44.10) [Thanissaro] Ananda Sutta: To Ananda (on Mindfulness of Breathing) (SN 54.13) [Thanissaro] Ananda Sutta: With Ananda (AN 9.37) [Thanissaro] Ananda Thera: Ananda's Grief (Thig 17.3) [Olendzki (excerpt)] Anapanasati Sutta: Mindfulness of Breathing (MN 118) [Thanissaro] Anathapindikovada Sutta: Instructions to Anathapindika (MN 143) [Olendzki (excerpt) | Thanissaro] Anatta-lakkhana Sutta: Discourse on the Not-self Characteristic (SN 22.59) [Mendis | anamoli | Thanissaro] Andhakavinda Sutta: Let the Wilderness Serve! (SN 6.13) [Olendzki (excerpt)] Andhakavinda Sutta: At Andhakavinda (AN 5.114) [Thanissaro] Andhakara Sutta: Darkness (SN 56.46) [Thanissaro] Aneja-sappaya Sutta: Conducive to the Imperturbable (MN 106) [Thanissaro] Anga Sutta: Factors (For Exertion) (AN 5.53) [Thanissaro] Angulimala Sutta: About Angulimala (MN 86) [Thanissaro] Angulimala Thera: The Moon Released (Thag 16.8) [Olendzki (excerpt)] Anguttara Nikaya: The Further-factored Discourses [Various] Ani Sutta: The Peg (SN 20.7) [Thanissaro] Anicca Sutta: Impermanent (SN 36.9) [Nyanaponika] Anisansa Sutta: Rewards (AN 6.97) [Thanissaro] Aakondaa (Thag 15.1) [Olendzki (excerpt)] Anodhi Sutta: Without Exception (1) (AN 6.102) [Thanissaro] Anodhi Sutta: Without Exception (2) (AN 6.103) [Thanissaro] Anodhi Sutta: Without Exception (3) (AN 6.104) [Thanissaro] Anopama, the Millionaire's Daughter (Thig 6.5) [Thanissaro] Anubuddha Sutta: Understanding (AN 4.1) [Thanissaro] Anudhamma Sutta In Accordance with the Dhamma (1) (SN 22.39) [Thanissaro] Anudhamma Sutta In Accordance with the Dhamma (2) (SN 22.40) [Thanissaro] Anudhamma Sutta In Accordance with the Dhamma (3) (SN 22.41) [Thanissaro] Anudhamma Sutta In Accordance with the Dhamma (4) (SN 22.42) [Thanissaro] Anugghita Sutta: Supported (AN 5.25) [Thanissaro] Anupada Sutta: One After Another (MN 111) [Thanissaro] Anuradha Sutta: To Anuradha (SN 22.86) [Thanissaro] Anuruddha Sutta: Anuruddha (SN 9.6) [Thanissaro] Anuruddha Sutta: To Anuruddha (AN 8.30) [Thanissaro] Anusaya Sutta: Obsessions (1) (AN 7.11) [Thanissaro] Anusaya Sutta: Obsessions (2) (AN 7.12) [Thanissaro] Anusota Sutta: With the Flow (AN 4.5) [Thanissaro] Aatra Sutta: A Certain Brahman (SN 12.46) [Thanissaro] Aparihani Sutta: No Falling Away (AN 4.37) [Thanissaro] Appaka Sutta: Few (SN 3.6) [Thanissaro] Appamada Sutta: Heedfulness (SN 3.17) [Thanissaro] Appativana: Relentlessly (AN 2.5) [Thanissaro] Appayuka Sutta: Short-lived (Ud 5.2) [Thanissaro] Aputtaka Sutta: Heirless (1) (SN 3.19) [Thanissaro] Aputtaka Sutta: Heirless (2) (SN 3.20) [Thanissaro] Arakenanusasani Sutta: Araka's Teaching (AN 7.70) [Thanissaro] Araa Sutta: The Wilderness (SN 1.10) [Ireland | Olendzki | Thanissaro] Araa Sutta: Wilderness (AN 5.98) [Thanissaro] Araika Sutta: A Wilderness Dweller (AN 4.259) [Thanissaro] Arittha Sutta: To Arittha (on Mindfulness of Breathing) (SN 54.6) [Thanissaro] Ariyamagga Sutta: The Noble Path (AN 4.235) [Thanissaro] Ariyapariyesana Sutta: The Noble Search (MN 26) [Thanissaro] Ariya-vamsa Sutta: The Traditions of the Noble Ones (AN 4.28) [Thanissaro] Ariyavasa Sutta: Dwellings of the Noble Ones (AN 4.20) [Thanissaro] Asivisa Sutta: Vipers (SN 35.197) [Thanissaro] Assu Sutta: Tears (SN 15.3) [Thanissaro] Assutava Sutta: Uninstructed (SN 12.61) [Thanissaro] Atanatiya Sutta: The Discourse on Atanatiya (DN 32) [Piyadassi] Attadanda Sutta: The Rod Embraced (Sn 4.15) [Ireland | Olendzki (excerpt) | Thanissaro] Atta-rakkhita Sutta: Self-protected (SN 3.5) [Thanissaro] Atthakanagara Sutta: To the Man from Atthakanagara (MN 52) [Thanissaro] Atthakarana Sutta: In Judgment (SN 3.7) [Thanissaro] Atthaka Vagga: The Octet Chapter (Sn 4) [Various] Atthakatha (Commentaries) Atthasata (Atthasattapariyaya) Sutta: One Hundred Eight Feelings (SN 36.22) [Nyanaponika | Thanissaro ] Atthi Raga Sutta: Where There is Passion (SN 12.64) [Nyanaponika | Thanissaro] Avarana Sutta: Obstacles (AN 5.51) [Thanissaro] Avaranata Sutta: Obstructions (AN 6.86) [Thanissaro] Avassuta Raga Sutta: Soggy (SN 35.202) [Thanissaro] Avijja Sutta: Ignorance (SN 35.80) [Thanissaro] Avijja Sutta: Ignorance (SN 45.1) [Thanissaro] Avijjapaccaya Sutta: From Ignorance as a Requisite Condition (SN 12.35) [Thanissaro] Avyakata Sutta: Undeclared (AN 7.51) [Thanissaro] Ayacana Sutta: The Request (SN 6.1) [Thanissaro] Ayoniso-manasikara Sutta: Inappropriate Attention (SN 9.11) [Thanissaro]

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B Bahiya Sutta: About Bahiya (Ud 1.10) [Ireland | Thanissaro] Bahuna Sutta: To Bahuna (AN 10.81) [Thanissaro] Bahuvedaniya Sutta: Many Things to be Experienced/The Many Kinds of Feeling (MN 59) [Nyanaponika | Thanissaro] Bahuvedaniya Sutta: The Many Kinds of Feeling (SN 36.19) [Nyanaponika] Bala Sutta: Fools (AN 2.98) [Thanissaro] Bala-pandita Sutta: The Fool & the Wise Person (SN 12.19) [Thanissaro] Bala-pandita Sutta: Fools & Wise People (AN 2.21) [Thanissaro] Balisika Sutta: The Fisherman (SN 35.189) [Thanissaro] Belatthasisa (Thag 1.16) [Hecker/Khema | Thanissaro] Bhabba Sutta: Capable (AN 9.62) [Thanissaro] Bhadda Kapilani (Thig 4.1) [Hecker/Khema] Bhadda Kundalakesa, the Former Jain Ascetic (Thig 5.9) [Hecker/Khema] Bhaddekaratta Sutta: An Auspicious Day (MN 131) [anananda | Thanissaro] Bhaddiya Kaligodha Sutta: About Bhaddiya Kaligodha (Ud 2.10) [Ireland | Thanissaro] Bhaddiya Kaligodhayaputta (Thag 16.7) [Thanissaro] Bhaddiya Sutta: About Bhaddiya the Dwarf (1) (Ud 7.1) [Thanissaro] Bhaddiya Sutta: About Bhaddiya the Dwarf (2) (Ud 7.2) [Thanissaro] Bhadravudha-manava-puccha: Bhadravudha's Question (Sn 5.12) [Thanissaro] Bhalliya (Thag 1.7) [Thanissaro] Bhara Sutta: The Burden (SN 22.22) [Thanissaro] Bharadvaja Sutta: About Bharadvaja (SN 35.127) [Thanissaro] Bhaya Sutta: Danger (AN 3.62) [Thanissaro] Bhaya-bherava Sutta: Fear & Terror (MN 4) [Thanissaro] Bhikkhu Patimokkha: The Bhikkhus' Code of Discipline [Thanissaro] Bhikkhu Sutta: The Monk (On Identifying with the Aggregates) (SN 22.36) [Thanissaro] Bhikkhu Sutta: To a Certain Bhikkhu (SN 36.23) [Thanissaro] Bhikkhu-aparihaniya Sutta: Conditions for No Decline Among the Monks (AN 7.21) [Thanissaro] Bhikkhuni Patimokkha: The Bhikkhunis' Code of Discipline [Thanissaro] Bhikkhuni Sutta: The Nun (AN 4.159) [Thanissaro] Bhikkhunupassaya Sutta: Directed and Undirected meditation (SN 47.10) [Olendzki (excerpt)] Bhojana Sutta: A Meal (AN 5.37) [Thanissaro] Bhumija Sutta: To Bhumija (MN 126) [Thanissaro] Bhumija Sutta: To Bhumija (SN 12.25) [Thanissaro] Bhuta Thera: No Greater Contentment (Thag 9) [Olendzki] Bhutamidam Sutta: This Has Come Into Being (SN 12.31) [Nyanaponika | Thanissaro] Bija Sutta: Means of Propagation (SN 22.54) [Thanissaro] Bija Sutta: The Seed (AN 10.104) [Thanissaro] Bodhi Sutta: Awakening (1) (Ud 1.1) [Ireland | Thanissaro] Bodhi Sutta: Awakening (2) (Ud 1.2) [Ireland | Thanissaro] Bodhi Sutta: Awakening (3) (Ud 1.3) [Ireland | Thanissaro] Brahmadatta (Thag 6.12) [Thanissaro] Brahmana Sutta: To Unnabha the Brahman (SN 51.15) [Thanissaro] Brahmavihara Sutta: The Sublime Attitudes (AN 10.208) [Thanissaro] Buddha Sutta: Awakened (SN 22.58) [Thanissaro]

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C Cakka Sutta: Wheels (AN 4.31) [Thanissaro] Cakkavatti Sutta: The Wheel-turning Emperor (DN 26) [Thanissaro (excerpt)] Cakkhu Sutta: The Eye (SN 25.1) [Thanissaro] Cakkhu Sutta: The Eye (SN 27.1) [Thanissaro] Cakkhupala (Thag 1.95) [Thanissaro] Cala Sutta: Sister Cala (SN 5.6) [Bodhi | Thanissaro] Canda the Beggar (Thig 5.12) [Thanissaro] Candala Sutta: The Outcaste (AN 5.175) [Thanissaro] Candima Sutta: The Moon Deity's Prayer for Protection (SN 2.9) [Piyadassi] Canki Sutta: With Canki (MN 95) [Thanissaro (excerpt)] Capala Sutta: Nodding (AN 7.58) [Thanissaro] Cetana Sutta: Intention (SN 12.38) [Thanissaro] Cetana Sutta: Intention (SN 25.7) [Thanissaro] Cetana Sutta: Intention (SN 27.7) [Thanissaro] Cetana Sutta: An Act of Will (AN 11.2) [Thanissaro] Chachakka Sutta: The Six Sextets (MN 148) [Thanissaro] Channa Sutta: To Channa (SN 22.90) [Thanissaro] Channa Sutta: To Channa the Wanderer (AN 3.71) [Thanissaro] Chappana Sutta: The Six Animals (SN 35.206) [Thanissaro] Chavalata Sutta: The Firebrand/Wood from a Pyre (AN 4.95) [Buddharakkhita | Thanissaro] Chiggala Sutta: The Hole (SN 56.48) [Thanissaro] Cittaka (Thag 1.22) [Thanissaro] Cula-dhammasamadana Sutta: Shorter Discourse on Taking on Practices (MN 45) [Thanissaro] Cula-dukkhakkhandha Sutta: The Lesser Mass of Stress (MN 14) [Thanissaro] Cula-gopalaka Sutta: Shorter Discourse on the Cowherd (MN 34) [Olendzki (excerpt)] Cula-hatthipadopama Sutta: The Shorter Elephant Footprint Simile (MN 27) [Thanissaro] Cula-kammavibhanga Sutta: Lesser Discourse on Kamma (MN 135) [anamoli | Thanissaro] Cula-Malunkyovada Sutta: The Shorter Instructions to Malunkya (MN 63) [Thanissaro] Cula-punnama Sutta: The Shorter on the Full-moon Night (MN 110) [Thanissaro] Cula-Rahulovada Sutta: The Shorter Exposition to Rahula (MN 147) [Thanissaro] Cula-sihanada Sutta: Lesser Discourse on the Lion's Roar (MN 11) [anamoli] Cula-suata Sutta: Lesser Discourse on Emptiness (MN 121) [Thanissaro] Culavedalla Sutta: The Shorter Set of Questions-and-Answers (MN 44) [Thanissaro] Cula-viyuha Sutta: The Lesser Array (Sn 4.12) [Thanissaro] Culaka (Thag 2.46) [Olendzki] Cunda Sutta: About Cunda (Sariputta's Passing Away) (SN 47.13) [Nyanaponika | Thanissaro] Cunda Sutta: Cunda (AN 6.46) [Thanissaro] Cunda Sutta: Cunda (AN 10.24) [Thanissaro] Cunda Sutta: To Cunda (Sn 1.5) [Thanissaro]

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D Dabba Sutta: About Dabba Mallaputta (1) (Ud 8.9) [Thanissaro] Dabba Sutta: About Dabba Mallaputta (2) (Ud 8.10) [Thanissaro] Dahara Sutta: Young (SN 3.1) [Thanissaro] Dana Sutta: Giving (AN 7.49) [Thanissaro] Danda Sutta: The Stick (SN 15.9) [Thanissaro] Danda Sutta: The Stick (Ud 2.3) [Thanissaro] Dantabhumi Sutta: The Discourse on the "Tamed Stage" (MN 125) [Horner] Dantika and the Elephant (Thig 3.4) [Rhys Davids | Thanissaro] Daruka-khandha Sutta: The Log (SN 35.200) [Thanissaro] Daruka-khandha Sutta: The Wood Pile (AN 6.41) [Thanissaro] Dasa Dhamma Sutta: Ten Things (AN 10.48) [Piyadassi | Thanissaro] Dasa Sikkhapada: The Ten Training Rules (Khp 2) [Piyadassi | Thanissaro] Dasama Sutta: To Dasama (AN 11.17) [Thanissaro] Datthabba Sutta: To Be Known (SN 36.5) [Nyanaponika] Devadaha Sutta: At Devadaha (MN 101) [Thanissaro] Devadaha Sutta: At Devadaha (SN 22.2) [Thanissaro] Dhajagga Sutta: The Top of the Standard (SN 11.3) [Piyadassi | Thanissaro] Dhamma (Thig 1.17) [Thanissaro] Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta: Setting the Wheel of Dhamma in Motion (SN 56.11) [Harvey | anamoli | Piyadassi | Thanissaro] Dhammacariya Sutta: Wrong Conduct (Sn 2.6) [Ireland] Dhamma-niyama Sutta: The Orderliness of the Dhamma (AN 3.134) [Thanissaro] Dhammau Sutta: One With a Sense of Dhamma (AN 7.64) [Thanissaro] Dhammapada [Buddharakkhita | Olendzki (excerpt) | Thanissaro] Dhammassavana Sutta: Listening to the Dhamma (AN 5.202) [Thanissaro] Dhamma-viharin Sutta: One Who Dwells in the Dhamma (AN 5.73) [Thanissaro] Dhammika (Thag 4.10) [Thanissaro] Dhammika Sutta: Dhammika (AN 6.54) [Olendzki (excerpt)] Dhammika Sutta: Dhammika (Sn 2.14) [Ireland (excerpt)] Dhana Sutta: Treasure (AN 7.6) [Thanissaro] Dhaniya Sutta: Dhaniya the Cattleman (Sn 1.2) [Thanissaro] Dhanuggaha Sutta: The Archer (SN 20.6) [Thanissaro] Dhatu Sutta: Properties (SN 25.9) [Thanissaro] Dhatu Sutta: Properties (SN 27.9) [Thanissaro] Dhatu-vibhanga Sutta: An Analysis of the Properties (MN 140) [Thanissaro] Dhotaka-manava-puccha: Dhotaka's Questions (Sn 5.5) [Thanissaro] Digha Nikaya: The Long Discourses [Various] Dighajanu (Vyagghapajja) Sutta: To Dighajanu/Conditions of Welfare (AN 8.54) [Narada | Thanissaro] Dighanakha Sutta: To LongNails (MN 74) [Thanissaro] Dighavu-kumara Vatthu: The Story of Prince Dighavu (Mv 10.2.3-20) [Thanissaro] Dipa Sutta: The Lamp (SN 54.8) [Thanissaro] Ditthi Sutta: Views (AN 10.93) [Thanissaro] Dona Sutta: With Dona (AN 4.36) [Thanissaro] Donapaka Sutta: King Pasenadi Goes on a Diet (SN 3.13) [Olendzki] Duggata Sutta: Fallen on Hard Times (SN 15.11) [Thanissaro] Dukkha Sutta: Stress (SN 38.14) [Thanissaro] Dullabha Sutta: Hard to Find (AN 2.119) [Thanissaro] Dutthatthaka Sutta: Corrupted (Sn 4.3) [Thanissaro] Dvattimsakara: The 32 Parts (Khp 3) [Piyadassi | Thanissaro] Dvayatanupassana Sutta: The Contemplation of Dualities (Sn 3.12) [Ireland (excerpt) | Olendzki (excerpt) | Thanissaro] Dvedhavitakka Sutta: Two Sorts of Thinking (MN 19) [Thanissaro] Dvejana Sutta: Two People (1) (AN 3.51) [Thanissaro] Dvejana Sutta: Two People (2) (AN 3.52) [Thanissaro]

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EF Ekadhamma Suttas: A Single Thing (AN 1.21-40) [Thanissaro] Ekaputta Sutta: The Only Son (Ud 2.7) [Thanissaro] Ekavihariya: Dwelling Alone (Thag 10.2) [Olendzki (excerpt) | Thanissaro] Ekuddaniya (Thag 1.68) [Thanissaro] Eraka (Thag 1.93) [Thanissaro]

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G Gabbhini Sutta: The Pregnant Woman (Ud 2.6) [Thanissaro] Gaddula Sutta: The Leash (1) (SN 22.99) [Thanissaro] Gaddula Sutta: The Leash (2) (SN 22.100) [Thanissaro] Gadrabha Sutta: The Donkey (AN 3.81) [Thanissaro] Ganaka-Moggallana Sutta: The Discourse to Ganaka-Moggallana (MN 107) [Horner] Ganda Sutta: A Boil (AN 9.15) [Thanissaro] Gandhabhaka (Bhadraka) Sutta: To Gandhabhaka (Bhadraka) (SN 42.11) [Thanissaro] Gandhatthena Sutta: The Thief of a Scent (SN 9.14) [Olendzki (excerpt) | Thanissaro] Ganika Sutta: The Courtesan (Ud 6.8) [Thanissaro] Garava Sutta: Reverence (SN 6.2) [Thanissaro] Gavesin Sutta: About Gavesin (AN 5.180) [Thanissaro] Gavi Sutta: The Cow (AN 9.35) [Thanissaro] Gelaa Sutta: The Sick Ward (1) (SN 36.7) [Nyanaponika | Thanissaro] Gelaa Sutta: The Sick Ward (2) (SN 36.8) [Nyanaponika] Ghatva Sutta: Having Killed (SN 1.71) [Thanissaro] Ghosa Suttas: Voice (AN 2.125-126) [Thanissaro] Gihi Sutta: The Householder (AN 5.179) [Thanissaro] Gilana Sutta: Ill (1) (SN 35.74) [Thanissaro] Gilana Sutta: Ill (2) (SN 35.75) [Thanissaro] Gilana Sutta: Sick (Citta the Householder's Last Hours) (SN 41.10) [Thanissaro] Gilana Sutta: Ill (SN 46.14) [Piyadassi | Thanissaro] Gilana Sutta: Ill (SN 46.16) [Piyadassi] Gilana Sutta: Sick People (AN 3.22) [Thanissaro] Gilana Sutta: To a Sick Man (AN 5.121) [Thanissaro] Gilayana Sutta: Illness (SN 52.10) [Thanissaro] Girimananda Sutta: To Girimananda (AN 10.60) [Piyadassi | Thanissaro] Godatta (Thag 14.2) [Thanissaro] Godatta Sutta: To Godatta (On Awareness-release) (SN 41.7) [Thanissaro] Gopaka Moggallana Sutta: Moggallana the Guardsman (MN 108) [Thanissaro] Gopala Sutta: The Cowherd (Ud 4.3) [Thanissaro] Gopalaka Sutta: The Cowherd (AN 11.18) [Thanissaro] Gosala (Thag 1.23) [Thanissaro] Gotama (Thag 3.14) [Thanissaro] Gotamaka-cetiya Sutta: At Gotamaka Shrine (AN 3.123) [Thanissaro] Gotami Sutta: Sister Gotami (SN 5.3) [Bodhi | Thanissaro] Gotami Sutta: To Gotami (AN 8.53) [Thanissaro] Guhatthaka Sutta: The Cave of the Body (Sn 4.2) [Thanissaro] Guhatthaka-suttaniddeso: Upon the Tip of a Needle (Nm I.42) [Olendzki (excerpt)] Gutta (Thig 6.7) [Thanissaro]

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H Haliddakani Sutta: To Haliddakani (SN 22.3) [Thanissaro] Harita (Thag 1.29) [Thanissaro] Harita (2) (Thag 3.15) [Thanissaro] Hatthaka Sutta: To Hatthaka (on Sleeping Well in the Cold Forest) (AN 3.34) [Thanissaro] Hatthaka Sutta: About Hatthaka (1) (AN 8.23) [Thanissaro] Hatthaka Sutta: About Hatthaka (2) (AN 8.24) [Thanissaro] Hemaka-manava-puccha: Hemaka's Question (Sn 5.8) [Thanissaro] Heraakani (Thag 2.13) [Olendzki (excerpt) | Thanissaro] Himavanta Sutta: The Himalayas (on the Factors for Awakening) (SN 46.1) [Thanissaro] Hiri Sutta: Conscience (SN 1.18) [Thanissaro] Hiri Sutta: Conscience (Sn 2.3) [Ireland | Thanissaro] Hita Sutta: Benefit (AN 5.20) [Thanissaro]

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I Iccha Sutta: Desire (SN 1.69) [Thanissaro] Iddhipada-vibhanga Sutta: Analysis of the Bases of Power (SN 51.20) [Thanissaro] Ina Sutta: Debt (AN 6.45) [Thanissaro] Indriya Sutta: Faculties (SN 35.153) [Thanissaro] Indriya-bhavana Sutta: The Development of the Faculties (MN 152) [Thanissaro] Indriya-vibhanga Sutta: Analysis of the Mental Faculties (SN 48.10) [Thanissaro] Isidatta (Thag 1.120) [Thanissaro] Isidatta Sutta: About Isidatta (SN 41.3) [Thanissaro] Isigili Sutta: The Discourse at Isigili (MN 116) [Piyadassi] Issattha Sutta: Archery Skills (SN 3.24) [Thanissaro] Itivuttaka [various translators] Ittha Sutta: What is Welcome (AN 5.43) [Thanissaro]

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J Jambali Sutta: The Waste-water Pool (AN 4.178) [Thanissaro] Janussonin Sutta: To Janussonin (On Offerings to the Dead) (AN 10.177) [Thanissaro] Jara Sutta: Old Age (Sn 4.6) [Ireland | Thanissaro] Jara Sutta: Old Age (SN 48.41) [Thanissaro] Jata Sutta: The Tangle (SN 7.6) [Thanissaro] Jatila Sutta: Ascetics (Ud 6.2) [Thanissaro] Jatukanni-manava-puccha: Jatukannin's Question (Sn 5.11) [Thanissaro] Jenta (Thag 1.111) [Thanissaro] Jenta, the Royal Chaplain's Son (Thag 6.9) [Thanissaro] Jhana Sutta: Mental Absorption (1) (AN 4.123) [Thanissaro] Jhana Sutta: Mental Absorption (2) (AN 4.124) [Thanissaro] Jhana Sutta: Mental Absorption (AN 9.36) [Thanissaro] Jinna Sutta: Old (SN 16.5) [Thanissaro] Jivaka Sutta: To Jivaka (On Being a Lay Follower) (AN 8.26) [Thanissaro] Juha Sutta: Moonlit (Ud 4.4) [Thanissaro]

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K Kaccayanagotta Sutta: To Kaccayana Gotta (on Right View) (SN 12.15) [Thanissaro] Kakacupama Sutta: The Simile of the Saw (MN 21) [Buddharakkhita (excerpt) | Thanissaro (excerpt)] Kaladana Sutta: Seasonable Gifts (AN 5.36) [Thanissaro] Kalaha-vivada Sutta: Quarrels & Disputes (Sn 4.11) [Ireland | Thanissaro] Kalaka Sutta: At Kalaka's Peak (AN 4.24) [Thanissaro] Kalama Sutta: Advice to the Kalamas: The Buddha's Charter of Free Inquiry (AN 3.65; AN 3.66 in the Thai Tipitaka) [Soma | Thanissaro] Kaludayin Thera: Crossing the Rohini (Thag 10.1) [Olendzki (excerpt)] Kama Sutta: Sensual Pleasure (Sn 4.1) [Thanissaro] Kamabhu Sutta: With Kamabhu (On the Cessation of Perception & Feeling) (SN 41.145) [Thanissaro] Kamada Sutta: Kamada's Lament (SN 2.6) [Olendzki (excerpt)] Kamesu Satta Sutta: Attached to Sensual Pleasures (1) (Ud 7.3) [Thanissaro] Kamesu Satta Sutta: Attached to Sensual Pleasures (2) (Ud 7.4) [Thanissaro] Kamma Sutta: Action (SN 35.145) [Thanissaro] Kamma Sutta: Action (Ud 3.1) [Ireland | Thanissaro] Kammavaranata Sutta: Kamma Obstructions (AN 6.87) [Thanissaro] Kandarayana Sutta: To Kandarayana (AN 2.38) [Thanissaro] Kanhadinna (Thag 2.30) [Thanissaro] Kankharevata (Thag 1.3) [Thanissaro] Kannakatthala Sutta: At Kannakatthala (MN 90) [Thanissaro] Kappa (Thag 10.5) [Thanissaro] Kappa-manava-puccha: Kappa's Question (Sn 5.10) [Thanissaro] Karaniya Metta Sutta: Good Will (Khp 9) [ Buddharakkhita | Amaravati | anamoli | Piyadassi | Thanissaro]. See also Metta Sutta. Karaniya Metta Sutta: Good Will (Sn 1.8) [ Buddharakkhita | Amaravati | anamoli | Piyadassi | Thanissaro]. See also Metta Sutta. Kasi Bharadvaja Sutta: To the Plowing Bharadvaja (SN 7.11) [Piyadassi | Thanissaro] Kasi Bharadvaja Sutta: To the Plowing Bharadvaja (Sn 1.4) [Olendzki (excerpt) | Piyadassi | Thanissaro] Kassaka Sutta: The Farmer (SN 4.19) [Thanissaro] Kassapa Sutta: About Maha Kassapa (Ud 1.6) [Thanissaro] Kassapa Sutta: Kassapa (Ud 3.7) [Thanissaro] Katau Sutta: Gratitude (AN 2.31-32) [Thanissaro] Katha Sutta: Talk (AN 5.97) [Thanissaro] Kathavatthu Sutta: Topics for Discussion (AN 3.67) [Thanissaro] Kathavatthu Sutta: Topics of Conversation (1) (AN 10.69) [Thanissaro] Kathavatthu Sutta: Topics of Conversation (2) (AN 10.70) [Thanissaro] Katthaharaka Sutta: Firewood-gathering (SN 7.18) [Olendzki (excerpt) | Thanissaro] Katthopama Sutta: The Fire-stick (SN 48.39) [Thanissaro] Katuviya Sutta: Putrid (AN 3.126) [Thanissaro] Kayagata-sati Sutta: Mindfulness Immersed in the Body (MN 119) [Thanissaro] Kayasakkhi Sutta: Bodily Witness (AN 9.43) [Thanissaro] Kesi Sutta: To Kesi the Horsetrainer (AN 4.111) [Thanissaro] Kevatta (Kevaddha) Sutta: To Kevatta (Kevaddha) (DN 11) [Thanissaro] Khaggavisana Sutta: A Rhinoceros Horn (Sn 1.3) [Thanissaro] Khajjaniya Sutta: Chewed Up (SN 22.79) [Thanissaro] Khalunga Sutta: Unruly (AN 8.14) [Thanissaro] Khana Sutta: The Opportunity (SN 35.135) [Thanissaro] Khandha Sutta: Aggregates (SN 22.48) [Thanissaro] Khandha Sutta: Aggregates (SN 25.10) [Thanissaro] Khandha Sutta: Aggregates (SN 27.10) [Thanissaro] Khema Sutta: With Khema (SN 44.1) [Thanissaro] Khema Sutta: With Khema (AN 6.49) [Thanissaro] Khemaka Sutta: About Khemaka (SN 22.89) [Thanissaro] Khitaka (Thag 1.104) [Thanissaro] Khuddaka Nikaya: The Collection of Little Texts [Various] Khuddakapatha [Various] Kimattha Sutta: What is the Purpose? (AN 11.1) [Thanissaro] Kimbila (Thag 1.118) [Thanissaro] Kimila Sutta: To Kimila (AN 7.56) [Thanissaro] Kimsila Sutta: With What Virtue? (Sn 2.9) [Ireland | Thanissaro] Kimsuka Sutta: The Riddle Tree (SN 35.204) [Thanissaro] Kindada Sutta: A Giver of What (SN 1.42) [Thanissaro] Kisagotami (Thig 10.1) [Hecker/Khema (excerpt) | Thanissaro] Kitagiri Sutta: At Kitagiri (MN 70) [Thanissaro] Kodhana Sutta: An Angry Person (AN 7.60) [anamoli | Thanissaro] Kokanuda Sutta: To Kokanuda (On Viewpoints) (AN 10.96) [Thanissaro] Kolita Sutta: About Kolita (Maha Moggallana) (Ud 3.5) [Thanissaro] Kosala Sutta: The Kosalan (AN 5.49) [Hecker/Khema | Thanissaro] Kosala Sutta: The Kosalan (AN 10.29) [Thanissaro] Kosambi Sutta: At Kosambi (On Knowing Dependent Co-arising) (SN 12.68) [Thanissaro] Kotthita Sutta: To Kotthita (SN 35.191) [Thanissaro] Kotthita Sutta: To Kotthita (AN 4.174) [Thanissaro] Kotthita Sutta: With Kotthita (AN 9.13) [Thanissaro] Kucchivikara-vatthu: The Monk with Dysentery (Mv 8.26.1-8) [Thanissaro] Kukkuravatika Sutta: The Dog-duty Ascetic (MN 57) [anamoli] Kula Sutta: Families (SN 42.9) [Thanissaro] Kula Sutta: On Families (AN 4.255) [Thanissaro] Kumaraka Sutta: The Boys (Ud 5.4) [Thanissaro] Kumma Sutta: The Turtle (SN 17.3) [Thanissaro] Kumma Sutta: The Tortoise (SN 35.199) [Thanissaro] Kusala Sutta: Skillful (AN 2.19) [Thanissaro] Kusita-Arambhavatthu Sutta: The Grounds for Laziness and the Arousal of Energy (AN 8.80) [Thanissaro] Kuta Sutta: Gabled (SN 56.44) [Thanissaro] Kuta Sutta: The Peak of the Roof (AN 3.105) [Thanissaro] Kutiviharin (1) (Thag 1.56) [Thanissaro] Kutiviharin (2) (Thag 1.57) [Thanissaro] Kutthi: The Leper (Ud 5.3) [Thanissaro] Kutuhalasala Sutta: The Debating Hall (SN 44.9) [Thanissaro]

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L Lahu-parivatta Suttas: Quick to Reverse Itself (AN 1.48) [Thanissaro] Lakkhana Sutta: Characterized (By Action) (AN 3.2) [Thanissaro] Latukikopama Sutta: The Quail Simile (MN 66) [Thanissaro] Lekha Sutta: Inscriptions (AN 3.130) [Thanissaro] Licchavi Sutta: To the Licchavi (SN 55.30) [Thanissaro] Lohicca Sutta: To Lohicca (DN 12) [Thanissaro] Loka Sutta: (Surveying) the World (Ud 3.10) [Thanissaro] Loka Sutta: (Qualities of) the World (SN 3.23) [Thanissaro] Loka Sutta: The World (SN 12.44) [Thanissaro] Loka Sutta: The World (SN 35.82) [Thanissaro] Lokapala Sutta: Guardians of the World (AN 2.9) [Thanissaro] Lokavipatti Sutta: The Failings of the World (AN 8.6) [Thanissaro] Lokayatika Sutta: The Cosmologist (SN 12.48) [Thanissaro] Lonaphala Sutta: The Salt Crystal (AN 3.99) [Thanissaro]

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M Macchariya Suttas: Stinginess (AN 5.254-259) [Thanissaro] Madhupindika Sutta: The Ball of Honey (MN 18) [Thanissaro] Magandiya Sutta: To Magandiya (MN 75) [Thanissaro] Magandiya Sutta: To Magandiya (Sn 4.9) [Thanissaro] Magga-vibhanga Sutta: An Analysis of the Path (SN 45.8) [Thanissaro] Maha-Assapura Sutta: The Greater Discourse at Assapura (MN 39) [Thanissaro] Maha-Kaccana (Thag 8.1) [Bodhi] Maha Kassapa (Thag 18) [Olendzki (excerpt) | Thanissaro] Maha-cattarisaka Sutta: The Great Forty (MN 117) [Thanissaro] Maha-dukkhakkhandha Sutta: The Great Mass of Stress (MN 13) [Thanissaro] Maha-gopalaka Sutta: The Greater Cowherd Discourse (MN 33) [Thanissaro] Maha-hatthipadopama Sutta: The Great Elephant Footprint Simile(MN 28) [Thanissaro] Mahaka Sutta: About Mahaka (SN 41.4) [Thanissaro] Mahakala (Thag 2.16) [Thanissaro] Maha-kammavibhanga Sutta: Great Discourse on Kamma (MN 136) [anamoli] Mahakotthika (Thag 1.2) [Thanissaro] Mahali Sutta: To Mahali (SN 22.60) [Thanissaro] Maha-mangala Sutta: Protection (Sn 2.4) [Narada | Piyadassi | Soni | Thanissaro] Mahanama Sutta: Being a Lay Buddhist (AN 8.25) [Kumara] Mahanama Sutta: To Mahanama (1) (SN 55.21) [Thanissaro] Mahanama Sutta: To Mahanama (1) (AN 11.12) [Thanissaro] Mahanama Sutta: To Mahanama (2) (SN 55.22) [Thanissaro] Mahanama Sutta: To Mahanama (2) (AN 11.13) [Thanissaro] Maha-nidana Sutta: The Great Causes Discourse (DN 15) [Thanissaro] Mahaniddesa (excerpt) Mahapaha Sutta: The Great Questions(AN 10.27) [Nyanaponika (excerpt)] Maha-parinibbana Sutta: The Last Days of the Buddha (DN 16) [Thanissaro (chapters 5-6) | Vajira/Story] Maha-punnama Sutta: The Great Full-Moon Discourse(MN 109) [Thanissaro] Maha-Rahulovada Sutta: The Greater Exhortation to Rahula (MN 62) [Thanissaro] Maha-Saccaka Sutta: Greater Discourse to Saccaka (MN 36) [Thanissaro (excerpt)] Maha-sala Sutta: Very Rich (SN 7.14) [Thanissaro] Maha-salayatanika Sutta: The Great Six Sense-media Discourse (MN 149) [Thanissaro] Maha-samaya Sutta: The Great Meeting (DN 20) [Thanissaro] Maha-satipatthana Sutta: Great Discourse on the Four Frames of Reference/Foundations of Mindfulness (DN 22) [Thanissaro]. See also Satipatthana Sutta (MN 10) Maha-sihanada Sutta: Greater Discourse on the Lion's Roar (MN 12) [anamoli] Maha-suata Sutta: Greater Discourse on Emptiness (MN 122) [Thanissaro] Mahavedalla Sutta: The Greater Set of Questions-and-Answers (MN 43) [Thanissaro] Maha-viyuha Sutta: The Great Array (Sn 4.13) [Thanissaro] Majjhima Nikaya [Various] Makkata Sutta: The Monkey (SN 47.7) [Olendzki (excerpt) | Thanissaro] Malunkyaputta Sutta: To Malunkyaputta (SN 35.95) [Thanissaro] Manava (Thag 1.73) [Thanissaro] Mangala Sutta: Protection (Khp 5) [Narada | Piyadassi | Soni | Thanissaro] Maniculaka Sutta: To Maniculaka (SN 42.10) [Thanissaro] Maranassati Sutta: Mindfulness of Death (1) (AN 6.19) [Thanissaro] Maranassati Sutta: Mindfulness of Death (2) (AN 6.20) [Thanissaro] Marapasa Sutta: Mara's Power (SN 35.115) [Thanissaro] Mata Sutta: Mother (SN 15.14) [Thanissaro] Matangaputta (Thag 3.5) [Thanissaro] Meghiya Sutta: About Meghiya (Ud 4.1) [Ireland | Thanissaro] Metta Sutta: Good Will (1) (AN 4.125) [anamoli (excerpt) | Thanissaro] Metta Sutta: Good Will (2) (AN 4.126) [anamoli (excerpt) | Thanissaro] Metta (Mettanisamsa) Sutta: Good Will (AN 11.16) [Piyadassi | Thanissaro]. See also Karaniya Metta Sutta. Mettagu-manava-puccha: Mettagu's Questions (Sn 5.4) [Ireland | Thanissaro] Micchatta Sutta: Wrongness (AN 10.103) [Thanissaro] Migajala Sutta: To Migajala (SN 35.63) [Thanissaro] Milindapaha Mitta Sutta: A Friend (AN 7.35) [Thanissaro] Mittakali (Thig 5.6) [Thanissaro] Moggallana Sutta: With Moggallana (SN 44.7) [Thanissaro] Mogharaja-manava-puccha: Mogharaja's Question (Sn 5.15) [Ireland | Thanissaro] Moneyya Sutta: Sagacity (AN 3.120) [Thanissaro] Muccalinda Sutta: About Muccalinda (Ud 2.1) [Ireland | Thanissaro] Mula Sutta: Roots (AN 3.69) [Thanissaro] Mula Sutta: Rooted (AN 10.58) [Thanissaro] Mulapariyaya Sutta: The Root Sequence (MN 1) [Thanissaro] Muluposatha Sutta: The Roots of the Uposatha (AN 3.70) [Thanissaro] Muni Sutta: The Sage (Sn 1.12) [Thanissaro] Mutta (Thig 1.11) [Thanissaro]

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N Na Tumhaka Sutta: Not Yours (SN 35.101) [Thanissaro] Nadi Sutta: The River (SN 22.93) [Thanissaro] Naga Sutta: The Tusker (AN 9.40) [Thanissaro] Naga Sutta: The Bull Elephant (Ud 4.5) [Ireland] Nagara Sutta: The City (SN 12.65) [Thanissaro] Nagara Sutta: The Fortress (AN 7.63) [Thanissaro] Nagita (Thag 1.86) [Thanissaro] Nagita Sutta: To Nagita (AN 5.30) [Thanissaro] Nagita Sutta: To Nagita (AN 6.42) [Thanissaro] Nakhasikha Sutta: The Tip of the Fingernail (SN 13.1) [Thanissaro] Nakhasikha Sutta: The Tip of the Fingernail (SN 20.2) [Thanissaro] Nakhasikha Sutta: The Tip of the Fingernail (SN 22.97) [Thanissaro] Nakula Sutta: Nakula's Parents (AN 6.16) [Thanissaro] Nakulapita Sutta: To Nakulapita (SN 22.1) [Thanissaro] Nalaka Sutta: To Nalaka (Sn 3.11) [Olendzki (excerpt) | Thanissaro] Nalakalapiyo Sutta: Sheaves of Reeds (SN 12.67) [Thanissaro] Nanda Sutta: About Nanda (Ud 3.2) [Ireland | Thanissaro] Nandaka (Thag 2.27) [Thanissaro] Nandakovada Sutta: Nandaka's Exhortation (MN 146) [Thanissaro] Nanda-manava-puccha: Nanda's Questions (Sn 5.7) [Thanissaro] Nandana Sutta: Delight (SN 4.8) [Thanissaro] Nanda's Vision (Thig 5.4) [Hecker/Khema | Thanissaro] Nandiya Sutta: To Nandiya (SN 55.40) [Thanissaro] Nandiya (to Mara) (Thag 1.25) [Thanissaro] Natha Sutta: Protectors (AN 10.17) [Thanissaro] Nava Sutta: The Boat (SN 22.101) [Thanissaro] Nava Sutta: A Boat (Sn 2.8) [Ireland | Thanissaro] Navakammika Sutta: The Builder (SN 7.17) [Thanissaro] Neyyatha Sutta: A Meaning to be Inferred (AN 2.25) [Thanissaro] Nibbana Sutta: Unbinding (AN 4.179) [Thanissaro] Nibbana Sutta: Unbinding (AN 9.34) [Thanissaro] Nibbana Sutta: Total Unbinding (1) (Ud 8.1) [Ireland | Thanissaro] Nibbana Sutta: Total Unbinding (2) (Ud 8.2) [Ireland | Thanissaro] Nibbana Sutta: Total Unbinding (3) (Ud 8.3) [Ireland | Thanissaro] Nibbana Sutta: Total Unbinding (4) (Ud 8.4) [Ireland | Thanissaro] Nibbedhika Sutta: Penetrative (AN 6.63) [Thanissaro] Nidana Sutta: Causes (AN 3.33) [Thanissaro] Nidhi Kanda: The Reserve Fund (Khp 8) [Thanissaro] Nigrodha (Thag 1.21) [Thanissaro] Nimitta Sutta: Themes (AN 3.100 (xi-xv)) [Thanissaro] Niramisa Sutta: Unworldly (SN 36.31) [Nyanaponika | Thanissaro] Nissaraniya Sutta: Leading to Escape (AN 5.200) [Thanissaro] Nissaraniya Sutta: Means of Escape (AN 6.13) [Thanissaro] Nita (Thag 1.84) [Thanissaro] Nivarana Sutta: Hindrances (AN 9.64) [Thanissaro]

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O Obhasa Sutta: Brightness (AN 4.144) [Thanissaro] Ogha Sutta: Floods (SN 45.171) [Thanissaro] Ogha-tarana Sutta: Crossing over the Flood (SN 1.1) [Thanissaro] Okkha Sutta: Serving Dishes (SN 20.4) [Thanissaro]

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PQ Pabbaja Sutta: The Going Forth (Sn 3.1) [Thanissaro] Pabbata Sutta: A Mountain (AN 3.48) [Thanissaro] Pabbatopama Sutta: The Simile of the Mountains (SN 3.25) [Olendzki (excerpt) | Thanissaro] Pabhassara Suttas: Radiant (AN 1.49-52) [Thanissaro] Paccaya Sutta: Requisite Conditions (SN 12.20) [Thanissaro] Paccha-bhumika Sutta: [Brahmans] of the Western Land (SN 42.6) [Thanissaro] Pacetana (Rathakara) Sutta: The Chariot Maker (AN 3.15) [Thanissaro] Padhana Sutta: Exertion/The Great Struggle (Sn 3.2) [Ireland | Thanissaro] Pahana Sutta: Giving Up (SN 36.3) [Nyanaponika] Pahanaya Sutta: For Adandoning (SN 35.24) [Thanissaro] Pajatami Gotami: A Mother's Blessing (Thig 6.6) [Olendzki] Pamadaviharin Sutta: Dwelling in Heedlessness (SN 35.97) [Thanissaro] Pansadhovaka Sutta: The Dirt-washer (AN 3.100 (i-x)) [Thanissaro] Panthaka Sutta: About Cula Panthaka (Ud 5.10) [Thanissaro] Pacakanga Sutta: To Pacakanga (Carpenter FiveTools) (SN 36.19) [Nyanaponika | Thanissaro] Pacalacanda Sutta: Pacalacanda the Deva's Son (SN 2.7) [Thanissaro] Paha Sutta: Questions (AN 4.42) [Thanissaro] Pahapuccha Sutta: On Asking Questions (AN 5.165) [Thanissaro] Paa Sutta: Discernment (AN 8.2) [Thanissaro] Paavimutti Sutta: Released Through Discernment (AN 9.44) [Thanissaro] Parabhava Sutta: Downfall (Sn 1.6) [Narada | Piyadassi] Paramatthaka Sutta: Supreme (Sn 4.5) [Ireland | Thanissaro] Parikuppa Sutta: In Agony (AN 5.129) [Thanissaro] Parileyyaka Sutta: At Parileyyaka (SN 22.81) [Thanissaro] Parinibbana Sutta: Total Unbinding (SN 6.15) [Thanissaro] Paria Sutta: Comprehension (SN 22.23) [Thanissaro] Parivatta Sutta: Attached (SN 22.56) [Thanissaro] Pariyesana Sutta: Searches (AN 4.252) [Thanissaro] Pasura Sutta: To Pasura (Sn 4.8) [Thanissaro] Patacara (Thig 5.10) [Hecker/Khema | Thanissaro] Patacara's Thirty Students (Thig 5.11) [Hecker/Khema | Thanissaro] Patacara's 500 Students (Thig 6.1) [ Olendzki | Thanissaro ] Patala Sutta: The Bottomless Chasm (SN 36.4) [Nyanaponika | Thanissaro] Papata Sutta: The Drop-off (SN 56.42) [Thanissaro] Paticca-samuppada-vibhanga Sutta: Analysis of Dependent Co-arising (SN 12.2) [Thanissaro] Patitthita Sutta: Established (SN 48.56) [Thanissaro] Patoda Sutta: The Goad-stick (AN 4.113) [Thanissaro | Woodward] Pema Sutta: Affection (AN 4.200) [Thanissaro] Phagguna Sutta: To Phagguna (SN 12.12) [Nyanaponika | Thanissaro] Phassa Sutta: Contact (SN 25.4) [Thanissaro] Phassa Sutta: Contact (SN 27.4) [Thanissaro] Phassamulaka Sutta: Rooted in Sense-impression (SN 36.10) [Nyanaponika] Phena Sutta: Foam (SN 22.95) [Thanissaro] Pilahaka Sutta: The Dung Beetle (SN 17.5) [Thanissaro] Pinda Sutta: Alms (Ud 3.8) [Thanissaro] Pindola Sutta: About Pindola (Ud 4.6) [Thanissaro] Pindolya Sutta: Almsgoers (SN 22.80) [Thanissaro] Pingiya-manava-puccha: Pingiya's Questions (Sn 5.16) [Ireland | Thanissaro] Piti Sutta: Rapture (AN 5.176) [Thanissaro] Piya Sutta: Dear (SN 3.4) [Thanissaro] Piyajatika Sutta: From One Who Is Dear (MN 87) [Thanissaro] Pokkharani Sutta: The Pond (SN 13.2) [Thanissaro] Posala-manava-puccha: Posala's Question (Sn 5.14) [Thanissaro] Potaliya Sutta: To Potaliya (MN 54) [Thanissaro (excerpt)] Potthapada Sutta: About Potthapada (DN 9) [Thanissaro] Pubbakotthaka Sutta: Eastern Gatehouse (SN 48.44) [Thanissaro] Punna (Thig 1.3) [Thanissaro] Punna Sutta: To Punna (SN 35.88) [Thanissaro] Punnaka-manava-puccha: Punnaka's Questions (Sn 5.3) [Ireland | Thanissaro] Punnamasa (Thag 2.26) [Thanissaro] Punnika and the Brahman (Thig 12.1) [Thanissaro] Purabheda Sutta: Before the Break-up of the Body (Sn 4.10) [Thanissaro] Puttamansa Sutta: A Son's Flesh (SN 12.63) [Nyanaponika | Thanissaro]

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R Raga-vinaya Sutta: The Subduing of Passion (AN 4.96) [Thanissaro] Rahogata Sutta: Alone (SN 36.11) [Nyanaponika | Thanissaro] Rahula (Thag 4.8) [Thanissaro] Rahula Sutta: Advice to Rahula (Sn 2.11) [Ireland] Raja Sutta: The Emperor (SN 55.1) [Thanissaro] Raja Sutta: Kings (Ud 2.2) [Thanissaro[] Raja Sutta: The King (Ud 5.1) [Thanissaro] Rajadatta (Thag 5.1) [Thanissaro] Rajja Sutta: Rulership (SN 4.20) [Thanissaro] Ramaneyyaka (Thag 1.49) [Thanissaro] Ratana Sutta: Treasures (Khp 6) [Piyadassi | Thanissaro] Ratana Sutta: Treasures (SN 2.1) [Piyadassi | Thanissaro] Rathakara (Pacetana) Sutta: The Chariot Maker (AN 3.15) [Thanissaro] Ratha-vinita Sutta: Relay Chariots (MN 24) [Thanissaro] Ratthapala (Thag 16.4) [Thanissaro] Ratthapala Sutta: About Ratthapala (MN 82) [Thanissaro] Revata: Revata's Farewell (Thag 14.1) [Thanissaro] Revata Sutta: About Revata (Ud 5.7) [Thanissaro] Rohini (Thig 13.2) [Thanissaro] Rohitassa Sutta: To Rohitassa (AN 4.45) [Thanissaro] Rupa Sutta: Forms (SN 25.2) [Thanissaro] Rupa Sutta: Forms (SN 27.2) [Thanissaro]

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S Sabba Sutta: The All (SN 35.23) [Thanissaro] Sabbasava Sutta: All the Fermentations (MN 2) [Thanissaro] Sabhiya Sutta: With Sabhiya (SN 44.11) [Thanissaro] Saccavibhanga Sutta: Discourse on the Analysis of the Truths (MN 141) [Piyadassi | Thanissaro] Sacitta Sutta: One's Own Mind (AN 10.51) [Thanissaro] Saddayamana Sutta: Uproar (Ud 5.9) [Thanissaro] Saddha Sutta: Conviction (AN 5.38) [Thanissaro] Sadhammapatirupaka Sutta: A Counterfeit of the True Dhamma (SN 16.13) [Thanissaro] Sakalika Sutta: The Stone Sliver (SN 1.38) [Thanissaro] Sakalika Sutta: The Stone Sliver (SN 4.13) [Thanissaro] Sakka Sutta: To the Sakyan (AN 3.73) [Thanissaro] Sakka Sutta: To the Sakyans (on the Uposatha) (AN 10.46) [Thanissaro] Sakka-paha Sutta: Sakka's Questions (DN 21) [Thanissaro (excerpt)] Sakkara Sutta: Veneration (Ud 2.4) [Thanissaro] Sakunagghi Sutta: The Hawk (SN 47.6) [Thanissaro] Salayatana-vibhanga Sutta: An Analysis of the Six Sense-media (MN 137) [Thanissaro] Saleyyaka Sutta: The Brahmans of Sala (MN 41) [anamoli] Salha Sutta: To Salha (AN 3.66) [anamoli] Salla Sutta: The Arrow (Sn 3.8) [Ireland | Thanissaro] Sallatha Sutta: The Arrow (SN 36.6) [Nyanaponika | Thanissaro] Sallekha Sutta: The Discourse on Effacement (MN 8) [Nyanaponika] Samadhanga Sutta: The Factors of Concentration (AN 5.28) [Thanissaro] Samadhi Sutta: Concentration (SN 22.5) [Thanissaro] Samadhi Sutta: Concentration (SN 35.99) [Thanissaro] Samadhi Sutta: Concentration (SN 36.1) [Nyanaponika] Samadhi Sutta: Concentration (AN 4.41) [Thanissaro] Samadhi Sutta: Concentration (Tranquillity and Insight) (AN 4.94) [Thanissaro] Samadhi Sutta: (Immeasurable) Concentration (AN 5.27) [Thanissaro] Samadhi Sutta: Concentration (AN 10.6) [Thanissaro] Samajivina Sutta: Living in Tune (AN 4.55) [Thanissaro] Samana-Mundika Sutta: Mundika the Contemplative (MN 78) [Thanissaro] Samanera Paha: The Novice's Questions (Khp 4) [Piyadassi | Thanissaro] Samanupassana Sutta: Assumptions (SN 22.47) [Thanissaro] Samaaphala Sutta: The Fruits of the Contemplative Life (DN 2) [Thanissaro] Sambodhi Sutta: Self-awakening (AN 9.1) [Thanissaro] Samiddhi Sutta: About Samiddhi (SN 1.20) [Thanissaro] Samiddhi Sutta: About Samiddhi (AN 9.14) [Thanissaro] Sammaditthi Sutta: Right View (MN 9) [anamoli | Thanissaro] Sampada Sutta: Being Consummate (AN 5.130) [Thanissaro] Samuddha Sutta: The Ocean (SN 13.8) [Thanissaro] Samyutta Nikaya: The Grouped Discourses [Various] Sandha Sutta: To Sandha (AN 11.10) [Thanissaro] Sanditthika Sutta: Visible Here-&-Now (AN 6.47) [Thanissaro] Sangaha Sutta: The Bonds of Fellowship (AN 4.32) [Thanissaro] Sangama Sutta: A Battle (1) (SN 3.14) [Thanissaro] Sangama Sutta: A Battle (2) (SN 3.15) [Thanissaro] Sangarava Sutta: To Sangarava (AN 3.60) [Thanissaro] Sankha Sutta: The Conch Trumpet (SN 42.8) [Thanissaro] Sankhata Sutta: Fabricated (AN 3.47) [Thanissaro] Sankhitta Sutta: In Brief (Good Will, Mindfulness, and Concentration) (AN 8.63) [Thanissaro] Sankicca (Thag 11) [Thanissaro] Santaka Sutta: To Ananda (1) (SN 36.15) [Nyanaponika] Sanyojana Sutta: Fetters (AN 10.13) [Thanissaro] Saa Sutta: Perception (SN 25.6) [Thanissaro] Saa Sutta: Perception (SN 27.6) [Thanissaro] Saa Sutta: Perception (AN 9.16) [Thanissaro] Saa Sutta: Perceptions (AN 7.46) [Thanissaro] Saoga Sutta: Bondage (AN 7.48) [Thanissaro] Sappadasa (Thag 6.6) [Thanissaro] Sappurisa Sutta: A Person of Integrity (AN 4.73) [Thanissaro] Sappurisadana Sutta: A Person of Integrity's Gifts (AN 5.148) [Thanissaro] Saranagamana: Going for Refuge (Khp 1) [Piyadassi | Thanissaro] Saraniya Sutta: Conducive to Amiability (AN 6.12) [Thanissaro] Sariputta Sutta: With Sariputta (AN 10.7) [Thanissaro] Sariputta Sutta: About Sariputta (Ud 3.4) [Thanissaro] Sariputta Sutta: About Sariputta (1) (Ud 4.7) [Thanissaro] Sariputta Sutta: About Sariputta (2) (Ud 4.10) [Thanissaro] Sariputta Sutta: To Sariputta (Sn 4.16) [Thanissaro] Sariputta Thera: Keeping the Wheel Rolling (Thag 17.2) [Olendzki (excerpt)] Sariputta-Kotthita Sutta: Sariputta and Kotthita (1) (SN 44.3) [Thanissaro] Sariputta-Kotthita Sutta: Sariputta and Kotthita (2) (SN 44.4) [Thanissaro] Sariputta-Kotthita Sutta: Sariputta and Kotthita (3) (SN 44.5) [Thanissaro] Sariputta-Kotthita Sutta: Sariputta and Kotthita (4) (SN 44.6) [Thanissaro] Satipatthana Sutta: Frames of Reference/Foundations of Mindfulness (MN 10) [anasatta | Soma | Thanissaro]. See also Maha-satipatthana Sutta (DN 22) Satipatthana-vibhanga Sutta: Analysis of the Frames of Reference (SN 47.40) [Thanissaro] Satta Sutta: A Being (SN 23.2) [Thanissaro] Sattatthana Sutta: Seven Bases (SN 22.57) [Thanissaro] Satthusasana Sutta: To Upali (The Teacher's Instruction) (AN 7.80) [Thanissaro] Satti Sutta: The Spear (SN 20.5) [Thanissaro] Sedaka Sutta: At Sedaka (1) The Acrobat (SN 47.19) [Olendzki (excerpt) | Thanissaro] Sedaka Sutta: At Sedaka (2) The Beauty Queen (SN 47.20) [Thanissaro] Sekha Sutta: The Learner (SN 48.53) [Thanissaro] Sekha-patipada Sutta: The Practice for One in Training (MN 53) [Thanissaro] Sela Sutta: Sister Sela (SN 5.9) [Bodhi | Thanissaro] Sesavati (Vv 3.7) [Ireland] Sigala Sutta: The Jackal (SN 17.8) [Thanissaro] Sigalovada Sutta: Advice to Sigala/Layperson's Code of Discipline (DN 31) [Narada | Kelly/Sawyer/Yareham] Siha Sutta: To General Siha (On Generosity) (AN 5.34) [Thanissaro] Sikkha Sutta: Trainings (1) (AN 3.88) [Thanissaro] Sikkha Sutta: Trainings (2) (AN 3.89) [Thanissaro] Sikkha Sutta: Trainings (AN 4.99) [Thanissaro] Sikkha-dubbalya Sutta: Things That Weaken the Training (AN 9.63) [Thanissaro] Silabbata Sutta: Precept & Practice (AN 3.78) [Thanissaro] Silavant Sutta: Virtuous (SN 22.122) [Thanissaro] Simsapa Sutta: Simsapa Leaves (SN 56.31) [Thanissaro] Singalapita (Thag 1.18) [Thanissaro] Sirima (Vv 1.16) [Ireland] Sirimanda (Thag 6.13) [ Olendzki (excerpt) | Thanissaro ] Sirivaddha (Thag 1.41) [Thanissaro] Sisupacala Sutta: Sister Sisupacala (SN 5.8) [Bodhi | Thanissaro] Siti Sutta: Cooled (AN 6.85) [Thanissaro] Sivaka Sutta: To Sivaka (SN 36.21) [Nyanaponika | Thanissaro] Soma Sutta: Sister Soma (SN 5.2) [Bodhi | Olendzki (excerpt) | Thanissaro] Sona Sutta: About Sona (AN 6.55) [Thanissaro] Sona Sutta: About Sona (Ud 5.6) [Thanissaro] Sona, Mother of Ten (Thig 5.8) [Hecker/Khema | Thanissaro] Sona Potiriyaputta (Thag 2.37) [Thanissaro] Sotar Sutta: The Listener (AN 5.140) [Thanissaro] Subha, the Goldsmith's Daughter (Thig 13.5) [Thanissaro] Subha Jivakambavanika: Subha and the Libertine (Thig 14) [Thanissaro] Subhasita Sutta: Well-spoken (Sn 3.3) [Thanissaro] Subhasita-jaya Sutta: Victory Through What is Well Spoken (SN 11.5) [Thanissaro] Subhuti (Thag 1.1) [Thanissaro] Subhuti Sutta: About Subhuti (Ud 6.7) [Thanissaro] Suda Sutta: The Cook (SN 47.8) [Thanissaro] Sudatta Sutta: About Sudatta (Anathapindika) (SN 10.8) [Thanissaro] Suddhatthaka Sutta: Pure (Sn 4.4) [Ireland | Thanissaro] Sujata (Thig 6.4) [Hecker/Khema] Sukha Sutta: Happiness (SN 36.2) [Nyanaponika] Sukhamala Sutta: Refinement (AN 3.38) [Thanissaro] Sukhita Sutta: Happy (SN 15.12) [Thanissaro] Sumana the Novice (Thag 6.10) [Thanissaro] Sumangala (Thag 1.43) [Thanissaro] Sumangala's Mother (Thig 2.3) [Thanissaro] Sunaga (Thag 1.85) [Thanissaro] Sunakkhatta Sutta: To Sunakkhatta (MN 105) [Thanissaro] Sundara Samudda and the Courtesan (Thag 7.1) [Thanissaro] Sunita the Outcaste (Thag 12.2) [Thanissaro] Sua Sutta: Empty (SN 35.85) [Thanissaro] Supina Sutta: Dreams (AN 5.196) [Thanissaro] Suppiya (Thag 1.32) [Thanissaro] Suriya Sutta: The Sun Deity's Prayer for Protection (SN 2.10) [Piyadassi] Susarada (Thag 1.75) [Thanissaro] Susima Sutta: About Susima (SN 12.70) [Thanissaro] Sussusa Sutta: Listening Well (AN 6.88) [Thanissaro] Suta Sutta: On What is Heard (AN 4.183) [Thanissaro] Sutadhara Sutta: One Who Retains What He Has Heard (AN 5.96) [Thanissaro] Sutavan Sutta: To Sutavan (AN 9.7) [Thanissaro] Sutta Nipata [Various]

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T Talaputa (Thag 19) [Khantipalo | Olendzki (excerpt)] Talaputa Sutta: To Talaputa the Actor (SN 42.2) [Thanissaro] Tamonata Sutta: Darkness (AN 4.85) [Thanissaro] Tanha Sutta: Craving (SN 25.8) [Thanissaro] Tanha Sutta: Craving (SN 27.8) [Thanissaro] Tanha Sutta: Craving (AN 4.199) [Thanissaro] Tanhakhaya Sutta: The Ending of Craving (Ud 7.6) [Thanissaro] Tapussa Sutta: To Tapussa (On Renunciation) (AN 9.41) [Thanissaro] Tekicchakani (Thag 6.2) [Thanissaro] Thana Sutta: Courses of Action (AN 4.115) [Thanissaro] Thana Sutta: Traits (AN 4.192) [Thanissaro] Theragatha [Various] Theranama Sutta: [A Monk] by the Name of Elder (On Solitude) (SN 21.10) [Thanissaro] Therigatha [Various] Tika (Sub-commentaries) Tikicchaka Sutta (Virecana Sutta): A Purgative (AN 10.108) [Thanissaro] Tirokudda Kanda: Hungry Shades Outside the Walls (Khp 7) [Thanissaro] Tirokudda Kanda: Hungry Shades Outside the Walls (Pv 1.5) [Thanissaro] Tissa (Thag 1.39) [Thanissaro] Tissa Sutta (SN 22.84) [Thanissaro] Tissa Metteyya Sutta: Tissa Metteyya (Sn 4.7) [Thanissaro] Tissa-metteyya-manava-puccha: Tissa-metteyya's Questions (Sn 5.2) [Thanissaro] Tittha Sutta: Sectarians (AN 3.61) [Thanissaro] Tittha Sutta: Various Sectarians (1) (Ud 6.4) [Ireland | Thanissaro] Tittha Sutta: Various Sectarians (2) (Ud 6.5) [Thanissaro] Tittha Sutta: Various Sectarians (3) (Ud 6.6) [Thanissaro] Titthiya Sutta: Sectarians (AN 3.68) [Thanissaro] Todeyya-manava-puccha: Todeyya's Questions (Sn 5.9) [Thanissaro] Tuvataka Sutta: Quickly (Sn 4.14) [Thanissaro]

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U Ubbiri (Thig 3.5) [Thanissaro] Ubhatobhaga Sutta: (Released) Both Ways (AN 9.45) [Thanissaro] Udakarahaka Suttas: A Pool of Water (AN 1.45-46) [Thanissaro] Udakupama Sutta: The Water Simile (AN 7.15) [Thanissaro] Udana: Exclamations [Various] Udana Sutta: Exclamations (SN 22.55) [Thanissaro] Udapana Sutta: The Well (Ud 7.9) [Ireland | Thanissaro] Udaya Sutta: Breaking the Cycle (SN 7.12) [Olendzki (excerpt)] Udaya-manava-puccha: Udaya's Questions (Sn 5.13) [Thanissaro] Udayi Sutta: About Udayin (AN 5.159) [Thanissaro] Udayin Sutta: With Udayin (SN 35.193) [Thanissaro] Udayin Thera: The Blooming Lotus (Thag 15.2) [Olendzki (excerpt)] Uddesa-vibhanga Sutta: An Analysis of the Statement (MN 138) [Thanissaro] Udena Sutta: About King Udena (Ud 7.10) [Thanissaro] Ukkacela Sutta: At Ukkacela (SN 47.14) [Nyanaponika] Ugga Sutta: To Ugga (AN 7.7) [Thanissaro] Upacala Sutta: Sister Upacala (SN 5.7) [Bodhi | Thanissaro] Upadana Sutta: Clinging (SN 12.52) [Thanissaro] Upadana Sutta: Clinging (SN 22.121) [Thanissaro] Upaddha Sutta: Half (of the Holy Life) (SN 45.2) [Thanissaro] Upajjhatthana Sutta: Subjects for Contemplation (AN 5.57) [Thanissaro] Upakkilesa Sutta: Obscurations (AN 4.50) [Thanissaro] Upanisa Sutta: Prerequisites (SN 12.23) [Bodhi | Thanissaro] Upasaka Sutta: The Lay Follower (Ud 2.5) [Thanissaro] Upasena Sutta: Upasena (SN 35.69) [Thanissaro] Upasena Vangataputta Sutta: About Upasena Vangataputta (Ud 4.9) [Thanissaro] Upasiva-manava-puccha: Upasiva's Questions (Sn 5.6) [Thanissaro] Upatissa Sutta: About Upatissa (Sariputta) (SN 21.2) [Thanissaro] Upatissa-pasine: Upatissa's (Sariputta's) Question (Mv 1.23.1-10) [Thanissaro] Upaya Sutta: Attached (SN 22.53) [Thanissaro] Uposatha Sutta: The Observance Day (AN 8.41) [anavara/Kantasilo] Uposatha Sutta: The Observance (Ud 5.5) [Ireland | Thanissaro] Uppalavanna Sutta: Sister Uppalavanna (SN 5.5) [Bodhi | Thanissaro] Uraga Sutta: The Snake (Sn 1.1) [Nyanaponika | Thanissaro] Uttama (Thig 3.2) [Thanissaro] Uttara Sutta: Uttara the Deva's Son (SN 2.19) [Thanissaro] Utthana Sutta: Initiative (Sn 2.10) [Ireland | Thanissaro] Uttiya Sutta: To Uttiya (AN 10.95) [Thanissaro]

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V Vaca Sutta: A Statement (AN 5.198) [Thanissaro] Vaccha Sutta: To Vaccha (on Giving) (AN 3.57) [Thanissaro] Vacchagotta Sutta: With Vacchagotta (SN 44.8) [Thanissaro] Vajira Sutta: Sister Vajira (SN 5.10) [Bodhi | Thanissaro] Vajjiputta Sutta: The Vajjian Princeling (SN 9.9) [Thanissaro] Vajjiya Sutta: About Vajjiya (AN 10.94) [Thanissaro] Vakkali (Thag 5.8) [Thanissaro] Vala Sutta: Horsehair (SN 56.45) [Thanissaro] Valahaka Sutta: Thunderheads (AN 4.102) [Thanissaro] Valliya (Thag 2.24) [Thanissaro] Vanavaccha (Thag 1.13) [Thanissaro] Vanavaccha (Thag 1.113) [Thanissaro] Vanavaccha's Pupil (Thag 1.14) [Thanissaro] Vangisa (Thag 21) [Hecker/Khema (excerpt) | Ireland] Vanijja Sutta: Business (Wrong Livelihood) (AN 5.177) [Thanissaro] Vanijja Sutta: Trade (AN 4.79) [Thanissaro] Vappa (Thag 1.61) [Thanissaro] Vasala Sutta: Discourse on Outcasts (Sn 1.7) [Piyadassi] Vasitthi (Thig 6.2) [Thanissaro] Vassakara Sutta: With Vassakara (AN 4.35) [Thanissaro] Vatthupama Sutta: The Simile of the Cloth (MN 7) [Nyanaponika] Vedana Sutta: Feeling (SN 25.5) [Thanissaro] Vedana Sutta: Feeling (SN 27.5) [Thanissaro] Vepacitti Sutta: Calm in the Face of Anger (SN 11.4) [Olendzki (excerpt)] Vera Sutta: Animosity (AN 10.92) [Thanissaro] Vibhanga Sutta: An Analysis (Of the Feeling Faculties) (SN 48.38) [Thanissaro] Vijaya Sutta: Sister Vijaya (SN 5.4) [Bodhi | Thanissaro] Vijitasena (Thag 5.9) [Norman] Vijja-bhagiya Sutta: A Share in Clear Knowing (AN 2.30) [Thanissaro] Vimala (Thag 1.50) [Thanissaro] Vimala, the Former Courtesan (Thig 5.2) [Thanissaro] Vina Sutta: The Lute (SN 35.205) [Thanissaro] Vinaya-samukkamsa: Innate Principles of the Vinaya (Mv 6.40.1) [Thanissaro] Viana Sutta: Consciousness (SN 25.3) [Thanissaro] Viana Sutta: Consciousness (SN 27.3) [Thanissaro] Vipaka Sutta: Results (AN 8.40) [Thanissaro] Vipallasa Sutta: Perversions (AN 4.49) [Olendzki (excerpt) | Thanissaro] Virecana Sutta: A Purgative (a.k.a. Tikicchaka Sutta) (AN 10.108) [Thanissaro] Visakha Sutta: To Visakha (Ud 2.9) [Thanissaro] Visakha Sutta: To Visakha (Ud 8.8) [Thanissaro] Visakhuposatha Sutta: Discourse to Visakha on the Eight-factored Uposatha (AN 8.43) [Khantipalo] Vitakkasanthana Sutta: The Relaxation of Thoughts (MN 20) [Soma | Thanissaro] Vitthara Sutta: (Strengths) in Detail (AN 5.2) [Thanissaro] Viveka Sutta: Seclusion (SN 9.1) [Thanissaro] Vuddhi Sutta: Growth (AN 5.64) [Thanissaro]

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WXYZ Yamaka Sutta: To Yamaka (SN 22.85) [Thanissaro] Yasa Sutta: Honor (AN 8.86) [Thanissaro] Yasadatta (Thag 5.10) [Thanissaro] Yasoja (Thag 3.8) [Thanissaro] Yasoja Sutta: About Yasoja (Ud 3.3) [Thanissaro] Yavakalapi Sutta: The Sheaf of Barley (SN 35.207) [Thanissaro] Yodhajiva Sutta: To Yodhajiva (The Warrior) (SN 42.3) [Thanissaro] Yodhajiva Sutta: The Warrior (AN 4.181) [Thanissaro] Yodhajiva Sutta (1): The Warrior (AN 5.75) [Thanissaro] Yodhajiva Sutta (2): The Warrior (AN 5.76) [Thanissaro] Yoga Sutta: Yokes (AN 4.10) [Thanissaro] Yuganaddha Sutta: In Tandem (AN 4.170) [Thanissaro]

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Revised: Tuesday 2007-08-14


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http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html

Tipitaka

The Pali Canon

Sutta Index

The Tipitaka (Pali ti, "three," + pitaka, "baskets"), or Pali canon, is the collection of primary Pali language texts which form the doctrinal foundation of Theravada Buddhism. The Tipitaka and the paracanonical Pali texts (commentaries, chronicles, etc.) together constitute the complete body of classical Theravada texts.

The Pali canon is a vast body of literature: in English translation the texts add up to thousands of printed pages. Most (but not all) of the Canon has already been published in English over the years. Although only a small fraction of these texts are available on this website, this collection can be a good place to start.

The three divisions of the Tipitaka are:

Vinaya Pitaka The collection of texts concerning the rules of conduct governing the daily affairs within the Sangha the community of bhikkhus (ordained monks) and bhikkhunis (ordained nuns). Far more than merely a list of rules, the Vinaya Pitaka also includes the stories behind the origin of each rule, providing a detailed account of the Buddha's solution to the question of how to maintain communal harmony within a large and diverse spiritual community. Sutta Pitaka The collection of suttas, or discourses, attributed to the Buddha and a few of his closest disciples, containing all the central teachings of Theravada Buddhism. (More than nine hundred sutta translations are available on this website.) The suttas are divided among five nikayas (collections): Digha Nikaya the "long collection" Majjhima Nikaya the "middle-length collection" Samyutta Nikaya the "grouped collection" Anguttara Nikaya the "further-factored collection" Khuddaka Nikaya the "collection of little texts": Khuddakapatha Dhammapada Udana Itivuttaka Sutta Nipata Vimanavatthu Petavatthu Theragatha Therigatha Jataka Niddesa Patisambhidamagga Apadana Buddhavamsa Cariyapitaka Nettippakarana (included only in the Burmese edition of the Tipitaka) Petakopadesa ( " " ) Milindapaha ( " " ) Abhidhamma Pitaka The collection of texts in which the underlying doctrinal principles presented in the Sutta Pitaka are reworked and reorganized into a systematic framework that can be applied to an investigation into the nature of mind and matter.

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For further reading

Where can I find a copy of the complete Pali canon (Tipitaka)? (Frequently Asked Question) Beyond the Tipitaka: A Field Guide to Post-canonical Pali Literature Pali Language Aids offers links that may be useful to Pali students of every level. Handbook of Pali Literature, by Somapala Jayawardhana (Colombo: Karunaratne & Sons, Ltd., 1994). A guide, in dictionary form, through the Pali canon, with detailed descriptions of the major landmarks in the Canon. An Analysis of the Pali Canon, Russell Webb, ed. (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1975). An indispensable "roadmap" and outline of the Pali canon. Contains an excellent index listing suttas by name. Guide to Tipitaka, U Ko Lay, ed. (Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications, 1990). Another excellent outline of the Tipitaka, containing summaries of many important suttas. Buddhist Dictionary, by Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1980). A classic handbook of important terms and concepts in Theravada Buddhism.


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The Path to Freedom

A Self-guided Tour of the Buddha's Teachings

These pages invite you to explore some of the Buddha's basic teachings as they are presented in the Pali canon. Each page in this section contains a selection of short passages from the suttas (discourses or sermons; see sutta in the Glossary) that introduce or illustrate different aspects of a single topic. If you encounter a particularly meaningful or interesting passage you can, in most cases, read the full text of the sutta from which it came by simply following the link at the end of that passage. Many of the passages are cross-referenced to other pages, allowing you to pursue a theme to whatever depth or breadth you desire.

This is by no means an exhaustive tutorial. A number of the topics introduced here are explored more thoroughly in the Study Guides. The General Index also has many references to additional readings on related topics.

Begin your tour by exploring the Threefold Refuge (The Triple Gem):

The Buddha: A sketch of the Buddha's life, based on excerpts from the suttas. The Dhamma: An outline of the Buddha's teachings, organized according to his method of "gradual training" (anupubbi-katha). The Buddha frequently used this framework to guide his students from first principles through progressively more advanced teachings, all the way to the fulfillment of the Four Noble Truths and the realization of Nibbana. The Sangha: Descriptions of the Sangha the community of persons who have gained at least some degree of Awakening (ariya-sangha) and the community of ordained monks and nuns (bhikkhu-sangha and bhikkhuni-sangha).

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Further reading:

Buddhist Dictionary, by Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1980). A classic handbook of important terms and concepts in Theravada Buddhism. Path to Deliverance, by Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1982). A systematic exposition of essential points of Dhamma based on passages from the suttas. Refuge: An Introduction to the Buddha, Dhamma, and Sangha by Thanissaro Bhikkhu. Study Guides: anthologies of short passages suitable for individual and group study. The Wings to Awakening: An Anthology from the Pali canon, by Thanissaro Bhikkhu (Barre, Massachusetts: Dhammadana Publications, 1996).


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What is Theravada Buddhism? by John Bullitt

Theravada (pronounced more or less "terra-VAH-dah"), the "Doctrine of the Elders," is the school of Buddhism that draws its scriptural inspiration from the Tipitaka, or Pali canon, which scholars generally agree contains the earliest surviving record of the Buddha's teachings.1 For many centuries, Theravada has been the predominant religion of continental Southeast Asia (Thailand, Myanmar/Burma, Cambodia, and Laos) and Sri Lanka. Today Theravada Buddhists number well over 100 million worldwide.2 In recent decades Theravada has begun to take root in the West.

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Many Buddhisms, One Dhamma-vinaya The Buddha the "Awakened One" called the religion he founded Dhamma-vinaya "the doctrine and discipline." To provide a social structure supportive of the practice of Dhamma-vinaya (or Dhamma for short [Sanskrit: Dharma]), and to preserve these teachings for posterity, the Buddha established the order of bhikkhus (monks) and bhikkhunis (nuns) the Sangha which continues to this day to pass his teachings on to subsequent generations of laypeople and monastics, alike.

As the Dhamma continued its spread across India after the Buddha's passing, differing interpretations of the original teachings arose, which led to schisms within the Sangha and the emergence of as many as eighteen distinct sects of Buddhism.3 One of these schools eventually gave rise to a reform movement that called itself Mahayana (the "Greater Vehicle")4 and that referred to the other schools disparagingly as Hinayana (the "Lesser Vehicle"). What we call Theravada today is the sole survivor of those early non-Mahayana schools.5 To avoid the pejorative tone implied by the terms Hinayana and Mahayana, it is common today to use more neutral language to distinguish between these two main branches of Buddhism. Because Theravada historically dominated southern Asia, it is sometimes called "Southern" Buddhism, while Mahayana, which migrated northwards from India into China, Tibet, Japan, and Korea, is known as "Northern" Buddhism.6

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Pali: The Language of Theravada Buddhism The language of the Theravada canonical texts is Pali (lit., "text"), which is based on a dialect of Middle Indo-Aryan that was probably spoken in central India during the Buddha's time.7 Ven. Ananda, the Buddha's cousin and close personal attendant, committed the Buddha's sermons (suttas) to memory and thus became a living repository of these teachings.8 Shortly after the Buddha's death (ca. 480 BCE), five hundred of the most senior monks including Ananda convened to recite and verify all the sermons they had heard during the Buddha's forty-five year teaching career.9 Most of these sermons therefore begin with the disclaimer, "Evam me sutam" "Thus have I heard."

After the Buddha's death the teachings continued to be passed down orally within the monastic community, in keeping with an Indian oral tradition that long predated the Buddha.10 By 250 BCE the Sangha had systematically arranged and compiled these teachings into three divisions: the Vinaya Pitaka (the "basket of discipline" the texts concerning the rules and customs of the Sangha), the Sutta Pitaka (the "basket of discourses" the sermons and utterances by the Buddha and his close disciples), and the Abhidhamma Pitaka (the "basket of special/higher doctrine" a detailed psycho-philosophical analysis of the Dhamma). Together these three are known as the Tipitaka, the "three baskets." In the third century BCE Sri Lankan monks began compiling a series of exhaustive commentaries to the Tipitaka; these were subsequently collated and translated into Pali beginning in the fifth century CE. The Tipitaka plus the post-canonical texts (commentaries, chronicles, etc.) together constitute the complete body of classical Theravada literature.

Pali was originally a spoken language with no alphabet of its own. It wasn't until about 100 BCE that the Tipitaka was first fixed in writing, by Sri Lankan scribe-monks,11 who wrote the Pali phonetically in a form of early Brahmi script.12 Since then the Tipitaka has been transliterated into many different scripts (Devanagari, Thai, Burmese, Roman, Cyrillic, to name a few). Although English translations of the most popular Tipitaka texts abound, many students of Theravada find that learning the Pali language even just a little bit here and there greatly deepens their understanding and appreciation of the Buddha's teachings.

No one can prove that the Tipitaka contains any of the words actually uttered by the historical Buddha. Practicing Buddhists have never found this problematic. Unlike the scriptures of many of the world's great religions, the Tipitaka is not regarded as gospel, as an unassailable statement of divine truth, revealed by a prophet, to be accepted purely on faith. Instead, its teachings are meant to be assessed firsthand, to be put into practice in one's life so that one can find out for oneself if they do, in fact, yield the promised results. It is the truth towards which the words in the Tipitaka point that ultimately matters, not the words themselves. Although scholars will continue to debate the authorship of passages from the Tipitaka for years to come (and thus miss the point of these teachings entirely), the Tipitaka will quietly continue to serve as it has for centuries as an indispensable guide for millions of followers in their quest for Awakening.

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A Brief Summary of the Buddha's Teachings The Four Noble Truths Shortly after his Awakening, the Buddha delivered his first sermon, in which he laid out the essential framework upon which all his later teachings were based. This framework consists of the Four Noble Truths, four fundamental principles of nature (Dhamma) that emerged from the Buddha's radically honest and penetrating assessment of the human condition. He taught these truths not as metaphysical theories or as articles of faith, but as categories by which we should frame our direct experience in a way that conduces to Awakening:

Dukkha: suffering, unsatisfactoriness, discontent, stress; The cause of dukkha: the cause of this dissatisfaction iscraving (tanha) for sensuality, for states of becoming, and states of no becoming; The cessation of dukkha: the relinquishment of that craving; The path of practice leading to the cessation of dukkha: the Noble Eightfold Path of right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration. Because of our ignorance (avijja) of these Noble Truths, because of our inexperience in framing the world in their terms, we remain bound to samsara, the wearisome cycle of birth, aging, illness, death, and rebirth. Craving propels this process onward, from one moment to the next and over the course of countless lifetimes, in accordance with kamma (Skt. karma), the universal law of cause and effect. According to this immutable law, every action that one performs in the present moment whether by body, speech, or mind itself eventually bears fruit according to its skillfulness: act in unskillful and harmful ways and unhappiness is bound to follow; act skillfully and happiness will ultimately ensue.13 As long as one remains ignorant of this principle, one is doomed to an aimless existence: happy one moment, in despair the next; enjoying one lifetime in heaven, the next in hell.

The Buddha discovered that gaining release from samsara requires assigning to each of the Noble Truths a specific task: the first Noble Truth is to be comprehended; the second, abandoned; the third, realized; the fourth, developed. The full realization of the third Noble Truth paves the way for Awakening: the end of ignorance, craving, suffering, and kamma itself; the direct penetration to the transcendent freedom and supreme happiness that stands as the final goal of all the Buddha's teachings; the Unconditioned, the Deathless, Unbinding Nibbana (Skt. Nirvana).

The Eightfold Path and the Practice of Dhamma Because the roots of ignorance are so intimately entwined with the fabric of the psyche, the unawakened mind is capable of deceiving itself with breathtaking ingenuity. The solution therefore requires more than simply being kind, loving, and mindful in the present moment. The practitioner must equip him- or herself with the expertise to use a range of tools to outwit, outlast, and eventually uproot the mind's unskillful tendencies. For example, the practice of generosity (dana) erodes the heart's habitual tendencies towards craving and teaches valuable lessons about the motivations behind, and the results of, skillful action. The practice of virtue (sila) guards one against straying wildly off-course and into harm's way. The cultivation of goodwill (metta) helps to undermine anger's seductive grasp. The ten recollections offer ways to alleviate doubt, bear physical pain with composure, maintain a healthy sense of self-respect, overcome laziness and complacency, and restrain oneself from unbridled lust. And there are many more skills to learn.

The good qualities that emerge and mature from these practices not only smooth the way for the journey to Nibbana; over time they have the effect of transforming the practitioner into a more generous, loving, compassionate, peaceful, and clear-headed member of society. The individual's sincere pursuit of Awakening is thus a priceless and timely gift to a world in desperate need of help.

Discernment (paa) The Eightfold Path is best understood as a collection of personal qualities to be developed, rather than as a sequence of steps along a linear path. The development of right view and right resolve (the factors classically identified with wisdom and discernment) facilitates the development of right speech, action, and livelihood (the factors identified with virtue). As virtue develops so do the factors identified with concentration (right effort, mindfulness, and concentration). Likewise, as concentration matures, discernment evolves to a still deeper level. And so the process unfolds: development of one factor fosters development of the next, lifting the practitioner in an upward spiral of spiritual maturity that eventually culminates in Awakening.

The long journey to Awakening begins in earnest with the first tentative stirrings of right view the discernment by which one recognizes the validity of the four Noble Truths and the principle of kamma. One begins to see that one's future well-being is neither predestined by fate, nor left to the whims of a divine being or random chance. The responsibility for one's happiness rests squarely on one's own shoulders. Seeing this, one's spiritual aims become suddenly clear: to relinquish the habitual unskillful tendencies of the mind in favor of skillful ones. As this right resolve grows stronger, so does the heartfelt desire to live a morally upright life, to choose one's actions with care.

At this point many followers make the inward commitment to take the Buddha's teachings to heart, to become "Buddhist" through the act of taking refuge in the Triple Gem: the Buddha (both the historical Buddha and one's own innate potential for Awakening), the Dhamma (both the Buddha's teachings and the ultimate Truth towards which they point), and the Sangha (both the unbroken monastic lineage that has preserved the teachings since the Buddha's day, and all those who have achieved at least some degree of Awakening). With one's feet thus planted on solid ground, and with the help of an admirable friend or teacher (kalyanamitta) to guide the way, one is now well-equipped to proceed down the Path, following in the footsteps left by the Buddha himself.

Virtue (sila) Right view and right resolve continue to mature through the development of the path factors associated with sila, or virtue namely, right speech, right action, and right livelihood. These are condensed into a very practical form in the five precepts, the basic code of ethical conduct to which every practicing Buddhist subscribes: refraining from killing, stealing, sexual misconduct, lying, and using intoxicants. Even the monks' complex code of 227 rules and the nuns' 311 ultimately have these five basic precepts at their core.

Concentration (samadhi) Having gained a foothold in the purification of one's outward behavior through the practice of sila, the essential groundwork has been laid for delving into the most subtle and transformative aspect of the path: meditation and the development of samadhi, or concentration. This is spelled out in detail in the final three path factors: right effort, by which one learns how to favor skillful qualities of mind over unskillful ones; right mindfulness, by which one learns to keep one's attention continually grounded in the present moment of experience; and right concentration, by which one learns to immerse the mind so thoroughly and unwaveringly in its meditation object that it enters jhana, a series of progressively deeper states of mental and physical tranquillity.

Right mindfulness and right concentration are developed in tandem through satipatthana ("frames of reference" or "foundations of mindfulness"), a systematic approach to meditation practice that embraces a wide range of skills and techniques. Of these practices, mindfulness of the body (especially mindfulness of breathing) is particularly effective at bringing into balance the twin qualities of tranquillity (samatha) and insight (vipassana), or clear-seeing. Through persistent practice, the meditator becomes more adept at bringing the combined powers of samatha-vipassana to bear in an exploration of the fundamental nature of mind and body.14 As the meditator masters the ability to frame his immediate experience in terms of anicca (inconstancy), dukkha, and anatta (not-self), even the subtlest manifestations of these three characteristics of experience are brought into exquisitely sharp focus. At the same time, the root cause of dukkha craving is relentlessly exposed to the light of awareness. Eventually craving is left with no place to hide, the entire karmic process that fabricates dukkha unravels, the eightfold path reaches its noble climax, and the meditator gains, at long last, his or her first unmistakable glimpse of the Unconditioned Nibbana.

Awakening This first enlightenment experience, known as stream-entry (sotapatti), is the first of four progressive stages of Awakening, each of which entails the irreversible shedding or weakening of several fetters (samyojana), the manifestations of ignorance that bind a person to the cycle of birth and death. Stream-entry marks an unprecedented and radical turning point both in the practitioner's current life and in the entirety of his or her long journey in samsara. For it is at this point that any lingering doubts about the truth of the Buddha's teachings disappear; it is at this point that any belief in the purifying efficacy of rites and rituals evaporates; and it is at this point that the long-cherished notion of an abiding personal "self" falls away. The stream-enterer is said to be assured of no more than seven future rebirths (all of them favorable) before eventually attaining full Awakening.

But full Awakening is still a long way off. As the practitioner presses on with renewed diligence, he or she passes through two more significant landmarks: once-returning (sakadagati), which is accompanied by the weakening of the fetters of sensual desire and ill-will, and non-returning (agati), in which these two fetters are uprooted altogether. The final stage of Awakening arahatta occurs when even the most refined and subtle levels of craving and conceit are irrevocably extinguished. At this point the practitioner now an arahant, or "worthy one" arrives at the end-point of the Buddha's teaching. With ignorance, suffering, stress, and rebirth having all come to their end, the arahant at last can utter the victory cry first proclaimed by the Buddha upon his Awakening:

"Birth is ended, the holy life fulfilled, the task done! There is nothing further for the sake of this world."

[MN 36]

The arahant lives out the remainder of his or her life inwardly enjoying the bliss of Nibbana, secure at last from the possibility of any future rebirth. When the arahant's aeons-long trail of past kamma eventually unwinds to its end, the arahant dies and he or she enters into parinibbana total Unbinding. Although language utterly fails at describing this extraordinary event, the Buddha likened it to what happens when a fire finally burns up all its fuel.

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"The serious pursuit of happiness" Buddhism is sometimes navely criticized as a "negative" or "pessimistic" religion and philosophy. Surely life is not all misery and disappointment: it offers many kinds of happiness and sublime joy. Why then this dreary Buddhist obsession with unsatisfactoriness and suffering?

The Buddha based his teachings on a frank assessment of our plight as humans: there is unsatisfactoriness and suffering in the world. No one can argue this fact. Dukkha lurks behind even the highest forms of worldly pleasure and joy, for, sooner or later, as surely as night follows day, that happiness must come to an end. Were the Buddha's teachings to stop there, we might indeed regard them as pessimistic and life as utterly hopeless. But, like a doctor who prescribes a remedy for an illness, the Buddha offers both a hope (the third Noble Truth) and a cure (the fourth). The Buddha's teachings thus give cause for unparalleled optimism and joy. The teachings offer as their reward the noblest, truest kind of happiness, and give profound value and meaning to an otherwise grim existence. One modern teacher summed it up well: "Buddhism is the serious pursuit of happiness."

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Theravada Comes West Until the late 19th century, the teachings of Theravada were little known outside of southern Asia, where they had flourished for some two and one-half millennia. In the past century, however, the West has begun to take notice of Theravada's unique spiritual legacy in its teachings of Awakening. In recent decades this interest has swelled, with the monastic Sangha from various schools within Theravada establishing dozens of monasteries across Europe and North America. Increasing numbers of lay meditation centers, founded and operated independently of the monastic Sangha, strain to meet the demands of lay men and women Buddhist and otherwise seeking to learn selected aspects of the Buddha's teachings.

The turn of the 21st century presents both opportunities and dangers for Theravada in the West: Will the Buddha's teachings be patiently studied and put into practice, and allowed to establish deep roots in Western soil, for the benefit of many generations to come? Will the current popular Western climate of "openness" and cross-fertilization between spiritual traditions lead to the emergence of a strong new form of Buddhist practice unique to the modern era, or will it simply lead to confusion and the dilution of these priceless teachings? These are open questions; only time will tell.

Spiritual teachings of every description inundate the media and the marketplace today. Many of today's popular spiritual teachings borrow liberally from the Buddha, though only rarely do they place the Buddha's words in their true context. Earnest seekers of truth are therefore often faced with the unsavory task of wading through fragmentary teachings of dubious accuracy. How are we to make sense of it all?

Fortunately the Buddha left us with some simple guidelines to help us navigate through this bewildering flood. Whenever you find yourself questioning the authenticity of a particular teaching, heed well the Buddha's advice to his stepmother:

[The teachings that promote] the qualities of which you may know, 'These qualities lead to passion, not to dispassion; to being fettered, not to being unfettered; to accumulating, not to shedding; to self-aggrandizement, not to modesty; to discontent, not to contentment; to entanglement, not to seclusion; to laziness, not to aroused persistence; to being burdensome, not to being unburdensome': You may definitely hold, 'This is not the Dhamma, this is not the Vinaya, this is not the Teacher's instruction.'

[As for the teachings that promote] the qualities of which you may know, 'These qualities lead to dispassion, not to passion; to being unfettered, not to being fettered; to shedding, not to accumulating; to modesty, not to self-aggrandizement; to contentment, not to discontent; to seclusion, not to entanglement; to aroused persistence, not to laziness; to being unburdensome, not to being burdensome': You may definitely hold, 'This is the Dhamma, this is the Vinaya, this is the Teacher's instruction.'

[AN 8.53]

The truest test of these teachings, of course, is whether they yield the promised results in the crucible of your own heart. The Buddha presents the challenge; the rest is up to you.

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Notes 1. Buddhist Religions: A Historical Introduction (fifth edition) by R.H. Robinson, W.L. Johnson, and Thanissaro Bhikkhu (Belmont, California: Wadsworth, 2005), p. 46.

2. This estimate is based on data appearing in CIA World Factbook 2004. South Asia's largest Theravada Buddhist populations are found in Thailand (61 million Theravadans), Myanmar (38 million), Sri Lanka (13 million), and Cambodia (12 million).

3.Buddhist Religions, p. 46.

4. Mahayana today includes Zen, Ch'an, Nichiren, Tendai, and Pure Land Buddhism.

5.Guide Through The Abhidhamma Pitaka by Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1971), pp. 60ff.

6. A third major branch of Buddhism emerged much later (ca. 8th century CE) in India:Vajrayana, the "Diamond Vehicle." Vajrayana's elaborate system of esoteric initiations, tantric rituals, and mantra recitations eventually spread north into central and east Asia, leaving a particularly strong imprint on Tibetan Buddhism. See Buddhist Religions, pp. 124ff. and chapter 11.

7. Modern scholarship suggests that Pali was probably never spoken by the Buddha himself. In the centuries after the Buddha's death, as Buddhism spread across India into regions of different dialects, Buddhist monks increasingly depended on a common tongue for their Dhamma discussions and recitations of memorized texts. It was out of this necessity that the language we now know as Pali emerged. See Bhikkhu Bodhi's Introduction in Numerical Discourses of the Buddha (Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press, 1999), pp. 1ff, and n. 1 (p. 275) and "The Pali Language and Literature" by the Pali Text Society ( http://www.palitext.com/subpages/lan_lite.htm; 15 April 2002).

8. Great Disciples of the Buddha by Nyanaponika Thera and Hellmuth Hecker (Somerville: Wisdom Publications, 1997), pp. 140, 150.

9. Buddhist Religions, p. 48.

10. The Hindu Vedas, for example, predate the Buddha by at least a millennium (Buddhist Religions, p. 2).

11. Buddhist Religions, p. 77.

12. Anandajoti Bhikkhu, personal communication.

13. See Dhp 1-2.

14. This description of the unified role of samatha and vipassana is based upon the Buddha's meditation teachings as presented in the suttas (see "One Tool Among Many" by Thanissaro Bhikkhu). The Abhidhamma and the Commentaries, by contrast, state that samatha and vipassana are two distinct meditation paths (see, for example, The Jhanas in Theravada Buddhist


Kindly visit:

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Meditation by H. Gunaratana, ch. 5). It is difficult to reconcile these two views just from studying the texts; any remaining doubts and concerns about the roles of samatha and vipassana are best resolved through the actual practice of meditation. "It's not what you look at that matters, it's what you see."

-- Henry David Thoreau

Introduction: Dhamma-Vinaya

Introduction

Dhamma-Vinaya was the Buddha's own name for the religion he founded. Dhamma the truth is what he discovered and pointed out as advice for all who want to gain release from suffering. Vinaya discipline is what he formulated as rules, ideals, and standards of behavior for those of his followers who go forth from home life to take up the quest for release in greater earnestness. Although this book deals primarily with discipline, we should note at the outset that total training in the Buddha's path requires that Dhamma and Vinaya function together. In theory they may be separate, but in the person who practices them they merge as qualities developed in the mind and character.

"Gotamī, the qualities of which you may know, 'These qualities lead to dispassion, not to passion; to being unfettered and not to being fettered; to shedding and not to accumulating; to modesty and not to arrogance; to contentment and not to discontent; to seclusion and not to entanglement; to aroused energy and not to idleness; to being unburdensome and not to being burdensome': You may definitely hold, 'This is the Dhamma, this is the Vinaya, this is the Teacher's instruction.'" Cv.X.5

Ultimately, the Buddha said, just as the sea has a single taste, that of salt, so too the Dhamma and Vinaya have a single taste: that of release. The connection between discipline and release is spelled out in a passage that recurs at several points in the Canon:

"Discipline is for the sake of restraint, restraint for the sake of freedom from remorse, freedom from remorse for the sake of joy, joy for the sake of rapture, rapture for the sake of tranquility, tranquility for the sake of pleasure, pleasure for the sake of concentration, concentration for the sake of knowledge and vision of things as they have come to be, knowledge and vision of things as they have come to be for the sake of disenchantment, disenchantment for the sake of dispassion, dispassion for the sake of release, release for the sake of knowledge and vision of release, knowledge and vision of release for the sake of total unbinding through non-clinging." Pv.XII.2

In establishing his religion of release, though, the Buddha did not simply set out a body of recommendations and rules. He also founded a company (parisā) of followers. This company falls into four main groups: bhikkhus (monks), bhikkhunīs (nuns), lay men, and lay women. Although the Buddha saw no need to organize the laity in any manner, he arranged for the bhikkhus and bhikkhunīs who had given up the entanglements of the household life to devote themselves more fully to the goal of release to develop into communities. And he saw that they needed, as all communities do, ideals and standards, rules and customs to ensure their stability. This need is what gave rise to the Vinaya.

In the early years of the Buddha's career, the texts tell us, there was no need to formulate monastic disciplinary rules. All of the bhikkhus in his following the Community of bhikkhunīs had not yet been started were men of high personal attainments who had succeeded in subduing many or all of their mental defilements. They knew his teachings well and behaved accordingly. The Canon tells of how Ven. Sāriputta, one of the Buddha's foremost disciples, asked the Buddha at an early date to formulate a Pāṭimokkha, or code of rules, to ensure that the celibate life the Buddha had founded would last long, just as a thread holding together a floral arrangement ensures that the flowers are not scattered by the wind. The Buddha replied that the time for such a code had not yet come, for even the most backward of the men in the Community at that time had already had their first glimpse of the goal. Only when mental effluents (āsava) made themselves felt in the Community would there be a need for a Pāṭimokkha.

As time passed, the conditions that provided an opening for the effluents within the Community eventually began to appear. The Bhaddāli Sutta (MN 65) presents the Buddha at a later point in his career listing these conditions as five:

Ven. Bhaddāli: "Why is it, venerable sir, that there used to be fewer training rules and more bhikkhus established in the knowledge of Awakening? And why is it that there are now more training rules and fewer bhikkhus established in the knowledge of Awakening?" [Bhaddāli, who has been unwilling to abide by the training rules, seems to be suggesting that the rise in the number of training rules is itself the cause for fewer bhikkhus' attaining Awakening. The Buddha, however, offers a different explanation.]

The Buddha: "So it is, Bhaddāli. When beings have begun to degenerate and the true Dhamma has begun to disappear, there are more training rules and fewer bhikkhus established in the knowledge of Awakening. The Teacher does not lay down a training rule for his disciples as long as there are no cases where the conditions that offer a foothold for the effluents have arisen in the Community. But when there are cases where the conditions that offer a foothold for the effluents have arisen in the Community, then the Teacher lays down a training rule for his disciples so as to counteract those very conditions.

"There are no cases where the conditions that offer a foothold for the effluents have arisen in the Community as long as the Community has not become large. But when the Community has become large, then there are cases where the conditions that offer a foothold for the effluents arise in the Community, and the Teacher then lays down a training rule for his disciples so as to counteract those very conditions... When the Community possesses great material gains... great status... a large body of learning... When the Community is long-standing, then there are cases where the conditions that offer a foothold for the effluents arise in the Community, and the Teacher then lays down a training rule for his disciples so as to counteract those very conditions."

Thus the rules themselves were not the cause for degeneracy in the Community, and the conditions that provided a foothold for the effluents were not themselves effluents. Rather, the growing complexity of the Community provided the opportunity for bhikkhus to act on the basis of their defilements in a growing variety of ways, and the rules although they could not prevent any of the five conditions had to become correspondingly complex to counteract the opportunities those conditions provided for unenlightened behavior.

Even when these conditions did arise, though, the Buddha did not set out a full code at once. Instead, he formulated rules one at a time in response to events. The considerations that went into formulating each rule are best illustrated by the events surrounding the formulation of the first.

Ven. Sudinna, the story goes, had strong faith in the Buddha and had ordained after receiving his parents' grudging consent. He was their only child and, though married, was childless. His parents, fearing that the government would confiscate their property at their death if it had no heir, devised various schemes to lure Ven. Sudinna back to the lay life, but to no avail. Finally, his mother realized that he was firm in his intention to stay a bhikkhu and so asked him at least to have intercourse with his former wife so that their property would have an heir. Ven. Sudinna consented, took his wife into the forest, and had intercourse three times.

Immediately he felt remorse and eventually confessed his deed to his fellow bhikkhus. Word reached the Buddha, who called a meeting of the Community, questioned Ven. Sudinna, and gave him a rebuke. The rebuke fell into two major parts. In the first part, the Buddha reminded Ven. Sudinna of his position as a samaṇa a monk or contemplative and that his behavior was unworthy of his position. Also, the Buddha pointed out to him the aims of the teaching and noted that his behavior ran counter to them. The implication here was that Ven. Sudinna had not only acted inconsistently with the content of the teaching, but had also shown callous disregard for the Buddha's compassionate aims in making the Dhamma known.

"'Worthless man, it is unseemly, out of line, unsuitable, and unworthy of a contemplative; improper and not to be done... Haven't I taught the Dhamma in many ways for the sake of dispassion and not for passion; for unfettering and not for fettering; for freedom from clinging and not for clinging? Yet here, while I have taught the Dhamma for dispassion, you set your heart on passion; while I have taught the Dhamma for unfettering, you set your heart on being fettered; while I have taught the Dhamma for freedom from clinging, you set your heart on clinging.

"'Worthless man, haven't I taught the Dhamma in many ways for the fading of passion, the sobering of intoxication, the subduing of thirst, the destruction of attachment, the severing of the round, the ending of craving, dispassion, cessation, unbinding? Haven't I in many ways advocated abandoning sensual pleasures, comprehending sensual perceptions, subduing sensual thirst, destroying sensual thoughts, calming sensual fevers? Worthless man, it would be better that your penis be stuck into the mouth of a poisonous snake than into a woman's vagina. It would be better that your penis be stuck into the mouth of a black viper than into a woman's vagina. It would be better that your penis be stuck into a pit of burning embers, blazing and glowing, than into a woman's vagina. Why is that? For that reason you would undergo death or death-like suffering, but you would not on that account, at the break-up of the body, after death, fall into deprivation, the bad destination, the abyss, hell. But for this reason you would, at the break-up of the body, after death, fall into deprivation, the bad destination, the abyss, hell...

"'Worthless man, this neither inspires faith in the faithless nor increases the faithful. Rather, it inspires lack of faith in the faithless and wavering in some of the faithful.'"

The second part of the rebuke dealt in terms of personal qualities: those that a bhikkhu practicing discipline is to abandon, and those he is to develop.

"Then the Blessed One, having in many ways rebuked Ven. Sudinna, having spoken in dispraise of being burdensome, demanding, arrogant, discontented, entangled, and indolent; in various ways having spoken in praise of being unburdensome, undemanding, modest, content, scrupulous, austere, gracious, self-effacing, and energetic; having given a Dhamma talk on what is seemly and becoming for bhikkhus, addressed the bhikkhus."

This was where the Buddha formulated the training rule, after first stating his reasons for doing so.

"'In that case, bhikkhus, I will formulate a training rule for the bhikkhus with ten aims in mind: the excellence of the Community, the comfort of the Community, the curbing of the impudent, the comfort of well-behaved bhikkhus, the restraint of effluents related to the present life, the prevention of effluents related to the next life, the arousing of faith in the faithless, the increase of the faithful, the establishment of the true Dhamma, and the fostering of discipline.'"

These reasons fall into three main types. The first two are external: 1) to ensure peace and well being within the Community itself, and 2) to foster and protect faith among the laity, on whom the bhikkhus depend for their support. (The origin stories of the various rules depict the laity as being very quick to generalize. One bhikkhu misbehaves, and they complain, "How can these Sakyan-son monks do that?") The third type of reason, though, is internal: The rule is to help restrain and prevent mental effluents within the individual bhikkhus. Thus the rules aim not only at the external well being of the Community but also at the internal well being of the individual. This latter point soon becomes apparent to anyone who seriously tries to keep to the rules, for they foster mindfulness and circumspection in one's actions, qualities that carry over into the training of the mind.

Over the course of time the Buddha formulated more than 200 major and minor rules, forming the Pāṭimokkha that was recited fortnightly in each Community of bhikkhus. In addition, he formulated many other minor rules that were memorized by those of his followers who specialized in the subject of discipline, but nothing is known for sure of what format they used to organize this body of knowledge during his lifetime.

After his total nibbāna, though, his followers made a concerted effort to establish a standard canon of Dhamma and Vinaya, and the Pali Canon as we know it began to take shape. The Vinaya was organized into two main parts: 1) the Sutta Vibhaṅga, the 'Exposition of the Text' (which from here on we will refer to simply as the Vibhaṅga), containing almost all the material dealing with the Pāṭimokkha rules; and 2) the Khandhakas, or Groupings, which contain the remaining material organized loosely according to subject matter. The Khandhakas themselves are divided into two parts, the Mahāvagga, or Greater Chapter, and the Cullavagga, or Lesser Chapter. Historians estimate that the Vibhaṅga and Khandhakas reached their present form in approximately the 2nd century B.C.E., and that the Parivāra, or Addenda a summary and study guide was added a few centuries later, closing the Vinaya Piṭaka, the part of the Canon dealing with discipline.

Because the purpose of this volume is to translate and explain the Pāṭimokkha, we are most directly concerned with the Vibhaṅga. It is organized as follows: The rules in the Pāṭimokkha are presented one by one, each rule preceded by an origin story relating the events leading up to its formulation. In some instances a rule went through one or more reformulations, in which case an additional story is provided for each amendment to show what prompted it.

After the final statement of the rule is a word-analysis (pada-bhājaniya), which explains in detail most of the important terms in the rule. For many of the rules this analysis includes one or more "wheels," or tables, giving the contingencies connected with the rule, working out all their possible permutations and passing judgment as to what penalty, if any, each permutation entails. For example, the discussion of the first rule contains a wheel that gives all the objects with which a person might have sexual intercourse, lists them against the variables of the sort of intercourse and whether or not the bhikkhu involved gives his consent, and announces the penalty for each possible combination of factors.

Following the word-analysis for each rule is a section of non-offense clauses, listing extenuating circumstances under which a bhikkhu would be exempted from the penalty imposed by the rule.

Finally, for the major rules, there is the Vinita-vatthu, or Precedents, listing various cases related to the rule and giving verdicts as to what penalty, if any, they entail.

The Vibhaṅga forms the basis for most of the explanations of the training rules given in this volume. However, there are many questions on which the Vibhaṅga is silent or unclear. To answer these questions, I have turned either to the Khandhakas or to the commentarial literature that has grown up around the Vinaya over the course of the centuries. The primary works I have consulted are these:

1) The Samanta-pāsādikā "The Thoroughly Inspiring" (from here on referred to as the Commentary), a commentary on the Vinaya Piṭaka compiled in the 5th century C.E. by Bhadantācariya Buddhaghosa, who based his work on ancient commentaries. The originals for these ancient commentaries may have been brought to Sri Lanka from India and translated into Sinhalese, but frequent references throughout the commentaries to places and people in Sri Lanka show that much of the material in the commentaries was composed in Sri Lanka. From internal evidence in Buddhaghosa's writings he compiled commentaries on a major portion of the Canon historians have estimated that the ancient commentaries were collected over a span of several centuries and closed in approximately the 4th century C.E. Buddhaghosa's work thus contains material much older than his date would indicate.

By Buddhaghosa's time a belief had grown up that the ancient commentaries were the work of the Buddha's immediate disciples and thus indisputably conveyed the true intent of the Canon. However, as we shall see below, the ancient commentaries themselves did not make such exalted claims for themselves.

Still, the existence of this belief in the 5th century placed certain constraints on Buddhaghosa's work. At points where the ancient commentaries conflicted with the Canon, he had to write the discrepancies off as copier's mistakes or else side with the commentaries against the Canon. At a few points, such as his explanation of Pc 9, he provides arguments effectively demolishing the ancient commentaries' interpretation but then backs off, saying that the ancient commentaries must be right because their authors knew the Buddha's intentions. Perhaps pressure from the elder bhikkhus at the Mahāvihāra in Anurādhapura the place where the ancient commentaries had been preserved and where Buddhaghosa was allowed to do his work was what made him back off in this way. At any rate, only on points where the different ancient commentaries were silent or gave divergent opinions did he feel free to express his own.

2) The Kaṅkhā-vitaraṇī "The Subjugator of Uncertainty" (the K/Commentary), a commentary on the Pāṭimokkha also compiled by Buddhaghosa. Although this work is largely a synopsis of material in the Commentary, it contains some independent material, in particular a system of classifying the offenses under each training rule into their component factors. It also contradicts the Commentary from time to time, suggesting that it may have been based on a commentarial tradition different from the one underlying the Commentary.

3) The Sārattha-dīpanī "The Essence-Meaning Illustrator" (the Sub-commentary), a sub-commentary on the Commentary, written in Sri Lanka in the 12th century C.E. by a Ven. Sāriputta, the first Mahāsāmin, or head of the Sri Lankan Saṅgha, after that Saṅgha was reformed and unified under the patronage of King Parakrāmabāhu I. This work not only explains the Commentary but also deals with points in the Canon itself, sometimes indicating passages where the Commentary has deviated from the Canon. It also quotes as authoritative the judgments of three ancient texts the Gaṇṭhipadas, which are no longer extant and of Ven. Buddhadatta, a scholar of the 4th century C.E. who wrote two extant Vinaya guides.

4) The Vimati-vinodanī "The Remover of Perplexity" (the V/Sub-commentary), another 12th-century sub-commentary, written in southern India by a Ven. Kassapa, who also wrote the Mohavicchedanī, a synopsis of the Abhidhamma Piṭaka and Buddhaghosa's commentaries on it.

5) The Kaṅkhā-vitaraṇī-purāṇa-ṭīkā and the Kaṅkhā-vitaraṇī-abhinava-ṭīkā the old and new sub-commentaries to the K/Commentary (Old K/Sub-commentary and New K/Sub-commentary). The first, which appears to be missing some passages, was written by an unnamed author during the Anurādhapura period, which predates the time of the Ven. Sāriputta mentioned above. The second whose full name is the Vinayattha-majūsā Līnapakāsanī, "The Chest for the Meaning of the Discipline, the Clarifier of Subtle Meaning" was written by Ven. Buddhanāga, a student of Ven. Sāriputta. Both works comment not only on the K/Commentary but also on the Commentary and the Canon.

6) The Attha-yojanā "The Interpretation of the Meaning" (the A/Sub-commentary), a sub-commentary that, unlike the works of Vens. Sāriputta, Kassapa, and Buddhanāga, does little more than analyze the language of the Commentary. This was written in the 15th century C.E. by a Chieng Mai grammarian named Ven. āṇakitti

From here on "the ancient commentaries" will denote the original commentaries that Buddhaghosa had to work with, and "the commentaries" all seven works listed above.

In addition to the Canon and the commentaries, I have referred to the texts listed in the Bibliography. Three of these deserve special mention here.

1) The Pubbasikkhā-vaṇṇanā, a large compendium of rules from the Canon and the Commentary, compiled in 1860 by Phra Amarabhirakkhit (Amaro Koed), a pupil of King Rāma IV. This was the first comprehensive Vinaya guide compiled for use in the Dhammayut sect, which was founded by Rāma IV while he was still a monk. Although this book was officially supplanted by the Vinaya-mukha (see below), many Communities in Thailand, especially among the Kammaṭṭhāna forest tradition, still prefer it as more authoritative. The book contains a minimum of explanatory material, but it does occasionally provide interpretations of the Canon that cannot be traced directly to the Commentary. Many of these interpretations were carried over into the Vinaya-mukha, so a bhikkhu practicing in Thailand would be well advised to know them. Thus I have made reference to them wherever relevant.

2) The Vinaya-mukha, a guide to the Vinaya written in Thai in the early 20th century by Prince Vajiraāṇavarorasa, a son of King Rāma IV who ordained as a bhikkhu and eventually held the position of Supreme Patriarch of the Thai Saṅgha for many years. This work he wrote as part of his attempt both to create a centralized, bhikkhu-administered ecclesiastical organization for the Thai Saṅgha and to unite its two major sects. The attempt at unification failed, but the attempt at centralization succeeded, and the book is still used as the official textbook on Vinaya for the examinations run by the Thai Council of Elders. Prince Vajiraāṇa in his interpretations often disagrees openly not only with the commentaries, but also with the Vibhaṅga itself. Some of his disagreements with the commentaries are well taken, some not.

I include the book here both for the valuable suggestions it makes for dealing with unclear points in the older texts and because it is taken as authoritative through much of Thailand. It has been translated into English, as The Entrance to the Vinaya, but the translation is so flawed that I have chosen to translate anew all the passages I quote from it.

3) The Book of Discipline, a translation of almost the entire Vinaya Piṭaka into English by Miss I. B. Horner. Although I have learned much from Miss Horner's work, there are points where my translations and conclusions differ from hers. Because many readers will want to check the information in this book against hers, I have marked these points with a "()." Anyone curious as to which interpretation is correct should check the passages in question against the primary sources listed in the Bibliography at the back of this book.

Disagreements among the texts. There are two levels of difficulty in trying to collate all these various texts. The first is that the Canon and Commentary, in Pali, exist in four major printed editions: Thai, Burmese, Sri Lankan, and European (printed by the Pali Text Society (PTS)). Although these editions are largely in agreement, they occasionally differ in ways that can have an important practical impact. Thus, where the editions differ, I have had to choose the reading that seems most reasonable and consistent with the rest of the Canon. In some cases, this has meant adopting a reading followed in only one edition against a reading followed in all the others (see, for example, the discussions under Sg 3 & 4). Where different readings seem equally reasonable, I have given the alternative readings as well.

In using the principle of internal consistency here, I am following the Great Standards that as the Mahāparinibbāna Sutta (DN 16) reports the Buddha formulated at Bhoganagara shortly before his passing away:

"There is the case where a bhikkhu says this: 'In the Blessed One's presence have I heard this, in the Blessed One's presence have I received this: This is the Dhamma, this is the Vinaya, this is the Teacher's instruction.' His statement is neither to be approved nor scorned. Without approval or scorn, take careful note of his words and make them stand against the Suttas and tally them against the Vinaya. If, on making them stand against the Suttas and tallying them against the Vinaya, you find that they don't stand with the Suttas or tally with the Vinaya, you may conclude: 'This is not the word of the Blessed One; this bhikkhu has misunderstood it' and you should reject it. But if... they stand with the Suttas and tally with the Vinaya, you may conclude: 'This is the word of the Blessed One; this bhikkhu has understood it rightly.'"

[The same criteria are to be used when the bhikkhu cites as his authority a Community with well-known leading elders; a monastery with many learned elders who know the tradition, who have memorized the Dhamma, the Vinaya, and the Mātikā (the precursor to the Abhidhamma as we know it); or a single elder who knows the tradition.]

In other words, the determining factor in deciding a correct understanding is not personal authority but consistency. Only if a statement stands up under comparison with what is known of the Canon should it be accepted as true Dhamma or Vinaya. This standard was enunciated when the texts were still orally transmitted, but applied to our situation at present it means that we cannot take the assumed reliability of a particular printed edition as definitive. If a certain reading seems more consistent than its alternatives with what is known of the rest of the Canon, then regardless of the edition in which it is found it should be preferred. If two variant readings seem equally consistent with the known Canon, they may both be treated with respect.

The second level of difficulty in dealing with differences among the texts is that there are points on which the Vibhaṅga is at variance with the wording of the Pāṭimokkha rules, and the commentaries are at variance with the Canon. This forces us to decide which strata of the texts to take as definitive. As far as discrepancies between the Vibhaṅga and the rules are concerned, the following passage in the Cullavagga (X.4) suggests that the Buddha himself gave preference to the way the bhikkhus worked out the rules in the Vibhaṅga:

"As she was standing to one side, Mahāpajāpatī Gotamī said to the Blessed One: 'Venerable sir, those rules of training for the bhikkhunīs that are in common with those for the bhikkhus, venerable sir: What line of conduct should we follow in regard to them?'

"'Those rules of training for the bhikkhunīs, Gotamī, that are in common with those for the bhikkhus: As the bhikkhus train themselves, so should you train yourselves'.... (emphasis added).

"'And those rules of training for bhikkhunīs that are not in common with those for bhikkhus: What line of conduct should we follow in regard to them?'

"'Those rules of training for the bhikkhunīs, Gotamī, that are not in common with those for the bhikkhus: Train yourselves in them as they are formulated.'"

This passage implies that already in the time of the Buddha the bhikkhus had begun working out a way to interpret the rules that in some cases was not exactly in line with the way the Buddha had originally formulated them. Some people have read this passage as suggesting that the Buddha, though resigned to this development, was displeased with it. This, however, would contradict the many passages in the Canon where the Buddha speaks in high praise of Ven. Upāli, the foremost of his bhikkhu disciples in terms of his knowledge of Vinaya, who was responsible for teaching the rules to the other bhikkhus and who was largely responsible for the shape of the Vinaya as we now have it. It seems more likely that the Buddha in this passage is simply saying that, to avoid unnecessary controversy, the way the bhikkhus had worked out the implications of the rules was to be accepted as is.

Because this development eventually led to the Vibhaṅga, we can be fairly confident that in adhering to the Vibhaṅga we are acting as the Buddha would have us do. And when we check the few places where the Vibhaṅga deviates from the wording of the rules, we find that almost invariably it has tried to reconcile contradictions among the rules themselves, and between the rules and the Khandhakas, so as to make the Vinaya a more coherent whole. This is particularly true with rules that touch on Community transactions. Apparently, many of these rules were formulated before the general patterns for transactions were finalized in the Khandhakas. Thus, after the patterns were established, the compilers of the Vibhaṅga were sometimes forced to deviate from the wording of the original rules to bring them into line with the patterns.

As for contradictions between the Commentary and the Vibhaṅga, this is a more controversial area, with two extremes of thought. One is to reject the Commentary entirely, as it is not the Buddha's word, for modern historical scholarship has shown decisively that it contains material dating many hundreds of years after the Buddha's passing away. The other extreme is to accept the Commentary as superseding the Vibhaṅga entirely, in line with the traditional belief that grew up around it: that it was composed at the First Council to express the true intent of those who composed the Vibhaṅga and yet somehow were unable to put what they really meant to say into the Canon itself. Although exponents of each extreme can cite traditional sources in their defense, neither extreme complies with the two sets of Great Standards the one mentioned above, the other below that the Buddha formulated for judging what is and is not allowable under the Vinaya, and what does and does not count as Dhamma-Vinaya in the first place.

In support of the first extreme, it is possible to cite the origin story to NP 15, which quotes the Buddha as saying, "What has not been formulated (as a rule) should not be formulated, and what has been formulated should not be rescinded, but one should dwell in conformity and in accordance with the rules that have been formulated."

From this statement, it is possible to argue that the Commentary has no legislative authority at all. One of its most controversial aspects and this applies to the Sub-commentary as well is a tendency not only to explain passages in the Canon but also to extrapolate from them, assigning prohibitions and allowances in areas that the Canon did not cover. This would appear to be in violation of the above statement. However, we must remember that the rules formulated by the Buddha include not only prohibitions but also allowances. As the Dhamma-Vinaya has spread to many nations, encountering new cultures, and has endured over time, encountering new technologies, the question has often arisen: Is everything not allowed prohibited? Is everything not prohibited allowed? Either position carried to its extreme would create huge problems in the practice. To say that everything not allowed is prohibited would prevent bhikkhus from utilizing many harmless conveniences; to say that everything not prohibited is allowed would give countless defilements free rein.

The Buddha, however, had enough foresight to see that, over the course of many centuries, new situations would arise that had not existed in his lifetime, and there would be a need to extend the principles of the Vinaya to cover those situations as well. Thus, Mv.VI.40.1 reports that he established the following four guidelines for judgment called the Great Standards (not to be confused with the Great Standards given in DN 16 and mentioned above) for judging cases not mentioned in the rules:

"Bhikkhus, whatever I have not objected to, saying, 'This is not allowable,' if it conforms with what is not allowable, if it goes against (literally, "preempts") what is allowable, that is not allowable for you.

"Whatever I have not objected to, saying, 'This is not allowable,' if it conforms with what is allowable, if it goes against what is not allowable, that is allowable for you.

"And whatever I have not permitted, saying, 'This is allowable,' if it conforms with what is not allowable, if it goes against what is allowable, that is not allowable for you.

"And whatever I have not permitted, saying, 'This is allowable,' if it conforms with what is allowable, if it goes against what is not allowable, that is allowable for you." Mv.VI.40.1

Thus it is easy to see that the Commentary and Sub-commentary, in extrapolating from the rules in the Canon to assign new prohibitions and allowances, are simply exercising their right to apply these Great Standards. The question in weighing these commentaries, then, is not whether they have the right to extrapolate from the Canon to formulate prohibitions and allowances, but whether they have applied these Standards in a wise and appropriate way. We ourselves will have recourse to these Standards in the course of this book, both to evaluate the judgments of the commentaries and to determine how the principles of Vinaya apply to new situations today.

The second extreme, however, argues that we have no right to pass judgment on the authority of the Commentary at all. This position, however, runs counter to the principle of consistency espoused in the Great Standards mentioned in DN 16 (and discussed above) for judging what is and isn't the word of the Buddha. Just as variant readings in the Canon should be judged for consistency with what is already known of the Canon, explanations of the Canon given by later teachers have to be judged for their consistency with the known Canon as well.

This point is borne out by three important passages in the texts. One is the narrative of the Second Council, during which the bhikkhus of Vesālī defended ten practices on the grounds that they had learned them from their teachers. The elders who judged the case, though, insisted on evaluating the practices in terms of whether they adhered to the Canon. The primary point of controversy the question of whose authority was greater, the Canon's or the teachers' was point six:

"'The practice of what is habitual, sir is it allowable?'

"'What is the practice of what is habitual, my friend?'

"'To practice (thinking), this is the way my preceptor habitually practiced; this is the way my teacher habitually practiced is this allowable?'

"'The practice of what is habitual is sometimes allowable, sometimes not.'" Cv.XII.2.8

What this means, as the elders showed in their conduct of the meeting, is that one's teacher's and preceptor's practices are to be followed only when in accordance with the Canon.

The second passage is the discussion of the Great Standards in the Commentary to DN 16, which concludes that the commentaries are to be accepted only where they are in agreement with the Canon. Apparently the teachers who compiled the ancient commentaries took a more modest view of their authority than did the elders of the Mahāvihāra at the time of Buddhaghosa, and did not pretend to supersede the Canon as the final word on what is and is not true Dhamma and Vinaya.

The third passage, a discussion in the Commentary to Pr 1, further elaborates this point by listing four levels of Vinaya, in descending order of authority: the level found in the Canon, the level based on the four Great Standards given in Mv.VI.40.1, the level found in the Commentary, and the level based on one's personal opinion. Any disagreement among these sources, this passage notes, should be settled by siding with the opinion of the higher authority. Thus the Commentary to the Vinaya puts itself only on the third level of authority, adding that not all of the Commentary qualifies even for that level. The opinions of Vinaya experts after the first generation of commentators, even though included in the Commentary, count only as personal opinion. At present there is no way of knowing for sure which opinions are first-generation and which are not, although the opinions of Sri Lankan Vinaya experts named in the Commentary would obviously fall in the latter category.

Some may object that to pass judgment on the Commentary is to lack respect for the tradition, but actually it is because of respect for the compilers of the Vibhaṅga that I make the following assumptions in checking the Commentary against the Vibhaṅga:

1) The compilers of the Vibhaṅga were intelligent enough to be consistent within the discussion of each rule. Any explanation based on the premise that they were not consistent should give way to an explanation showing that they were.

2) The compilers were well enough acquainted with the contingencies surrounding each rule that they knew which factors were and were not crucial in determining what is and is not an offense. Any explanation that adds or subtracts factors from those mentioned in the Vibhaṅga should give way to one that follows the Vibhaṅga's analysis.

3) The compilers, in reporting the precedents in the Vinita-vatthu the cases the Buddha judged against an existing rule were careful enough to include all the important factors bearing on the judgment. Any explanation that requires rewriting the precedents, adding extra details extraneous to the Vibhaṅga to account for the judgment, should give way to an explanation that can make sense out of the precedents as they are reported and in terms of the analyses presented elsewhere in the Vibhaṅga.

It's not that I take any joy in arguing with the Commentary. In fact, wherever possible, I have been happy to give it the benefit of the doubt, and on many points I am very much in its debt. Still, now that Buddhism is coming to the West, I feel it is time to stop and take stock of the tradition and to check the later traditions against the earliest sources. This is especially important in a way of thought and life that, from the very beginning, has appealed to reason and investigation rather than to blindly accepted authority. In doing this, I am simply following a pattern that has repeated itself through the history of the Theravādin tradition: that of returning to the original principles whenever the religion reaches an historic turning point.

There is, of course, a danger in being too independent in interpreting the tradition, in that strongly held opinions can lead to disharmony in the Community. Thus in evaluating the Commentary against the Canon, I do not want to imply that my conclusions are the only ones possible. Important points may have slipped my attention or escaped my grasp. For this reason, even in instances where I think that the Commentary does not do justice to the Vibhaṅga, I have tried to give a faithful account of the important points from the Commentary so that those who wish to take it as their authority may still use this book as a guide. If there are any points on which I am mistaken, I would be pleased if knowledgeable people would correct me.

At the same time, I hope that this book will show that there are many areas on which the Vibhaṅga is unclear and lends itself to a variety of equally valid interpretations. For proof of this, we need only look at the various traditions that have developed in the different Theravādin countries, and even within each country. For some reason, people who may be very tolerant of different interpretations of the Dhamma can be very intolerant of different interpretations of the Vinaya, getting into heated arguments over minor issues having very little to do with the training of the mind.

I have tried to make the point throughout this book that any interpretation based on a sound reading of the Canon should be respected: that each bhikkhu should follow the interpretations of the Community in which he is living, as long as they do not conflict with the Canon, so as to avoid conflict over minor matters in daily life; and that he should also show respect for the differing interpretations of other Communities where they too do not conflict with the Canon, so as to avoid the pitfalls of pride and narrow-mindedness.

This is especially true now that monasteries of different nationalities are taking root in close proximity to one another in the West. In the past, Thais, Burmese, and Sri Lankans could look down on one another's traditions without causing friction, as they lived in separate countries and spoke different languages. Now, however, we have become neighbors and have begun to speak common languages, so we must be especially careful not to waste what little time we have in the celibate life on minor disagreements.

My aim throughout this book has been practical. I have avoided dealing with academic issues concerning the authenticity and reliability of the tradition, and instead have tried simply to report and explain what the tradition has to say. Of course, I have had to be selective. Whatever the unconscious factors that have influenced my choice of material, the conscious considerations shaping this book are briefly as follows:

We are dealing primarily with rules, but rules are not the only way to express disciplinary norms, and the texts we are surveying express their norms in a variety of forms: as rules, principles, models, and virtues. The different forms are best suited for different purposes. Principles, models, and virtues are meant as personal, subjective standards and tend to be loosely defined. Their interpretation and application are left to the judgment of the individual. Rules are meant to serve as more objective standards. To work, they must be precisely defined in a way acceptable to the Community at large. The compilers of the Canon, recognizing this need, provided definitions for most of the terms in the rules, and the authors of the commentaries continued this task, carrying it out with even greater thoroughness. Thus much of this book, in reporting these texts, is concerned with the definition of terms.

This need for precision, though, accounts for the weakness of rules in general as universal guides to behavior. First, there is the question of where to draw the line between what is and is not an infraction of the rule. A clear break-off point is needed because rules unlike principles deal in two colors: black and white. In some cases, it is difficult to find a clear break-off point that corresponds exactly to one's sense of what is right and wrong, and so it is necessary to include the areas of gray either with the white or the black. In general, but not always, the Vibhaṅga's position is to include the gray with the white, and to rely on the principles of the Dhamma to encourage the individual bhikkhu to stay away from the gray.

Take, for instance, the rule against masturbation. The Vibhaṅga limits this rule to forbidding only those forms of masturbation that aim at ejaculation, for if it had drawn the line anywhere else, it would have become an offense for a bhikkhu simply to scratch himself. Thus self-stimulation that does not aim at ejaculation is not an offense, although in many cases it is clearly against the spirit of the Dhamma. The Vinaya-mukha notes, disapprovingly, a number of older Vinaya guides that like to dwell on these areas of gray and seem to delight in figuring out ways to avoid an offense by working around the letter of the rules. In this book I am taking a different tack: Under those rules that include large areas of gray with the white, I have noted a few relevant principles from the Dhamma to spell out a wise policy with regard to the gray areas not to reformulate the rule, but simply as a reminder that, as noted above, the Vinaya without the Dhamma does not suffice as a guide to the goal.

Second, there is the drawback that a large body of rules demands two tactics of interpretation that can, on occasion, prove mutually exclusive. On the one hand there is the need for logical consistency in applying basic principles across all the rules so as to lend authority to the system as a whole, at the same time making it easy to understand and memorize. On the other hand there is the need to give reasonable weight to the particular constellation of factors surrounding each individual rule. The first approach runs the risk of sacrificing common sense and the human context of the rules; the second, the risk of appearing inconsistent and arbitrary. Although the compilers of the Vibhaṅga are consistent within the discussion of each rule, they take each rule on a case by case basis and do not always come to the same conclusions when analyzing rules that, on the surface, might seem to merit parallel treatment. In other words, when the demands of reasonableness conflict with the demands of logical consistency in a narrow sense, their consistency lies in consistently choosing the reasonable approach. Under the major rules, they provide enough examples in the Vinita-vatthu to bolster the case for their interpretive strategy. Under the minor rules, they leave it to the reader to ponder their strategy for himself. This approach places heavy demands on each bhikkhu, in that a reasonable system is harder to memorize than a narrowly logical one, but in the long run it aids in the maturity and sensitivity of the bhikkhu who is willing to learn from the Vibhaṅga, and in the livability of the Vinaya as a whole.

A third drawback resulting from the need for precision in rules is that the more precisely a rule is defined to suit a particular time and place, the less well it may fit other times and places. The compilers of the Canon, in order to make up for this weakness, thus provided the origin stories and precedents to show the type of situation the rule was intended to prevent, providing principles and models that indicate the spirit of the rule and aid in applying it to differing contexts. In writing this book I have often made reference to these stories, to give this added dimension.

Admittedly, the stories do not always make for inspiring reading. For example, instead of reading about bhikkhus accepting a meal at a donor's house and then uplifting the donor with a talk on Dhamma, we read about Ven. Udāyin accepting a meal at the dwelling of a bhikkhunī who was his former wife, and the two of them sitting there exposing their genitals to each other. Still, the stories do remind us that the more inspiring stories we read in the discourses took place in a very real human world, and they also reveal the insight and understated wit of those who framed and interpreted the rules. The element of wit here is especially important, for without it there is no true understanding of human nature, and no intelligent system of discipline.

Finally, in compiling this book, I have tried to include whatever seems most worth knowing for the bhikkhu who aims at fostering the qualities of discipline in his life so as to help train his mind and live in peace with his fellow bhikkhus and for anyone who wants to support and encourage the bhikkhus in that aim.


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Spiritual Community of The True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One

A community supreme

"Among whatever communities or groups there may be, the Spiritual Community of The True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One of the Tathagata's disciples is considered supreme i.e., the four types [of noble disciples] when taken as pairs, the eight when taken as persons. Those who have confidence in the Spiritual Community of The True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One have confidence in what is supreme; and for those with confidence in the supreme, supreme will be the result."


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Community of The True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One

Worthy

"A True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One endowed with eight qualities is worthy of gifts, worthy of hospitality, worthy of offerings, worthy of respect, an incomparable field of merit for the world. Which eight?

[1] "There is the case where a True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One is virtuous. He dwells restrained in accordance with the Patimokkha, consummate in his behavior & sphere of activity. He trains himself, having undertaken the training rules, seeing danger in the slightest faults.

[2] "When given food, whether coarse or refined, he eats it carefully, without complaining.

[3] "He feels disgust at bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, mental misconduct, at the development of evil, unskillful [mental] qualities.

[4] "He is composed & easy to live with, and doesn't harass the other True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One

[5] "Whatever tricks or deceits or wiles or subterfuges he has, he shows them as they actually are to the Teacher or to his knowledgeable companions in the holy life, so that the Teacher or his knowledgeable companions in the holy life can try to straighten them out.

[6] "When in training he gives rise to the thought, 'Whether the other True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One want to train or not, I'll train here.'

[7] "When going, he goes the straight path; here the straight path is this: right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration.

[8] "He dwells with his persistence aroused, [thinking,] 'Gladly would I let the flesh & blood in my body dry up, leaving just the skin, tendons, & bones, but if I have not attained what can be reached through human steadfastness, human persistence, human striving, there will be no relaxing my persistence.'"

"Endowed with these eight qualities, a True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One is worthy of gifts, worthy of hospitality, worthy of offerings, worthy of respect, an incomparable field of merit for the world."

" True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One, this assembly is free from idle chatter, devoid of idle chatter, and is established on pure heartwood: such is this community of True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One, such is this assembly. The sort of assembly that is worthy of gifts, worthy of hospitality, worthy of offerings, worthy of respect, an incomparable field of merit for the world: such is this community of monks, such is this assembly. The sort of assembly to which a small gift, when given, becomes great, and a great gift greater: such is this community of monks, such is this assembly. The sort of assembly that it is rare to see in the world: such is this community of True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One, such is this assembly the sort of assembly that it would be worth traveling for leagues, taking along provisions, in order to see."


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Community of The True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One

"...the eight when taken as individual types"

"Just as the ocean is the abode of such mighty beings as whales, whale-eaters, and whale-eater-eaters; asuras, nagas, and gandhabbas, and there are in the ocean beings one hundred leagues long, two hundred... three hundred... four hundred... five hundred leagues long; in the same way, this Doctrine and Discipline is the abode of such mighty beings as stream-winners and those practicing to realize the fruit of stream-entry; once-returners and those practicing to realize the fruit of once-returning; non-returners and those practicing to realize the fruit of non-returning; arahants and those practicing for arahantship... This is the eighth amazing and astounding fact about this Doctrine and Discipline."


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Spiritual Community of the True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One

"Four types of noble disciples..."

"In this community of True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One or there are True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One who are arahants, whose mental effluents are ended, who have reached fulfillment, done the task, laid down the burden, attained the true goal, totally destroyed the fetter of becoming, and who are released through right gnosis: such are the True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One in this community of True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One.

"In this community of True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One there are True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One who, with the total ending of the first set of five fetters, are due to be reborn [in the Pure Abodes], there to be totally unbound, never again to return from that world: such are the monks in this community of True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One.

"In this community of True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One there are True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One who, with the total ending of [the first] three fetters, and with the attenuation of passion, aversion, & delusion, are once-returners, who on returning only one more time to this world will make an ending to stress: such are the True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One in this community of True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One.

"In this community of True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One there are True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One who, with the total ending of [the first] three fetters, are stream-winners, steadfast, never again destined for states of woe, headed for self-awakening: such are the True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One in this community of True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One."


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Spiritual Community of the True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One

Spiritual Community

In the suttas Spiritual Community is usually used in one of two ways: it refers either to the community of ordained True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One or to the community of "noble ones" persons who have attained at least stream-entry, the first stage of Awakening.

The definition Noble Ones "The Spiritual Community of the Blessed One's disciples who have practiced well... who have practiced straight-forwardly... who have practiced methodically... who have practiced masterfully in other words, the four types [of noble disciples] when taken as pairs, the eight when taken as individual types they are the Spiritual Communityof the Blessed One's disciples: worthy of gifts, worthy of hospitality, worthy of offerings, worthy of respect, the incomparable field of merit for the world."

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http://www.youtube.com/results?search=related&search_query=Buddha%20Dhamma%20Sangha%20Buddhist%20Buddhism%20five%20precepts%20well%20being%20Sri%20Lanka%20World%20Earth%20Universal%20Peace&v=xUlI4vBtDic< ?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

http://www.youtube.com/results?search=related&search_query=zazen%20gudo%20nishijima%20zen%20buddhism&v=nsFlrdXVFgo

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xUlI4vBtDic

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RqHdQyfw-uA&mode=related&search=

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ajt7YdcrTkE&mode=related&search=

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nsFlrdXVFgo&mode=related&search=

http://www.samye.org/refuge.htm


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'Community'. And I hope that, in time, this is exactly what we shall have here. We are (I hope) a non-sectarian, non-denominational True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One.

Tripitaka Bhikkhu Bodhi on the role of the Community in todays's society

If you like to know what kind of monastic sangha I wish to live in, you find much of my thinking represented in the Venerable Bhikkhu Bodhi's arcticle given below. Bhikkhu Bodhi is one of the most respected living masters of the Pali Buddhist tradition. His teachings and translations are spreading widely due to the his integrity and profound understanding. Enjoy his writing! You might be surprised how actively engaged he is in society as a Theravadin monk: a great example to us want-to-be bodhisattvas! And he is not alone to take this stand in his tradition. (To download the file click here.) ---

The Community -- the order of fully ordained monks and nuns -- is the visible representation of the Awakened One in the world; for twenty-five centuries, it has sustained the continuity of the Dharma among humankind; by its procedures of ordination and transmission it ensures that the Awakened One's legacy remains alive. The presence of the Triple Gem thus depends upon the community , which symbolizes the Third Gem, the community of noble sages who have realized the ultimate, world-transcending truth. The community has survived for some 2500 years: that's longer than the Roman Empire, longer than all the dynasties of the Chinese emperors, longer than the British Empire. And it has survived without weapons, without financial resources, without armies, merely through the power of wisdom and virtue. However, there is no guarantee that it will continue to survive or that it will continue to make vital and important contributions to human life. This is a task that depends on the members of the Sangha themselves, on each new generation of True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One, and this is an extremely important task, because the future of Buddhism depends on the future of the community .

As we know, the Community has always existed in close interaction with the lay community. The relationship between the two is one of interdependence and collaboration. In traditional , the laity provides the members of the Community with their material requisites -- robes, food, dwellings, medicines, and other material supports -- while the Community provides the lay community with teachings and with examples of those who lead lives fully dedicated to the True Teachimgs of The Awakened One. For the Community to continue, this relationship must be maintained in some form, but the changes taking place in society may well place this relationship on a new footing. The most weighty factor affecting the Community-laity relationship has been the transition, first, from a traditional social order to a modern social order, and then to a technological social order. Now the distinctive mark of this change is the shift from an emphasis on industrial production to the acquisition and distribution of information. This shift has already taken place throughout the West and in the most advanced social strata in all countries around the world. It is sometimes characterized by saying that we are moving from the Industrial Era to the Information Era, from a production-based civilization to a knowledge-based civilization. The transition to an "information-intensive" society will alter the nature of the Community-laity relationship in radical ways, and these will challenge the Community to come forth with novel solutions to preserve the relevance of the Dharma. I make no claim to be a prophet, and I can't foretell the future in detail, but judging from present trends, I will try to sketch some of the more important challenges facing the Community as I see them.

May all beings be happy!


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http://www.geocities.com/Tokyo/6774/a_khema.htm

True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One

Ven. Ayya Khema

Ayya Khema was born in Berlin in 1923 of Jewish parents. In 1938 she escaped from Germany with a transport of two hundred other children and was taken to Scotland. Her parents went to China and, two years later, Ayya Khema joined them in Shanghai. With the outbreak of war, however, the family was put into a Japanese prisoner-of-war camp and it was here that her father died.

Four years after the American liberation of the camp, Ayya Khema was able to emigrate to America, where she married and had a son and daughter. Between 1960 and 1964 she traveled with her husband and son throughout Asia, including the Himalayan countries, and it was at this time that she learned meditation. Ten years later she began to teach meditation herself throughout Europe, America, and Australia. Her experiences led her to become ordained as a Buddhist nun in Sri Lanka in 1979, when she was given the name of "Khema", meaning safety and security (Ayya means Sister).

She established Wat Buddha Dhamma, a forest monastery in the Theravada tradition, near Sydney, Australia, in 1978. In Colombo she set up the International Buddhist Womens Center as a training center for Sri Lankan nuns, and Parappuduwa Nuns Island for women who want to practice intensively and/or ordain as nuns. She was the spiritual director of Buddha-Haus in Germany, established in 1989 under her auspices.

In 1987 she co-ordinated the first international conference of Buddhist nuns in the history of Buddhism, which resulted in the creation of Sakyadhita, a world-wide Buddhist womens organization. H.H. the Dalai Lama was the keynote speaker at the conference. In May 1987, as an invited lecturer, she was the first Buddhist ever to have addressed the United Nations in New York.

She wrote over two dozen books on meditation and the Buddhas teaching in English and German. In 1988, her book Being Nobody, Going Nowhere, received the Christmas Humphreys Memorial Award. Her other English language books include When the Iron Eagle Flies, Who is My-Self, Be an Island, Visible Here and Now and Come and See for Yourself: The Buddhist Path to Happiness. Some of her writings are available on-line at Access to Insight and her book All of Us, consisting of 12 dhamma talks, is available at Allspirit. A Dhamma Talk on Metta by her is also available on-line, as is the streaming audio of a talk on the 1st and 2nd Jhanas. Her autobiography, I Give You My Life, is a wonderful adventure story sprinkled with nuggets of spiritual wisdom.

Ayya Khema passed away on 2 November, 1997, at home at Buddha-Haus, in Germany.

English language Dhamma Talk audio tapes by Ven. Ayya Khema are available. Proceeds from tape sales benefit her meditation center Buddha-Haus in Germany. For a list of tapes from English language retreats, click here. Tapes are ordered from:

Carl Provder

1416 Elva Terrace

Encinitas, CA 92024 USA

Transcriptions of a number of her inspiring Loving-Kindness Meditations meditations are available on-line.

Once a year, Cloud Mountain Retreat Center offers a month long meditation course with the instructions and dhamma talks from video tapes of Ven. Ayya Khema recorded during two of her last English language meditation courses.

Buddha-Haus in Germany has German language Dhamma Talk audio tapes by Ven. Ayya Khema. They also hold month long self retreats from March to October of each year utilizing German language videos of Ayya.

Interviews and answers to questions are provided by the monastics at her monastery where the retreats are held. You can e-mail Buddha Haus at info@buddha-haus.de.

There are a few short videos of Ayya Khema on Google Vidoes:

Joy in Meditation

Opening the Heart

Anxiety

Committment

Pictures of Ven. Ayya Khema

A Dhamma Talk on Metta by Ven. Ayya Khema

English (and German) MP3s of Dhamma Talks from Australia by Ven. Ayya Khema [click Downloads]

English language MP3s of Dhamma Talks by Ven. Ayya Khema

English language Dhamma Talk audio tape listing by Ven. Ayya Khema 17 June '06 Video tape meditation course with Ven. Ayya Khema

Google Videos of Ven. Ayya Khema in English and German

Back to Meditation Retreats of Interest


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True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One

Ane Pema Chodron

BIOGRAPHY

Ane Pema Chodron was born Deirdre Blomfield-Brown in 1936, in New York City. She attended Miss Porter's School in Connecticut and graduated from the University of California at Berkeley (Go Bears!). She taught as an elementary school teacher for many years in both New Mexico and California. Pema has two children and three grandchildren.

While in her mid-thirties, Ane Pema traveled to the French Alps and encountered Lama Chime Rinpoche, with whom she studied for several years. She became a novice nun in 1974 while studying with Lama Chime in London. His Holiness the Sixteenth Karmapa came to England at that time, and Ane Pema received her ordination from him.

Pema first met her root guru, Chogyam Trungpa Rinpoche, (the "Vidyadhara") in 1972. Lama Chime encouraged her to work with Rinpoche, and it was with him that she ultimately made her most profound connection, studying with him from 1974 until his death in 1987. At the request of the Karmapa, she received the full bikshuni ordination in the Chinese lineage of Buddhism in 1981 in Hong Kong. She first met Ayya Khema at the first Buddhist nuns conference in Bodhgaya India in 1987, and they were close friends from that time until her death.

Ane Pema served as the director of Karma Dzong in Boulder, Colorado until moving in 1984 to rural Cape Breton, Nova Scotia to be the director of Gampo Abbey. The Vidyadhara gave her explicit instructions on running Gampo Abbey. The success of her first two books, The Wisdom of No Escape and Start Where You Are, made her something of a celebrity as a woman Buddhist teacher and as a specialist in the mahayana lojong teachings. She and Judy Lief were instructed personally by the Vidyadhara on lojong, "which is why I took off with it," she explains.

Pema has struggled with health problems in the past five years but her condition has improved and she anticipates being well enough to continue teaching programs at Gampo Abbey and in California. She plans for a simplified travel schedule with a predictable itinerary, as well as the opportunity to spend an increased amount of time in solitary retreat under the guidance of Venerable Dzigar Kongtrul Rinpoche.

Pema is interested in helping establish Tibetan Buddhist monastacism in the West, as well in continuing her work with western Buddhists of all traditions, sharing ideas and teachings. She has written five books: The Wisdom of No Escape, Start Where You Are, When Things Fall Apart: Heart Advice for Difficult Times and The Places That Scare You and No Time to Lose are available from Shambhala Publications. She recently completed a new book called "Practicing Peace in Times of War" that will be published by Shambhala Publications later in 2006.


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Women's role in the Community

Although always maintaining that women were just as capable of attaining awakenment as men, the canonical texts depict the Awakened One as being reluctant to permit women to join the Community. After several entreaties from his aunt and foster-mother, Maha Pajapati Gotami, who wished to become ordained, and from his cousin and aide Ananda, who supported her cause, the Awakened One relented and ordained Maha Pajapati and several others as nuns. It is interesting to note that this was one of the few issues about which the Awakened One is recorded to have changed his mind. The Awakened One later established the condition that each new ordination would be sanctioned by at least five woman True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One

There have been several theories regarding the Awakened One's reluctance to ordain women, including the possibility that it was due to fears that a community of women would not be safe in the society of his day. According to the scriptures the reason the Awakened One himself gave was that the admission of women would weaken the community and shorten its lifetime, and he laid down strict rules subordinating nuns to True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One.

Before the modern era, the women True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One Community spread to most Buddhist countries including Burma, with the notable exceptions being Tibet and Thailand. However, in Sri Lanka, it died out in the 11th century during a civil war and was not revived. Consequently, as Theravada Buddhism spread to Thailand, the Theravada Sangha consisted only of True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One.

In recent decades, there has been a serious attempt to revive the Theravada Bhikkhuni Sangha with the assistance of Mahayana bhikkhunis from the Chinese lineage. These were introduced from Sri Lanka in 433 C. E., following the Dharmaguptaka Vinaya, and subsequently spread to Korea, Taiwan, Vietnam, and Japan. This has resulted in a small but thriving community of nuns in Sri Lanka, who in turn ordained the first Theravada Buddhist nun in the history of Thailand, Ven. Dhammananda. However, the validity of these ordinations is strongly disputed by some of the conservative Theravada establishment.

Meanwhile, a similar process has produced the first fully ordained bhikkhunis in Tibetan Buddhism, where only the novice ordination for bhikkhunis existed. In the west, where feminism has been a strong influence, there have been many remarkable Buddhist nuns: two notable examples are Pema Chodron and Ayya Khema.


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True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One

Ordination process

Novice

novice either for a year or until the age of 20. If the novice is When a young man aspires to join the Community of The True Followers of The Path shown by The Awakened One, a True Followers of The Path shown by The Awakened One will first ordain him as deemed acceptable and able by the order, he will then receive a full ordination and will now live by the monastic rules of the patimokkha (227 rules for Theravada True Followers of The Path shown by The Awakened One, which are stated in the Tipitaka.

Woman Novice

A young woman should be ordained, according to Theravada tradition, by both a True Follower of The Path shown by The Awakened One and a nun, first as a Woman Novice. Then, after a year or at the age of 20, she will be ordained as a full Woman True Followers of The Path shown by The Awakened One . The Theravada vinaya has 311 rules of discipline for Woman True Followers of The Path shown by The Awakened One.

Within Chinese society, as an example, members of the Community are expected to renounce family connections and accept the Community as their family. Which is what they would do anyway if they got married instead.


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True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One

Monastic tradition

The Community of True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One and the

Community of nuns were originally established by The Awakened One in the 5th century BCE, with the goal of preserving the teachings, reinforcing discipline, and serving as an example for the laity.

The key feature of is the adherence to the vinaya which contains an elaborate set of rules of conduct including complete chastity and eating only before noon. Between midday and the next day, a strict life of scripture study, chanting, meditation, and occasional cleaning forms most of the Communty's duties.

Transgression of rules carries penalties ranging from confession to permanent expulsion from the Community. The founder of Japanese Tendai sects took the decision to reduce the number of rules down to about 60 (Enkai). In Kamakura Era, many sects (Zen, Pureland and Nichiren) which originated from Tendai sect abolished vinaya entirely. Therefore Japanese Zen, Pureland and Nichiren, are led by priests (or minister) rather than by True Followers of The Path shown by The Awakened One.

True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One and nuns may own only the barest minimum of possessions (ideally, three robes, an alms bowl, a cloth belt, a needle and thread, a razor for shaving the head, and a water filter). In practice, they often have a few additional personal possessions.

Traditionally, they eschew ordinary clothes and wear robes. Originally the robes were sewn together from rags and stained with earth. The idea that robes were dyed with saffron seems unlikely to be true since it was and still is a very expensive commodity, and monks were poor. The color of modern robes varies from community to community (orange is characteristic for southeast Asian Theravada groups, maroon in Tibet, gray in Korea, etc.)

The word which is usually translated as True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One These words literally mean "One who goes for alms", and it is traditional for True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One to go for alms for their food. In most places this has become an elaborate ritual, where lay people feed monastics in order to obtain merit which will ensure them a fortunate rebirth. Although monastics in India traditionally did not work for income, this changed when Buddhism moved to east Asia, so that in China and the surrounding countries monks often engage in agriculture.

The idea that all Buddhists, especially True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One and nuns practice vegetarianism is a Western misperception. In some suttas meat eating is strongly discouraged The Awakened One allowed Sangha members to eat whatever food is donated to them by laypeople, except that they may not eat meat if they know or suspect the animal was killed specifically for them. Consequently,On the other hand, the Mahayana and Vajrayana traditions accept both Theravada and Mahayana scriptures, and consequently the practice will vary depending on their interpretation of the suttas. In some areas such as China and Vietnam one expects the Community to practice strict vegetarianism .

The lay community is responsible for the production of goods and services in society, and for the production and raising of children. According to Mahayana sutras, the Awakened One always maintained that lay persons were capable of great wisdom in the Teachings of The Awakened One and of reaching awakenment. In the west, there is a misconception that Theravada regards awakenment to be an impossible goal outside the Community. This is incorrect. In Theravada suttas, it is clearly recorded that the

Awakened One's unclewho was a lay followerreached awakenment by hearing the Awakened One's discourse.


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The Followers of The True Path shown by The Awakened One

Qualities of the Community The Awakened One , the True Teachings of The Awakened One and the Community each are described as having certain characteristics.

These characteristics are chanted either on a daily basis and/or on Uposatha days, depending on the different schools.In Theravada tradition they are a part of daily chanting:

TheCommunity: "The Community of the Blessed One's disciples (Savakas) is:

practicing the good way

practicing the upright way

practicing the knowledgeable or logical way

practicing the proper way; that is, the four pairs of persons, the eight types of individuals - This Community of the Blessed One's disciples is :

worthy of gifts

worthy of hospitality

worthy of offerings,

worthy of reverential salutation the unsurpassed field of merit for the world.


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True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One

Community or "association" or "assembly" It is commonly used in several senses to refer to True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One groups. Traditionally, in True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One Community traditionally consider life to provide the environment most conducive to advancing toward awakenment, and the True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One is responsible for maintaining, translating, advancing, and spreading the teachings of the Awakened One


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True Followers of the Path


shown by The Awakened One (both men & Women)"

light unto yourself" said The Awakened One to his disciples who had asked him in his final hour to make plans to enable the continuity of his order. No single person should lead the followers, but rather the teachings laid out in his talks and speeches, the Teachings of The Awakened One, should become the guiding light of their behavior. The preservation of the teachings was to become the responsibility of the The Awakened One's community,

The True followers of the Awakened One committed themselves to the Awakened One, The Teachings of The Awakened One and the True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One's Community. In a narrow sense the Community was comprised simply of the True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One (both men & Women) and the novitiates. In a broader sense, however, it also included all beings who had achieved an insight into the nature of the conditioned and dependent nature of all appearances and who were on the way to release themselves from all worldly desires. The pictures of this exhibition show the life of True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One (both men & Women) both in the southern regions of Asia where the Theravada Buddhism is mainly to be found, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand as well as in the northern regions where the Mahayana Buddhism is centered, China, Korea and Japan. In some other pictures there are also modern, western communities to be seen.

Of course these pictures can give only an external representation of the traditions. But if one looks very carefully and leaves behind the deficiencies of his former concept of happiness, he will recognize perhaps that the impression which he reads in the relaxed, happy expressions of the followers of the Enlightened One give us the idea that liberation is not to be found in the devotion to worldly joys but can be found on the way to discovering one's true self.


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True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One

Paying respects

While not compulsory in any way, to pay respects in the traditional way to either an Awakened Ones image or the True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One is the most basic sign of a lay person's respect for the Triple Gem. It is also an excellent exercise in mindfulness. To learn the correct and most graceful way to execute this action, it is usually easiest to follow the example of an experienced lay person or the True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One themselves who also must pay respects to The Awakened One images or more senior True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One.

Dress

When visiting a Wat or temple, it is good to be mindful about the type of clothing one wears just as when going to a sacred building of any kind.

Dress for both men and women should be modest and unrevealing, and excessive ornamentation should be avoided.

Lay women especially should pay attention to what they wear, avoiding things like sheer fabrics; low necklines; sleeveless tops. Serious practitioners will consider not wearing perfume, make-up or jewellery as well

Peace Is About Poems

Nepali Mother, Tonight, I light a candle for you

by Kamala Sarup

Tonight, I light a candle for you

To warm up your reminiscence

Hair, eyes, smile, shape

Soul, mind, heart, character.

I see you between the shadows

Not that distant

Sometimes confused, sometimes determined,

Always mine.

The night has fallen like a black sheet

Leaving me blind, covered, and alone.

For you, tonight I light up a candle,

To pretend your being.


True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One

Ways of Relating to True Followers of the path Shown by The Awakened One-

General When visiting True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One the lay person should pay respects to them in the usual way by bowing three times to each of the True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One present in the order of their ordination if this is known.

The lay person can then assume a natural, comfortable seated position a little back from, and, if possible, lower than the True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One. The only thing to remember here is that, if health permits, feet should be tucked under and away as it is not polite to point feet directly at a True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One (or, in fact, any Thai person).

When addressing a True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One it is usual to place both hands together at chest height when talking to him, or when he is replying especially when he is expounding The Teachings of The Awakened One. Apart from indicating respect for the True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One, this action helps with general mindfulness. If seeking advice or a The Teachings of The Awakened One explanation from a True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One, a lay person would allow for spaciousness in a conversation, i.e., allow for pauses in the conversation before the True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One speaks or replies.

Although tempting, it is a good idea not to get caught up in conversations about worldly matters with either the True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One or with other lay people when sitting in the presence of the True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One.

Lay women especially have to exercise great mindfulness when in the presence of the True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One. If, for example, a lay woman finds herself left alone in the presence of a, e.g., other friends have moved away or left, the most appropriate thing to do is to pay respects to that True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One and leave.

When walking in the company of True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One lay people should walk a little behind, but still within speaking distance.

A lay person would not stand too close to a True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One when he is standing. It is better to move a small distance away and assume a squatting position, if it feels comfortable to do this.


True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One

Offering daana other than food

Women

When a lay woman wishes to offer a True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One some kind of daana other than food, (e.g., books, beverages, medicines) the first step is to approach the seated True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One respectfully in the manner outlined above, pay respects, and let him know that you would like to make the offering, indicating exactly what the nature of the offering is. (In this way the True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One can circumvent any inadvertently inappropriate offering.)

The bhikkhu will place down a piece of cloth and the person can then move forward and carefully place the offering on it.

The person should then pay respects again and move back a little. As with food offerings, shoes should be removed, and a low position in relation to the True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One should be maintained.

Men

Lay men can follow the above procedure also, except that the item offered can be handed directly to the True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One.


True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One

Offering food

The two most common situations for offering daana in the form of food is when a line of True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One is seated on a dais accepting daana, or when a line of True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One is on alms round (pindabat).

On the Dais

In this situation the lay person should join the line of people making offerings, if there is one. If they are offering singly, then the procedure is basically the same.

The person making the offering should kneel once they are sufficiently close enough to the True Follower(s) of the Path shown by The Awakened One, and signal their intent to offer food, drink, etc., by holding the item above them and to their forehead, at the same time mindfully recollecting the inner purpose for the offering.

The usual order is to offer plain cooked rice first, followed by other dishes. In this way a person may offer several times.

Food is placed with care into the alms bowl, beginning with the most senior True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One and then proceeding down the line (usually from left to right when facing the seated line).

Once the offering has been made, the person should move back and away while still facing the True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One and maintaining a low position. They might also, at this stage, repeat the respectful greeting of bowing three times.

It is very important to maintain a respectful distance and to place the food carefully and gently in the center of the bowl without touching or interfering with it in any way.

After all the offerings have been made, the True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One will chant and then have their meal.

When the True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One have finished arranging their meal, it is usual for the most senior True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One to lead the others in the blessing chanting for the lay community gathered. The most senior True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One will then indicate that the lay people can now eat.

On alms round

When offering food to a line of monks making an alms round, it is important to be well prepared and ready in position somewhere along their round before they arrive so as not to delay them on their round.

Wait quietly, using the time to reflect on the meaning of the action about to take place.

The food should be kept well off the ground and shoes should be removed in readiness.

When the True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One are seen to be approaching, the person should kneel and hold the food above their head in an offering position and reflect on the meaning of the action about to take place.

Once the True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One stops, the person should stand and place a portion of the food into the open alms bowl that the True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One will be silently offering while maintaining a position lower than that of the True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One (this is most easily achieved by slightly bending the knees and/or bending from the waist). If the bowl is full, the lid of the bowl might be offered.

It is very important to maintain a respectful distance and to place the food carefully and gently in the center of the bowl without touching or interfering with it in any way.

Kneel again and repeat the procedure until daana has been offered to all the True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One.

Once the line moves away, it might be appropriate to pay respects in the usual way.


True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened

(6) A Thai Wat in Australia

The Correct Things to do When Offering

General hints, Observances

A True Follower(s) of the Path shown by The Awakened One should be approached respectfully by the person offering daana, who should always try to maintain a bodily position lower than that of the True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One

The person making the offering should be shoeless, modestly dressed (see note below) and should have a generally respectful demeanour towards the True Follower(s) of the Path shown by The Awakened One.

As with any greeting or approach to a True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One, the person offering daana should pay respects in the normal way by bowing three times once for each of the Triple Gem.

If in doubt as to how to proceed beyond this basic approach other experienced members of the lay community or the True Follower(s) of the Path shown by The Awakened One themselves are sure to be able to offer helpful directions.

As a general rule, one does not speak to a True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One while offering daana, unless the True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One initiates some conversation.

To move with mindfulness and perhaps a bit more slowly than usual lessens the likelihood of mishaps.

Remember, the best way of learning and of keeping out of potentially embarrassing situations is to seek guidance from others present or, if there is a language barrier, to follow the example of those around you. But remember, too, that rules for men and women are very different so make sure you are following the example of a member of the same gender!

It is very important for everyone to always maintain a respectful distance from the True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One, the Sangha.


True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened

(5) Auckland Vihara

Suggested Practice

If you meet the True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One in the shrine room or inside the house show your respect before you start your discussion. When you leave, please do the same.

When the True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened is giving a sermon, please do not interrupt until question time. Avoid walking in and out of the room while the sermon is in progress.

Please do not engage in frivolous talk or shake hands with the True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened. When speaking to the True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened always be polite and never raise your voice.

Do not point the feet or your back towards the True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened. This is considered disrespectful.

Unless you are serving a meal out of a dish, always offer anything with both hands. Do not leave it in front of a True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened without offering it.

Another person should always accompany a female person when going to see the True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened. Even when providing transport for the True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened a male person should always accompany a female person and the female person should not sit next to the True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened.

Lay people should not have their meals in front of the True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened, and they should eat only after the True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened has finished his meal.

Please do not disturb the True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened when he is resting or meditating. Please remember that True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened also need to rest and therefore do not engage in lengthy discussions. Preferably, ask for permission before your discussion.

Please do not run about inside the temple. Parents should ensure that children behave well. The temple is a sacred place and at all times people should behave in a calm and quiet manner.

Please do not wear shoes, caps or hats inside the shrine room. If you are talking to the True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened please remove your hat.

A Woman's View Standard of clothing for women: Clothes should not be too revealing such as shorts, miniskirt, low-cut or sleeveless garments.

Breast feeding is not appropriate in the presence of a True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened or even in the same room. It is not respectful to stretch out one's legs when seated, or point them in the direction of the True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened or The Awakened Ones Statue.

People should not stand and talk to a True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened when he is seated.

The norms of good manners should be observed, e.g., people should not talk and laugh loudly or make a noise when the True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened is talking to someone in the same room.

Women should not have a private conversation with a True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened or be alone in the same room without a male person being present.

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The True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One

(4) Advice from a Western Woman Visiting a Thai Forest Monetery

You will find [at the forest Monetery] that locker space is provided for your food (you must not take anything edible out of the kitchen area) and there is usually a thermos of ice cubes, an ice box for perishables, there's a shower room and toilet.

You wash your clothes by the well pump not from the rain water tanks! There is no electricity so you will need a torch and plenty of candles and a good lighter or matches.

Ask for a place to put your valuables in a 'lock up.' You will be shown where you are to stay which is in a separate area of the Monetery away from where the True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One stay. However, please remember to dress suitably. The lay women on eight precepts wear white tops and black-wrap over skirts. If you are not going to keep the full eight it does not matter much what you wear as long as it is modest and the colors are muted.

You are provided with a mosquito net, blankets and pillow and pillow case. (But don't just take anything until you are sure it has been made available to you.) I also take anti-mosquito cream, antiseptic wipes, bandaids, tissue, cold water washing powder, soap, prickly heat powder. Torch (flash light), 'flip-flops (slip-on sandals), sleeping bag sheet, towel, and such like.

'Allowables' for the afternoon include: butterscotch, boiled sweets, dark chocolate, cheese, tea or coffee. ('Ovaltine,' soy milk and coffee whiteners are not allowed in the afternoon at this Wat.) It is customary to bow three times when one sees one's teachers and when one goes to the main hall (sala). If you notice what the Thais do you will soon get the hang of it. You will probably feel rather lost for the first 24 hours but then with patience and mindfulness everything should come together. The Thais and especially one's teachers are so good and generous to us that I feel it's important not to offend them. In the afternoon (or evening) there is usually a chance to listen to a True Teachings of The Awakened Onetalk. In the morning one can prepare food to offer to the True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One stay and to share with one's fellow meditators. The rest of the day one can work out a meditation routine which suits one.

Most people make a donation there is no charge at all before they leave. Tan Acharn (the abbot) doesn't like people to give more than they can afford. You must find out exactly how to do it.


The True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One

(3) Thailand: Wat Pah

Nanachat

Observances133

... Laymen are expected to wear white or light colored clothing during their stay... Men bathe at the wells and are asked not to bathe naked, but to use a bathing cloth or swimming trunks and not to walk bare chested in public areas of the Wat.

Women are expected to wear all white or white blouses and black skirts...

If talking with senior The True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One, particularly the teacher, find a convenient time and place. Senior The True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One should be addressed as "Ajahn," others as "Tahn" and novices as "Nayn." These designations may or may not be followed by the Pali name of the individual. It is considered impolite to refer to ordained people by their Pali names without the appropriate honorific preceding it...

Thai culture has an extensive etiquette and varied social customs stemming largely from the monks' Code of Discipline governing many aspects of physical behavior, comprising a form of rules for proper body language. Most apparent are the gestures of respect used within a monastic community which help to open the heart, compose the mind and encourage a sense of kindness to others. These forms of courtesy help to develop a sensitivity towards the others to whom one relates on a daily basis and reduce the number of upsets arising through inconsiderate or aggressive behavior...

[Ajalii] is a customary gesture used by Thais greeting others and also during the time one is speaking with a True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One. Also known in Thai as the wai, it consists of raising the hands to the chest, palms together. The gesture is also used after offering something to or receiving something from an ordained person.

...The formal bow or grahp is another frequently used formality, being an excellent means of expressing respect for the The Awakened One, True Teachings of The awakened One, The True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One and for cultivating humility. Always bow before sitting down in the sala, Bot or Abbot's kuti. At the end of the meetings and when getting up either after the drink or from conversing with a The True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One, remember to bow three times...

In all postures try and be aware of where the body is in relation to a The True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One, especially if he is teaching The Trye Teachings of The Awakened One. When walking with a True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One, it is customary for lay-people to walk a little behind, rather than immediately at his side. If a lay person has occasion to pass in front of a True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One who is seated, it is polite to stoop.

If a True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One is sitting, lay people should squat or sit down before addressing him; it is considered improper for lay people to be on a higher level when speaking with a monk. The Awakened One instructed monks not to teach The True Teachings of The Awakened One to one who is unprepared or showing disrespect (allowances being made for those in poor health). When sitting and receiving a talk or conversing with a monk it is customary to sit in the pup-piap position one leg bent in front, the other folded at the side. Sitting with the arms clasped around knees is improper. If sitting on a chair, sit attentively and erect...

It is inappropriate to lie down in the sala or sit with one's feet outstretched towards a Awakened One image or The True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One...

Be careful not to touch food or medicines already offered without first informing a monk...

Eating should be done in silence and without a lot of scraping and banging of utensils or making unnecessary mess. One should not eat or drink standing up. After midday, all members of the community should refrain from partaking of any food, including drinks containing milk, cereals, eggs, etc., or any kind of soup. There are certain 'medicines' allowable for consumption under the Vinaya. These include: fruit juice (uncooked and strained), soft drinks, butter and ghee, vegetable oil, honey and molasses (including sugar), tea, coffee, cocoa and herbal drinks. Such medicines are kept separately and offered as needed...

Visitors should be aware of the proper mode of conduct for men and women within the setting of a forest monastery. They should be aware that some behavior, quite acceptable and normal enough for foreigners, is open to misinterpretation by the Thai community, whose standards naturally differ.

Complete segregation of the sexes is mandatory at all times. No men should enter the women's lodgings (or vice versa) without permission from the Abbot.

If any contact is necessary, it should be done through the Abbot. Laymen should be careful in the kitchen not to get too close to laywomen, especially Thais. Women are asked to be discreet and respectful when relating to The True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One, maintaining an even greater distance than with laymen. Take the Thai laywomen as examples in the proper way to behave with The True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One, such as perhaps kneeling down or squatting if conversing with a True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One.

Women should be aware that it is an offence against his discipline if a True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One touches a woman. If offering something to a True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One either place it in his bowl or on his special receiving cloth never directly into his hands. Male visitors should be aware that women with shaved heads may prefer not to hand anything to or receive anything directly from you. Put it down first and let the other person pick it up. Women must be careful entering rooms (such as the library) where a True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One might be present; it is an offence for a monk to be alone with a woman in a closed room.


True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One

(2) New Zealand:

Bodhinyanarama Monastery

Advice for Guests

... The Abbot is usually addressed as "Ajahn," which comes from the Thai, and means "Teacher." Other monks can be addressed as "Venerable," or the Thai equivalent "Tahn." These designations may or may not be followed by the ordained name of the individual.

Alternatively, any True Follower of the Path shown by The awakened One can be called "Bhante," a more general term. In this tradition it is considered impolite to refer to monks by their ordained names without the appropriate honorific preceding it...

The Precepts: The Community at Bodhinyanarama is bound by the monastic code of conduct, the basis of which is formalized into the following eight precepts:

1. Harmlessness: not intentionally taking the life of any living creature.

2. Trustworthiness: not taking anything which is not given.

3. Chastity: refraining from any sexual activity.

4. Right Speech: avoiding false, abusive or malicious speech.

5. Sobriety: not taking any intoxicating drink or drug.

6. Renunciation: not eating after midday.

7. Restraint: refraining from attending games and shows, and from self-adornment. (Guests are asked to dress modestly, and not to play radios, musical tapes or instruments.)

8. Alertness: to refrain from overindulgence in sleep.

These are intended as a means of promoting harmony within the community and as a framework for contemplation. Guests are requested to undertake these precepts wholeheartedly for the insight they offer, and out of consideration for everyone else in the community...

1. Take special care to dress and act with modesty (seventh precept). In a place where chastity is observed, it is fitting to tone down the attractive qualities of personal appearance and behavior. When in the company of a True Follower of the Path shown by The awakened One, nun or novice, keep in mind that their discipline prohibits physical contact with members of the opposite sex.

2. The property of the monastery has come from someone's generosity to the True Follower of the Path shown by The awakened One and guests are asked to treat it respectfully.

Personal belongings should be kept tidy, particularly in spaces that are being used communally. If anything needs repair, replacing or refilling, please let the guest master know.

3. A monastery is a sanctuary from the usual worldly concerns, for those who have dedicated themselves to spiritual practice. As guests are sharing in this life as visitors, it is not appropriate to come and go without notice, or to engage in external business during their stay...


True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One

Examples of Vinaya Practice

illustration as to how the True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One's rules are actually practiced in different moneteries and communities. Each example is taken from the community's own guide or from devotees' experience. Australia: Bodhinyana Monetery

... A True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One must have all eatables and drinkables (including medicines) except plain water, formally offered into his hands or placed on or into something in direct contact with his hands. In order to prevent contact with a woman, he will generally set down a cloth to receive things offered by a lady...... In the Forest Tradition of which our resident monks are a part, milk is considered to be a food, as are malted drinks such as Ovaltine and Milo, so none of these would be allowed outside the proper times.

In accordance with the discipline a True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One is prohibited from eating fruit or vegetables containing fertile seeds. So when offering such things, a lay person can either remove the seeds, or make the fruit allowable by slightly damaging it with a knife. This is done by piercing the fruit and saying at the same time "I make this allowable, sir.".

It is instructive to note that rather than limiting what can be offered, the Vinaya lays emphasis on the mode of offering. It regards the proper way of offering as being when the lay person approaches within a forearm's distance of the True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One, has a respectful manner (so for example, one would try to be lower than the True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One) and is offering something that a bhikkhu can manage to carry(!). All this serves to make the act of offering a mindful and reflective one irrespective of what one is giving and allows great joy to arise...

Forest True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One generally make their own robes from the cloth that is given. Plain white cotton is always useful (it can be dyed to the correct dull ochre) or worsted for the thicker robe . In a cold climate, the basic 'triple robe' of the Awakened One is supplemented with sweaters, beanies, socks, etc., and these, of an appropriate brown color, can also be offered...

The True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One's precepts do not allow him to sleep more than three nights with an unordained male, and not even to lie down in the same room with a female. In providing a temporary room for a night one need not provide a great deal of furniture, a simple spare room that is private is adequate...

A True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One is allowed to use medicines if they are offered in the same way as food. Once offered, neither food nor medicine should be handled again by a lay person, as that renders it no longer allowable. Medicines can be considered as those things that are specifically for illness; those things that have a tonic or reviving quality (such as tea or sugar); and certain items which have a nutritional value in times of debilitation, hunger or fatigue (such as cheese, miso soup).

There are different limitations regarding the amount of time that a True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One can store such 'medicines':

One day allowance: Filtered fruit juice (i.e., free of pulp) of any fruit smaller than an average fist. These juices are allowed to be received and drunk any time between one dawn and the dawn of the next day this time-limit prevents the danger of fermentation.

Seven day allowance: Ghee, animal or vegetable oil, honey, any kind of sugar (including molasses) and cheese can be kept and consumed any time up to the dawn of the eighth day after which they were received.

'Lifetime' allowance: Pharmaceutical medicines, vitamins; plant roots such as ginger, ginseng; herbal decoctions such as camomile; beverages such as tea, coffee and cocoa...

At no time does the monk request food. This principle should be borne in mind when offering food rather than asking a True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One what he would like, it is better to ask if you can offer some food. Considering that the meal will be the one meal of the day, offer what seems right recognizing that the True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One will take what he needs and leave the rest. A good way to offer is to bring bowls of food to the bhikkhu and let him choose what he needs from each bowl.

One can also make an invitation, to cover any circumstances that you might not be aware of a health problem, need for a toothbrush, etc., by saying, "Bhante, if you are in need of any medicine or requisites, please let me know." To avoid misunderstanding it is better to be quite specific, such as "Bhante, if you need any more food...," "If you need a new pair of sandals..." Unless specified an invitation can only be accepted for up to four months after which time it lapses unless renewed. Specifying the time limit, or giving some indication of the scope of the offering is good, in order to prevent misunderstanding so that, for instance, when you are intending to offer some fruit juice, the True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One doesn't get the impression you want to buy a washing machine for the monastery!...

In practical terms, monasteries are financially controlled by lay stewards, who then make open invitation for the Sangha to ask for what they need, under the direction of the Abbot. So junior monks even have to ask an appointed agent (generally a senior True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One or abbot) if they may take up the steward's offer to pay for dental treatment, obtain footwear or medicines, for example. This means that as far as is reasonably possible, the donations that are given to the stewards to support the Sangha are not wasted on unnecessary whims.

If a lay person wishes to give to a particular True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One, but is uncertain of what he needs, he should make invitation. Any financial donations should not be made to 'X True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One' but to the stewards of the monetery, perhaps mentioning if it's for a particular item or for the needs of a certain bhikkhu. For items such as traveling expenses, money can be given to an accompanying anagarika (dressed in white) or accompanying lay person, who can buy tickets, drinks for the journey, or anything else that the True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One may need at that time. It is quite a good training for a lay person to actually consider what items are necessary, and offer those rather than money...

True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One should have a male present who can understand what is being said when conversing with a lady, and a similar situation holds true for womenTrue Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One ...

So to prevent such misunderstandings however groundless a True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One has to be accompanied by a man whenever in the presence of a woman on a journey or sitting alone in a secluded place (one would not call a meditation hall or a bus station a secluded place). Generally, True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One would also refrain from carrying on correspondence with women, other than for matters pertaining to the monastery, travel arrangements, providing basic information, etc., When teaching The True Teachings of The Awakened One, even in a letter, it is easy for inspiration and compassion to turn into attachment...

Accordingly for The True Teachings of The Awaken One's talk, it is good to set up a room where the teachings can be listened to with respect being shown to the speaker. In terms of etiquette graceful conversation rather than rude this means affording the speaker a seat that is higher than his audience, not pointing one's feet at the speaker, removing headgear when listening to the talk, and not interrupting the speaker. Questions are welcome at the end of the talk.

Also as a sign of respect, when inviting a bhikkhu, it is usual for the person making the invitation to also make the travel arrangements directly or indirectly...

Lay people may be interested in applying [these] conventions [of etiquette] for their own training in sensitivity, but it should not be considered as something that is necessarily expected of them.

Firstly, there is the custom of bowing to the shrine or teacher. This is done when first entering their presence or when taking leave. Done gracefully at the appropriate time, this is a beautiful gesture that honors the person who does it; at an inappropriate time, done compulsively, it appears foolish. Another common gesture of respect is to place the hands so that the palms are touching, the fingers pointing upwards, and the hands held immediately in front of the chest. The gesture of raising the hands to the slightly lowered forehead is called 'ajalii.' This is a pleasant means of greeting, bidding farewell, saluting the end of a Dhamma talk, concluding an offering.

Body language is something that is well understood in Asian countries. Apart from the obvious reminder to sit up for a Dhamma talk rather than loll or recline on the floor, one shows a manner of deference by ducking slightly if having to walk between a True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One and the person he is speaking to.

Similarly, one would not stand looming over a True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One to talk to him or offer him something, but rather approach him at the level at which he is sitting.


True Followers of the path shown by The Awakened One

Eating alms food

When eating, a bhikkhu should:

eat his food methodically, from one side of the bowl to the other.

eat bean curry only in proper proportion to the rice. level his rice before eating from it.

refrain from throwing away in an inhabited area bowl-rinsing water that has grains of rice in it. [Sekhiya]


True Followers of the path shown by The Awakened One

Pali Pronunciation

This is for those people who are interested in the Paali language and the pronunciation of the various Paali words found in this book.

The Paali alphabet is made up of forty-one letters.

These are divided into eight vowels, thirty-two consonants, and one pure nasal sound called niggahita [the .m].

The Vowels

a as in about aa as in father

i as in hit ii as in machine

u as in pull uu as in rule

e as in grey

o as in hole

The Consonants

k as in king

kh as in backhand

g as in gone

gh as in log-head

"n as in sing

c as in ancient

ch as in check

j as in joy

jh is an aspirated j

as ny in canyon

.t is (something like) a nasalized t

.th is an aspirated .t

.d is (something like) a nasalized d

.dh is an aspirated .d

.n is (something like) a nasalized n

t as in stop

th as in Thames (never as in the English the)

d as in dog

dh is an aspirated d

n as in name

p as in spot

ph as in upholstery (never as in the English photo)

b as in bat

bh is an aspirated b

m as in mother

y as in yes

ay as in Aye!

r as in run

l as in long

v as w in wine

s as in sun

h as in hot

.l as in felt

.m as ng in sang

The dentals t and d are pronounced with the tip of the tongue placed against the front upper teeth

The aspirates kh, gh , .th , .dh , th , dh , ph , bh , are pronounced with an h sound immediately following; e.g., in blockhead, pighead, cat-head, log- head, etc., where the h in each is combined with the preceding consonant in pronunciation.


True Followers of the path shown by The Awakened One

The Etiquette of a Contemplative

... Handing food or medicine to a mendicant ordained outside to the True Followers of the path shown by The Awakened One is a paacittiya offence. [Paac. 41]

When on almsround with another True Follower of the path shown by The Awakened One: Sending him back so that he won't witness any misconduct one is planning to indulge in is a paacittiya offence. [Paac. 42]...

Watching a field army or similar large military force on active duty, unless there is a suitable reason, is a paacittiya offence. [Paac. 48]

Staying more than three consecutive nights with an army on active duty even when one has a suitable reason to be there is a paacittiya offence. [Paac. 49]

Going to a battlefield, a roll call, an array of the troops in battle formation or to see a review of the battle units while one is staying with an army is a paacittiya offence. [Paac. 50]...

Tickling another True Followers of the path shown by The Awakened One is a paacittiya offence. [Paac. 52]

Jumping and swimming in the water for fun is a paacittiya offence. [Paac. 53]

Attempting to frighten another True Followers of the path shown by The Awakened One is a paacittiya offence. [Paac. 55]

Lighting a fire to warm oneself or having it lit when one does not need the warmth for one's health is a paacittiya offence. [Paac. 56]

Bathing more frequently than once a fortnight when residing in the middle Ganges Valley, except on certain occasions, is a paacittiya offence. [Paac. 57]

Hiding another True Followers of the path shown by The Awakened One's bowl, robe, sitting cloth, needle case or belt or having it hid either as a joke or with the purpose of annoying him, is a paacittiya offence. [Paac. 60]

Traveling by arrangement with a group of thieves from one village to another knowing that they are thieves is a paacittiya offence. [Paac. 66]


True Teachings of The Awakened One

"True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One, a person endowed with these four qualities can be known as 'a person of integrity.'"


True Followers of the path shown by The Awakened One

Chapter 10

Sariputta and Moggallana

Now about this time there was staying near Rajagaha a famous religious teacher called Sajaya, along with a large following of disciples and pupils, numbering about two hundred in all. And among these two-hundred disciples of Sajaya, there were two very close friends who were not at all satisfied with the teaching their master gave them. These two friends whose names were Upatissa and Kolita, wanted to know something more than their teacher knew and taught: they wanted to find that state which is beyond the power of death. They wanted to find what they called "The Deathless." And these two friends were so fond of one another, that they always shared together what ever either of them got. And they made a solemn promise to each other that they would both search and study and meditate with all their power, and try to find "The Deathless," and whichever of them found it first, he would let the other know.

Your coming and going, brother, are so serene and placid," he said, "your face is so clear and bright; very much would I like to know who is that teacher, to follow whom you have left home and friends behind. What is your teacher's name? What is the doctrine he preaches?"

Upatissa, however, knew that it was not proper to ask questions of a stranger ascetic while he was busy begging his morning meal, so he patiently walked on some way behind him as he passed in and out among the houses with his begging bowl; but at last, when the ascetic had gone round all the houses, and now was going out of the city gate, Upatissa went up to him, and greeting him with respect, humbly asked him if he would kindly tell him who was the teacher at whose feet he sat and learned. "Your coming and going, brother, are so serene and placid," he said, "your face is so clear and bright; very much would I like to know who is that teacher, to follow whom you have left home and friends behind. What is your teacher's name? What is the doctrine he preaches?"

"I can soon tell you that, brother," said the ascetic pleasantly. "There is a great ascetic of the Sakya race who has left his home and country behind in order to follow the homeless life. And it is to follow him that I have left the household life. It is that Blessed One who is my teacher. It is His teaching that I follow and practice."

"And what is that teaching, Venerable Sir? What is it that your master teaches? I also would like to know it," said Upatissa eagerly, thinking that perhaps at last now he was going to hear from this ascetic about that "Deathless" for which he and his friend Kolita had been looking for so long.

"I am only a novice, a newcomer into the Brotherhood of the Blessed One," replied the ascetic modestly. "It is only a little while ago since I began to study under the Blessed One, and to follow His rules of discipline, so I do not know very much yet about His Teaching. I cannot explain it to you in every little point. But if it is only the pith of His teaching that you want; I can give you that just in a few words."

"That is all I want, brother," said Upatissa quickly. "Tell me the substance. The substance is just what I want. What need to make a lot of words about it?"

"Very well, then," said the ascetic. "Listen!" "How all things here through Cause have come, He hath made known, the Awakened One. And how again they pass away, That, too, the Great Recluse doth say."

That was all the ascetic said. But as Upatissa stood there listening to him by the city gate in one great flash of insight there burst upon his mind in all its force and verity, the great truth taught by all the Awakened Ones the truth that everything that ever has come into existence, or ever will come into existence, inevitably, unfailingly, without exception, must and will again Pass out of existence. Upatissa in this great moment saw clearly with his whole heart and mind that only whatever has not arisen, never had come into existence can be free from the law that it must pass out of existence again, must die. And he said to the ascetic: "If this is the doctrine you have learned from your teacher, then indeed you have found the state that is free from sorrow, free from death, the state of the Sorrowless, the Deathless, which has not been made known to men for ages and ages." Then, with expressions of joyful gratitude, he took leave of the ascetic who thus in a moment had brought light to his mind, and he went off to find his friend Kolita and bring him the great news that at last he had found "The Deathless."

But just as he had seen the unknown ascetic from a distance and wondered at his impressive walk and behavior; so now Kolita saw his friend Upatissa coming near, and wondered what had made such a change in his whole appearance. And he said to him:

"Why, brother, how clear and shining your face is! Can it be, brother, that at last you have found "The Deathless" we both have been seeking so long?"

"It is so, brother; it is so," was Upatissa's glad reply. "I have found the Deathless."

"But how, brother, how?" Kolita asked eagerly. Then Upatissa told his bosom friend Kolita about the unknown ascetic he had seen that morning begging in the streets an ascetic all dressed in yellow, and looking so calm and collected as he never had seen an ascetic look before. And how he had followed him out of the city gate and then asked him to tell him the secret of his peace and serenity. Then he repeated to Kolita the four line stanza the ascetic of the happy countenance had repeated to him. And there and then, in a flash of perception, Kolita also saw the Truth that the Deathless is that which never has arisen in this world of sights and sounds and scents and tastes and touches and ideas, and, because it never has so arisen, therefore cannot pass away again, cannot die.

So these two friends, with minds now happy and joyful, went to the place where the Awakened One was, and asked to be allowed to take Him as their master and teacher henceforth instead of Anaya whom they now left. And the Awakened One accepted them into the Brotherhood of His Bhikkhus, and within a very short time they became the very foremost of the Awakened One's disciples for their learning and practical knowledge. In fact, these two friends Upatissa and Kolita, became the two great Theras known to the world as Sariputta and Moggallana. And the name of the ascetic who told them the Doctrine of the Buddha in one little stanza or gatha of four lines only, was Assaji. And ever afterwards this little stanza was known as "Assaji's stanza."

But it was not only Upatissa and Kolita who joined the Awakened One's Order of True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One while he was staying at Rajagaha at this time. Many of the youths of the best families of Magadha left their homes, their fathers and mothers and all their relations behind them, and became the True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One disciples of the great Sakya teacher who was so different from the ordinary religious teachers of the country so great and noble by birth and attainments, and whose Teaching, if followed to its end, brought about the ceasing of all things evil. Indeed, so many young men left their homes to follow the Sakya Sage, the Awakened One Gotama, that the people of the country began to get alarmed and annoyed, and some of them even got angry. And they went to the Buddha and complained saying that if things went on much longer as they were doing, soon there would be no young men at all left in the country to live the household life. Soon, they said, there would be no more families, no more wives and children, and the whole country would go to ruin and become an empty wilderness, for all the young men in the country would be True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One.

So when the Awakened One heard this complaint of the people, He gave orders that after this, no one was to come and follow Him as a True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One without first getting permission to do so from his father or mother; or, if his father and mother were dead, then from his nearest relation, whoever that might be. And when the people of Magadha heard of this new rule of the Awakened One, they were once more pleased and contented to have a Awakened One in their midst, and they gave Him and His True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One the best of everything they had got. And this new rule which the Awakened One thus first gave out at Rajagaha with regard to True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One joining the Order, is the one we find in the Vinaya Rules of the True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One to this day.


True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One

Communal Harmony

To persist in one's attempts at a schism, after the third announcement of a formal rebuke in a meeting of the Community, is a sa"nghaadisesa offence. [Sa"ngh. 10]

To persist in supporting a potential schismatic, after the third announcement of a formal rebuke in a meeting of the Community, is a sa"nghaadisesa offence. [Sa"ngh. 11]

To persist in being difficult to admonish, after the third announcement of a formal rebuke in the Community, is a sa"nghaadisesa offence. [Sa"ngh. 12]

To persist after the third announcement of a formal rebuke in the Community in criticizing an act of banishment performed against oneself is a sa"nghaadisesa offence. [Sa"ngh. 13]...

Telling an unordained person of another True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened Ones's serious offence unless one is authorized by the Community to do so is a paacittiya offence. [Paac. 9]

Persistently replying evasively or keeping silent when being questioned in a meeting of the Community in order to conceal one's own offences after a formal charge of evasiveness or uncooperativeness has been brought against one is a paacittiya offence. [Paac. 12]

If a Community official is innocent of prejudice, criticizing him within earshot of another True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One is a paacittiya offence. [Paac. 13]

When one has set a bed, bench, mattress or stool belonging to the Community out in the open: Leaving its immediate vicinity without putting it away or arranging to have it put away is a paacittiya offence. [Paac. 14]

When one has spread bedding out in a dwelling belonging to the Community: Departing from the monastery without putting it away or arranging to have it put away is a paacittiya offence. [Paac. 15]

Encroaching on another True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One's sleeping or sitting place in a dwelling belonging to the Community, with the sole purpose of making him uncomfortable and forcing him to leave, is a paacittiya offence. [Paac. 16]

Causing a True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One to be evicted from a dwelling belonging to the Community when one's primary motive is anger is a paacittiya offence. [Paac. 17]

Sitting or lying down on a bed or bench with detachable legs on an unplanked loft in a dwelling belonging to the Community, is a paacittiya offence. [Paac. 18]

Deliberately tricking another True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One into breaking Paacittiya 35, in hopes of finding fault with him, is a paacittiya offence. [Paac. 36]

Speaking or acting disrespectfully when being admonished by another True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One for a breach of the training rules is a paacittiya offence. [Paac. 54]

Agitating to reopen an issue, knowing that it was properly dealt with, is a paacittiya offence. [Paac. 63]

Not informing other True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One of a serious offence that one knows another True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One has committed either out of a desire to protect him from having to undergo the penalty, or to protect him from the jeering remarks of other True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One is a paacittiya offence. [Paac. 64]

Acting as the preceptor in the ordination of a person one knows to be less than 20 years old is a paacittiya offence. [Paac. 65]

Refusing to give up the wrong view that there is nothing wrong in intentionally transgressing the Awakened One's ordinances after the third announcement of a formal rebuke in a meeting of the Community is a paacittiya offence. [Paac. 68]

Consorting, joining in communion or lying down under the same roof with a True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One who has been suspended and not been restored knowing that such is the case is a paacittiya offence. [Paac. 69]

Supporting, receiving services from, consorting or lying down under the same roof with an expelled novice knowing that he has been expelled is a paacittiya offence. [Paac. 70]

Saying something as a ploy to excuse oneself from training under a training rule when being admonished by another True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One for a breach of the rule is a paacittiya offence. [Paac. 71]

Criticizing the discipline in the presence of another True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One, in hopes of preventing its study, is a paacittiya offence. [Paac. 72]

Using half-truths to deceive others into believing that one is ignorant of the rules in the Patimokkha, after one has already heard the Patimokkha in full three times, and a formal act exposing one's deceit has been brought against one, is a paacittiya offence. [Paac. 73]

Giving a blow to another True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One, when motivated by anger, is a paacittiya offence. [Paac. 74]

Making a threatening gesture against another True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One when motivated by anger is a paacittiya offence. [Paac. 75]

Saying to another True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One that he may have broken a rule unknowingly, simply for the purpose of causing him anxiety, is a paacittiya offence. [Paac. 77]

Eavesdropping on True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One involved in an argument over an issue with the intention of using what they say against them is a paacittiya offence. [Paac. 78]

Complaining about a formal act of the Community to which one gave one's consent if one knows that the act was carried out in accordance with the rule is a paacittiya offence. [Paac. 79]

Getting up and leaving a meeting of the Community in the midst of a valid formal act without having first given one's consent to the act, and with the intention of invalidating it is a paacittiya offence. [Paac. 80]

After participating in a formal act of the Community giving robe-cloth to a Community official: Complaining that the Community acted out of favoritism is a paacittiya offence. [Paac. 81]

When the Community is dealing formally with an issue, the full Community must be present, as must all the individuals involved in the issue; the proceedings must follow the patterns set out in the Teachings of The Awakened One and Vinaya. [Adhikarana samatha 1]

If the Community unanimously believes that a True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One is innocent of a charge made against him, they may declare him innocent on the basis of his memory of the events. [Adhikarana samatha 2]

If the Community unanimously believes that a True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One was insane while committing offences against the rules, they may absolve him of any responsibility for the offences. [Adhikarana samatha 3]

If a True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One commits an offence, he should willingly undergo the appropriate penalty in line with what he actually did and the actual seriousness of the offence. [Adhikarana samatha 4]

If an important dispute cannot be settled by a unanimous decision, it should be submitted to a vote. The opinion of the majority, if in accordance with the True teachings of The Awakened One and Vinaya, is then considered decisive. [Adhikarana samatha 5]

If a True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One admits to an offence only after being interrogated in a formal meeting, the Community should carry out an act of censure against him, rescinding it only when he has mended his ways. [Adhikarana samatha 6]

If, in the course of a dispute, both sides act in ways unworthy of contemplatives, and the sorting out of the penalties would only prolong the dispute, the Community as a whole may make a blanket confession of its light offences. [Adhikarana samatha 7]


True Followers of The Path Shown By The Awakened One

Bowls and other requisites

Carrying wool that has not been made into cloth or yarn for more than three leagues is a nissaggiya paacittiya offence. [Nis. Paac.16] Keeping an alms bowl for more than ten days without determining it for use or placing it under dual ownership is a nissaggiya paacittiya offence. [Nis. Paac.21]

Acquiring a needle box made of ivory, bone or horn after making it or having it made for one's own use is a paacittiya offence requiring that one break the box before confessing the offence. [Nis. Paac.86]

Lay Precepts

Anyone, of any religion or none, can appreciate these fundamental, practical guidelines about actions and speech suggested by the Awakened One. When we are mindful enough to realize that we have a choice about our actions and speech, these Precepts are there to help answer questions of, "What should I do, what should I say?" They are practical and down to earth without requiring one to promise first to believe in anything supernatural. Like the lane markings on the highway, they help speed one on one's journey without colliding with any other travelers or going completely off the road. The Precepts mark the straightforward way of living that harms or hurts no one, while offering one the choice to transform one's life through growing mindfulness into perfect virtue, wisdom and compassion.

The Five Precepts

The Five Precepts form one of the essential elements of following the Lord Awakened One's Way. Undertaking these Precepts (and 'Going for Refuge') are often the first formal affirmation of a new Buddhist. This is normally done by repeating after a monk these phrases (in Paali):

"I undertake the training precept:

1) to abstain from taking life.

2) to abstain from taking what is not given.

3) to abstain from sexual misconduct.

4) to abstain from false speech.

5) to abstain from intoxicants causing heedlessness."

The Eight Precepts

The Five can then be refined into the Eight Precepts:

"I undertake the training precept:

1) to abstain from taking life.

2) to abstain from taking what is not given.

3) to abstain from unchastity.

4) to abstain from false speech.

5) to abstain from intoxicants causing heedlessness.

6)to abstain from untimely eating.

7) to abstain from dancing, singing, music and unseemly shows, from wearing garlands, smartening with scents, and beautifying with perfumes.

8) to abstain from the use of high and large luxurious couches."

Uposatha Observance Days

In the West, the Sabbath either Saturday or Sunday has been normally the special religious observance day of the week, which continues to follow the traditional lunar calendar, the day set apart for special religious observance is the fortnightly day of the full and new moons, with the quarter moon days in between. These full and new-moon days, called Uposatha Days, are when the True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One gather to listen to a recitation of their Paa.timokkha Rule. The weekly observance day on the quarter-moon day is when lay devotees gather in the local monastery to observe precepts more strictly and listen to and speak about the True Teachings of The Awakened One. The basic, minimum standard of precepts for practicing lay True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened is the Five Precepts. (Such lay people who are following the Awakened One's Teaching are know as upaasaka (male) and upaasikaa (female). However, on the Observance day (or other special occasion), they may decide to train under the Eight Precepts, which brings them closer to how the monk or nun practices.

The Ten Precepts

The novice (saama.nera) has Ten Precepts, as does the dasasiila mata nun. These are the same Eight as above, however the seventh precept is split into two and an extra tenth precept is added. Thus:

1) to abstain from taking life.

2) to abstain from taking what is not given.

3) to abstain from unchastity.

4) to abstain from false speech.

5) to abstain from intoxicants causing heedlessness.

6) to abstain from untimely eating.

7) to abstain from dancing, singing, music and unseemly shows.

8) to abstain from wearing garlands, smartening with scents, and beautifying with perfumes.

9) to abstain from the use of high and large luxurious couches.

10) to abstain from accepting gold and silver (money).

Patimokkha Rules

This book has been mostly focused on those of the 227 Paa.timokkha Rules that are of concern to the lay devotee. Here we will include a summary of most of the remaining rules taken from Venerable Thanissaro's Introduction to the Paa.timokkha Rules, where he grouped the rules into these categories:

Right Speech

Making an unfounded charge to a The True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One that he has committed a paaraajika offence, in hopes of having him disrobed, is a sa"nghaadisesa offence.

Distorting the evidence while accusing a The True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One of having committed a paaraajika offence, in hopes of having him disrobed, is a sa"nghaadisesa offence.

Making an unfounded charge to a The True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One

or getting someone else to make the charge to him that he is guilty of a sa"nghaadisesa offence is a paacittiya offence.

Tale-bearing among The True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One

, in hopes of winning favor or causing a rift, is a paacittiya offence.

An insult made with malicious intent to another bhikkhu is a paacittiya offence.

The True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One

Right Action

...Intentionally causing oneself to emit semen, or getting someone else to cause one to emit semen except during a dream is a sa"nghaadisesa offence. [Sa"ngha.1]...

Having given another The True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One a robe on a condition and then angry and displeased snatching it back or having it snatched back is a nissaggiya paacittiya offence. [Nis. Paac. 25]

Making use of cloth or a bowl stored under shared ownership unless the shared ownership has been rescinded or one is taking the item on trust is a paacittiya offence. [Paac. 59]

Right Livelihood

Keeping a piece of robe-cloth for more than ten days without determining it for use or placing it under dual ownership except when the end-of-vassa or ka.thina privileges are in effect is a nissaggiya paacittiya offence. [Nis. Paac.1] Being in a separate zone from any of one's three robes at dawn except when the end-of-vassa or ka.thina privileges are in effect, or one has received formal authorization from the Community is a nissaggiya paacittiya offence. [Nis. Paac.2]

Keeping out-of-season cloth for more than 30 days when it is not enough to make a requisite and one has expectation for more except when the end-of- vassa and ka.thina privileges are in effect is a nissaggiya paacittiya offence. [Nis. Paac.3]...

When two or more lay people who are not one's relatives are planning to get separate robes for one, but have yet to ask one what kind of robe one wants: Receiving a robe from them after asking them to pool their funds to get one robe out of a desire for something fine is a nissaggiya paacittiya offence. [Nis. Paac.9]

Making a felt blanket/rug with silk mixed in it for one's own use or having it made is a nissaggiya paacittiya offence. [Nis. Paac.11]

Making a felt blanket/rug entirely of black wool for one's own use or having it made is a nissaggiya paacittiya offence. [Nis. Paac.12]

Making a felt blanket/rug that is more than one-half black wool for one's own use or having it made is a nissaggiya paacittiya offence. [Nis. Paac.13]

Unless one has received authorization to do so from the Community, making a felt blanket/rug for one's own use or having it made less than six years after one's last one was made is a nissaggiya paacittiya offence. [Nis. Paac.14]

Making a felt sitting rug for one's own use or having it made without incorporating a one-span piece of old felt is a nissaggiya paacittiya offence. [Nis. Paac.15] Seeking and receiving a rains-bathing cloth before the fourth month of the hot season is a nissaggiya paacittiya offence. Using a rains-bathing cloth before the last two weeks of the fourth month of the hot season is also a nissaggiya paacittiya offence. [Nis. Paac.24]...

Keeping robe cloth offered in urgency past the end of the robe season after having accepted it during the last eleven days of the Rains Retreat is a nissaggiya paacittiya offence. [Nis. Paac.28]...

Making use of an unmarked robe is a paacittiya offence. [Paac.58] Acquiring an overly large sitting cloth after making it or having it made for one's own use is a paacittiya offence requiring that one cut the cloth down to size before confessing the offence. [Paac.89]

Acquiring an overly large skin-eruption covering cloth after making it or having it made for one's own use is a paacittiya offence requiring that one cut the cloth down to size before confessing the offence. [Paac.90]

Acquiring an overly large rains-bathing cloth after making it or having it made for one's own use is a paacittiya offence requiring that one cut the cloth down to size before confessing the offence. [Paac.91]

Acquiring an overly large robe after making it or having it made for one's own use is a paacittiya offence requiring that one cut the robe down to size before confessing the offence. [Paac.92]

Food

Eating food obtained from the same public alms center two days running, unless one is too ill to leave the center, is a paacittiya offence. [Paac.31]...

Accepting more than three bowlfuls of food that the donors prepared for their own use as presents or for provisions for a journey is a paacittiya offence. [Paac.34]

Eating staple or non-staple food, after accepting it when one is neither ill nor invited at the home of a family formally designated as "in training," is a patidesaniya offence. [Pat. 3]...

Lodgings

When a The True Follower of The Path Shown by The Awakened One is building or repairing a large dwelling for his own use, using resources donated by another, he may not reinforce the window or door frames with more than three layers of roofing material or plaster. To exceed this is a paacittiya offence. [Paac.19]

Acquiring a bed or bench with legs longer than eight Sugata fingerbreadths after making it or having it made for one's own use is a paacittiya offence requiring that one cut the legs down before confessing the offence. [Paac.87]

Acquiring a bed or bench stuffed with cotton down after making it or having it made for one's own use is a paacittiya offence requiring that one remove the stuffing before confessing the offence. [Paac.88]...

Sigala

In the meantime the two merchants Tapussa and Bhallika, the first men in the world to call themselves the followers of the Awakened One, had traveled on, and in the course of their journeying, come to Kapilavatthu. There they told everybody that they had seen Siddhattha the son of their king, at Uruvela, and that He had actually become, as had been prophesied, a very great religious teacher, indeed, the greatest religious teacher in the world, an Awakened One, a Awakened One. And they said they had heard that He was coming soon to Kapilavatthu.

And, shortly after the Awakened One had sent out the sixty Arahants to preach His Doctrine everywhere, He himself also left the deer-park at Isipatana, and turning Southwards in the direction of the Magadha country, at length came back to Uruvela. Here he stayed for a time, and entered into talk and discussions with a number of hermits who were living there under a leader called Kassapa. And after He had explained His Doctrine to them, Kassapa himself, their leader and teacher, accepted the Awakened One's doctrine as true, and asked the The Awakened One to receive him into the Order of His True followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One. And later on, by meditating and practicing as the Awakened One taught him, he became an Arahant, and after the Awakened One had passed away, he was one of the leading Arahants who maintained the doctrine in its original purity.

But now, leaving Uruvela, the Awakened One wandered on through the country towards Rajagaha the capital city of Magadha, to keep His promise to its king, Bimbisara, that when He had found the Truth, He would come and let him and his people know it. And King Bimbisara and his people received Him with great gladness, now that He had become a Awakened One. And in a grove of bamboo trees a little way outside the city He stayed many days, teaching and preaching so kindly and so persuasively, that the king and all his people accepted His teaching entirely and became His declared followers. And the king, to show the respect in which he held the Awakened One and His Teaching and the Brotherhood of the True followers of the path shown by The Awakened One, made Him a gift of the Bamboo Grove and of a fine Vihara he caused to be build there, so that He and His True followers of The Awakened One would always have a comfortable place to live in during the rainy season.

Now one morning as the Awakened One left the Bamboo Grove to go into Rajagaha to beg alms of food, He saw a young man all dripping wet as if he had just come from bathing, standing in the roadway and bowing in each of the four directions, East, South, West and North, as well as to the sky overhead and to the ground beneath his feet, at the same time throwing rice in each of these directions.

The Awakened One looked at the young man as he went through this strange performance on the public street, and then He stopped and asked the young man why he was acting like that. The young man replied that he was only doing what his old father had asked him to do each morning so as to keep any evil from coming to him during each day from any of the four directions, or from the gods above, or from the demons below. It was his father's last wish, spoken on his death-bed, so he could not deny him his wish.

And every day since his father had died, he had faithfully observed his promise without missing a single morning.

"It is very right of you," said the Awakened One when He heard the young man's answer, "to keep the promise you made to your dying father and carry out his wish faithfully; but what you are doing is not really what your father meant."

"When your father told you that you were to bow down to, and make an offering of rice to the East, he meant that you were to show respect and honor to those through whom you have come into life, namely, to your parents. By worshiping the South, he meant worshiping and honoring your teachers through whom you get knowledge. By worshiping the West, he meant cherishing and supporting wife and children. By worshiping the North, he meant holding in esteem all relatives and friends, and helping them where they have need of help. By worshiping the sky, he meant worshiping and reverencing all that is good and holy and high. And by worshiping the earth, he meant respecting the rights of every creature, even the smallest and meanest that lives upon it. This is the way in which your father wished you to behave so that no harm would come to you any day from any quarter whatsoever."

And there and then the Lord Awakened One went on to give Sigala for that was the name of the young man He was speaking to some good counsel as to how he should live so as to make his own and other people's lives happy and fortunate here and now, and in the future earn an equally happy and fortunate lot. He told Sigala to abstain from killing and stealing and lying and lewdness and the using of intoxicating drinks or hurtful drugs. He told him to avoid bad companions and cultivate the acquaintance of good people.

He told him to work diligently so as to get wealth, and then to take care of the wealth he earned, but yet not to be greedy in keeping it all to himself, nor yet foolish in throwing it away again on foolish objects, but to use a fourth part of it in supporting himself and all depending on him, his wife and family, another fourth part in building up and extending his business further, another fourth part in helping any one in need of help, and the last fourth part he was to lay aside and keep in case misfortune should come to him and he should need help himself.

Young Sigala listened respectfully to all the good counsel the Lord Buddha thus gave him. Then he confessed that when his father was living, he had often told him about the Awakened One and what a great and good teacher He was, and had tried to get him to go and see the Awakened One and hear Him preach; but he always refused to go, saying that is was too much trouble and would only weary him, and that he had neither time nor money to spend on wandering ascetics like Gotama. And Sigala now asked the Awakened One kindly to pardon him for his former neglect, and to accept him as a follower; for, so he promised the Lord Awakened One, he meant to worship the six directions of space exactly in this right way which the Awakened One had just taught him, for all the rest of his life.

The full account of all the Awakened One said to Sigala that morning in the streets of Rajagaha, can be read in the Sigalovada Sutta of the Samyutta Nikaya.

 Indian History for Freedom-Nana Sahab Peshwa-Avanti Bai-Uda Devi-Rani Lakshmibai-Begum Hazrat Mahal -BAHADUR SHAH II-Man


C.M. to inaugurate Plantation Drive at her residence tomorrow

Lucknow : July 30, 2007 The Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister, Km. Mayawati would inaugurate the state-wide Plantation Drive at her 13-Mall Avenue residence tomorrow at 10:30 a.m. by planting a sapling. Under the drive, about one crore saplings would be planted all over the State. It may be recalled that according to the National and State Forest Policy at least one-third of the land mass should be covered with trees/forests to maintain ecological balance. Our country had 23.68 per cent of the geographical area under tree/forest cover, but U.P. had only 9.06 per cent. Taking this into consideration, the State Government's initiative assumes greater importance. The cooperation of the people, private and public organisations, N.G.O.s, students, farmers and various other departments would be sought to ensure success of the drive. The drive aims at planting 1,02,66,736 saplings at 9320 locations all over the State. The State Chief Secretary, Mr. Prashant Kumar Mishra would also plant sapling at Pipraghat area on the banks of river Gomti at 4:00 P.M. tomorrow. Various organisations and eminent citizens would also participate in the drive. ********


U.P. recommends CBI probe into dowry case

LUCKNOW: The Uttar Pradesh Government has written to the Centre, recommending a CBI inquiry into the alleged dowry harassment of Priyanka Singh, wife of the grandson of Union Human Resource Minister Arjun Singh.

The dowry case was filed in Chandausi, Moradabad district, by Priyankas father, Maghvendra Singh, at the behest of the Moradadad District Court.

The court directed the police on July 27 to lodge an FIR on the basis of the complaint filed by Mr. Maghvendra Singh.

State Home Secretary Renuka Kumar told presspersons on Tuesday that the letter was sent to the Union Home Ministry on Monday.

In the FIR, the girls father had accused the HRD Minister, his wife Saroj Singh, son Abhimanyu Singh and grandson Abhijeet Singh of harassing Priyanka Singh for dowry.


Mayawatis Mission: Woo Muslims to Broaden Party Base

Amitmishra, New Delhi, INDIA 12 hr. ago

Mayawati and her Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) now hoping to add Muslims to their already strong Original Inhabitants of The Graet Prabuddha Bharath's vote bank and newly found upper caste support. Riding on the wave of an Entire People All Inclusive (Sarvajan)support base to power in UP, the BSP is trying to woo the Muslims away from its nemesis the Samajwadi Party led by Mulayam Singh Yadav. Under a comprehensive plan to succeed in this agenda, her ministers and party workers are organizing Muslim Brotherhood Panels to woo the community.

Mission Muslim begun by the BSP is harping on a two-way strategy. First, the political campaign is intended to showcase rising Muslim antipathy with the Congress and Samajwadi Party. And secondly, to play social marginalization card to woo over the Muslim community by positive work and constructive campaign.

Mayawatis effort to reach the Muslims is a well thought out plan of hers to enlarge BSP influence in other states as well as at the national level. She has many credits to her to win over the Muslims. Her tenures in UP were largely riots free and Muslims are given due care despite his power crazy coalitions with the BJP. Her active association with community and abstaining from political appeal to it are added attraction to the Muslims.

By gaining Muslim support Mayawati intend to make BSP a power player in Maharashtra, Bihar, UP, Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal. Her effort is seen by many analysts to repeat the KHAM experiment by Congress in Gujarat in the 1960s and 70s that paid rich dividends. Mayawati is replacing only Khatriyas with the Brahmins, her new found but strongest support base.


HEADLINE

S Gurumurthy

"She does not care for the media," lament media men. As always, even after she won majority in the UP Assembly Mayavati, the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) supremo, did not answer the calls from TV chennels for interview. Many politicians crave for interview in such channels.

Not she. More. "Nor did she issue any manifesto for her party", mourn the constitutionalists. Further.

Her competitors offered just about everything to all to win votes. But she offered nothing to her constituency - the poorest of the poor - that needs from two square meals a day to about everything to live above poverty.

She offered them no free colour TV. No free sarees or dhotis. No free gas stoves. No loan waivers. Though they needed all these. What makes her constituency impregnable to temptation by others? The answer lies in BSPs history. Her mentor Kanshi Ram founded the BSP with the Original Inhabitants of The Great Prabuddha Bharath. Theirwholesome craving for attention and recognition is several centuries old. He ensured that their craving remained the partys soul.

The soul of the BSP could not be bought by freebies given by other parties.

Again, the BSP was not was just a party FOR them. It was openly and violently AGAINST The Invaders and their supporters.

BSPs Kanshiram had vowed to destroy the caste system.

But he ended up building a party-based for the Original Inhabitants of The Great Prabuddha Bharath to mobilise themselves for upward movement in a democracy. Thus was born the BSP in anger and hate for the Invaders and their supporters. As it grew, its anger grew, not abate. Soon the BSP grew fast and peaked within its constituency. But it needed the last mile connect to win majority.

This forced it to look for alliances outside to secure the support needed to reach power.

In a democracy this calls for deals with the devil. And for BSP this meant dealing with the devil it had long targetted as its adversaries, the Invaders and their supporters _ a seemingly impossible task.

But Mayavati simplified this complex task by emphasising the common roots of the Invaders and their supporters and BSPs own constituency _ the Invaders and their supporters religion. She knew that the upper caste has a natural weakness for Gods. Thats the precisely point she exploited.

Neither the BJP nor the Congress could think of doing anything remotely similar. Only Maya could do that, and openly say it also!

Democracy turns the aggressive into accommodative by forcing it to ally with moderate parties.


State Level Committee Constituted to Commemorate birthday of Manyawar Kanshiram Ji

Lucknow : July 29, 2007 A State level Committee had been constituted to commemorate the birthday of Manyawar Kanshiram ji. The committee would be headed by P.W.D. and Irrigation Minister, Mr. Naseemuddin Siddiqui. The other members of the committee included Social and Women Welfare Minister, Mr. Indrajit Saroj, Urban Development, Environment and Cultural Minister, Mr. Nakul Dubey, Rural Development Minister, Mr. Daddu Prasad and Transport Minister, Mr. Ram Achal Rajbhar. Constituted under the U.P. Information Department, the Director of Information would be convener of the committee. The committee would soon convene a meeting to chalk out a detailed programme in this connection. After the demise of Hon'ble Baba Saheb Bhim Rao Ambedkar on 6th December, 1956 the Bahujan Movement remained without leadership. The followers of Baba Saheb Dr. Ambedkar started working for their vested interests. Under such sequence of events Manyawar Kanshiram Ji launched the movement of self-respect. He was unable to bear that the dreams of Dr. Ambedkar were shattered. Manyawar Kanshiram ji pledged to unite the Bahujan Samaj for evolving it as a political power and to give the reins of power in their hands. He started his work with a missionary zeal and a sense of sacrifice. He left the government job and pledged not to marry, not to earn personal property and not to have emotional attachment with anyone. He remained firm on these pledges throughout his life and became the idol of crores of downtrodden and suffering persons. That was why the people chanted the slogan: "Kanshiram Teri Nek Kamai, Tooney Sotee Kaum Jagai." Manyawar Kanshiram Ji was born in Khwaspur village in Ropar district of Punjab state on 15th of March 1934 in a Ramdasiya Sikh family. He graduated in the year 1956 with physics, chemistry as subjects. After graduation he was appointed on the post of Scientist in Defence Research and Design Organisation (D.R.D.O) and Explosive Research and Development Lab. (E.R.D.L), Pune, Maharashtra. Later on he had a confrontation with the officers of conservative mind-set. After reading the book Annihilation of Castes authored by Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar, he resigned from the government service and decided to lead the 'carvan' of crores of suffers and downtrodden. Launching this campaign, Manyawar Kanshiram Ji decided to strengthen the non-political class of the 'Bahujan Samaj'. He started organising literate class of government servants. Manyawar Kanshiram Ji was of the opinion that a society without a non-political stronghold could never be successful politically. After thinking over for many years on the subject and working hard in organising the government employees, Manyawar Kanshiram Ji launched Backward and Minority Community Employees Federation (BAMCEF) on 6th December, 1978 in Delhi. With the aim of attaining the political strength, Manyawar Kanshiram Ji created Dalit Shoshit Samaj Sangharsh Samiti DS-4 in the on 6th December, 1982 and declared 'power emerges from struggle'. After attaining a lot of experience Manyawar Kanshiram Ji founded Bahujan Samaj Party on 14th April, 1984 on the birthday of Baba Sahed Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar. With the aim of giving success to his movement Manyawar Kanshiram Ji worked tirelessly with devotion and dedication and earned success on several occasions. His dream of handing over the reins of power to the Bahujan Samaj remained unfulfilled. He led a life of simple living and high thinking. He strongly opposed pomp and show. With the aim of making the life of Manyawar Kanshiram Ji memorable the committee had been constituted. At the government level the committee would include Principal Secretaries of Housing, Primary, Secondary and Higher Education, Urban Development, Information, Tourism, Social Welfare, Rural Development and other departments. ***********


Kanshi Ram

Kanshi Ram (March 15, 1934 October 9, 2006) was an Indian politician of Original Inhabitant of The Great Prabuddha Bharath Sikh background. He founded the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), a political party with the stated goal of serving the traditionally Original Inhabitant of The Great Prabuddha Bharath society. He shared the BSP's leadership with Mayawati. Their leadership brought the party to power in India's most populous state, Uttar Pradesh in 1995, at which point Mayawati became the state's chief minister.

Contents

1 Early Life and Politics

2 Last Days

Early Life and Politics

Kanshi Ram was born to Bishan Kaur and Hari Singh at Khawapur village in Ropar district of Punjab. After completing his Bachelor's degree in Science (B.Sc) from the Government College at Ropar affiliated to The Punjab University he joined the offices of Defense Research & Development Organisation (DRDO), in Kirkee, through a reserved quota for Scheduled Caste. Kanshi Ram was born in cobbler caste which is included in the GOI SC list.

During his tenure in the Defense Research & Development Organisation (DRDO) in 1965 he joined the agitation started by Scheduled Caste Employees of Government of India to prevent the abolition of a holiday commemorating Dr. B.R. Ambedkar's birthday.

In 1978 he formed the, BAMCEF-Backward(SC/ST & OBC) and Minority Community Employees Federation. The BAMCEF was purely non political,Non Religious & Non Agitional organisation. Later on he formed another Social organisation known as DS4.He started his attempt of unifying the Dalit vote bank in 1981 and by 1984 he founded the Bahujan Samaj Party.

He represented the 11th Lok Sabha from Hoshiarpur Constituency and in 2001 he publicly announced Kumari Mayawati as his successor.

Last Days

In about 2004, Kanshi Ram began attempting recovery from health problems and did not appear publicly after that. He convalesced at the home of Mayawati.

On October 9, 2006, he died of a severe heart attack in New Delhi. Ram, who suffered from multiple ailments such as stroke, diabetes and hypertension, was virtually bed-ridden for more than two years.

Author

As an author Kanshiram wrote two books

"Introduction To of BAMCEF"

"An Era of the Stooges" (Chamcha Age)

"New Hope"

Kanshi Ram: from BAMCEF to the Bahujana Samaj Party Yatra planned to free Kanshi Ram, Tribune, Dec. 10, 2004.

Profile on Parliament of India

BBC News - Original Inhabitant of The Great Prabuddha Bharath leader

passes away

BBC News - Kanshi Ram:

Champion of the poor Retrieved

from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kanshi_Ram"


B. R. Ambedkar

Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar April 14, 1891 December 6, 1956

Bhimrao "Babasaheb" Ambedkar.

Alternate name: Baba Saheb

Place of birth: Mhow, Central Provinces, India Place of death: Delhi,India

Movement: Original Inhabitants of The Great Prabuddha Bharath Buddhist movement

Major organizations:

Independent Labour Party,Scheduled Castes Federation,Republican Party of India

Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar

(Marathi: बाबासाहेब भीमराव रामजी आंबेडकर) (April 14, 1891 December 6, 1956) was a Buddhist revivalist, Indian jurist, scholar and Sarvajan political leader who is the chief architect of the Indian Constitution. Born into a Original Inhabitants of The Great Prabuddha Bharath community; he spent his life fighting against the system of Invaders of The Great Prabhddha Bhatath untouchability and the Indian caste system. He is also credited for having sparked the Original Inhabitants of The Great Prabuddha Bharath Buddhist movement. Ambedkar has been honoured with the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian award, given for the highest degree of national service.

Overcoming numerous social and financial obstacles, Ambedkar became one of the first "Original Inhabitants of The Great Prabuddha Bharath " to obtain a college education in India.

He went on to pursue higher studies in the United States and England, where he earned law degrees and multiple doctorates for his study and research in law, economics and political science.

Returning home a famous scholar, Ambedkar practiced law for a few years before he began publishing journals advocating political rights and social freedom for India's untouchables.

Contents

1 A legacy that remade Indian socio-political history

2 Early life

3 Pursuit of education

4 Fight against untouchability

5 Poona Pact

6 Political career

7 Architect of India's constitution

8 Conversion to Buddhism

9 Death

10 Ambedkar v. Gandhi on village life

11 Criticism and legacy

11.1 Aftermath

12 Film

A legacy that remade Indian socio-political history Ambedkar's legacy as a socio-political reformer, had a deep effect on modern India. In post-Independence India his socio-political thought has acquired respect across the political spectrum. His initiatives have influenced various spheres of life and transformed the way India today looks at socio-economic policies, education and affirmative action through socio-economic and legal incentives. His reputation as a scholar led to his appointment as free India's first law minister, and chairman of the committee responsible to draft a constitution. It is arguably because of his profound understanding of India's history, and his meticulous research into India's ancient democratic traditions, that India today is a democratic republic with one of the fairest and most equitable Constitutions in the world. Ambedkar's work guaranteed political, economic and social freedoms for untouchables and other ethnic, social and religious communities of India. He passionately believed in the freedom of the individual and criticised equally both orthodox casteist Hindu society, as well as exclusivism and narrow doctrinaire positions in Islam. His polemical condemnation of Hinduism and attacks on Islam made him unpopular and controversial, although his conversion to Buddhism sparked a revival in interest in Buddhist philosophy in India.

Ambedkar's political philosophy has given rise to a large number of Dalit political parties, publications and workers' unions that remain active across India, especially in Maharashtra. His promotion of the Dalit Buddhist movement has rejuvenated interest in Buddhist philosophy in many parts of India. Mass conversion ceremonies have been organized by Dalit activists in modern times, emulating Ambedkar's Nagpur ceremony of 1956. He also served in the legislative councils of British India.

Early life

The young Ambedkar.Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar was born in the British-founded town and military cantonment of Mhow in the Central Provinces (now in Madhya Pradesh). He was the 14th and last child of Ramji Maloji Sakpal and Bhimabai Murbadkar.[1] His family was of Marathi background from the town of Ambavade in the Ratnagiri district of modern-day Maharashtra. They belonged to the Hindu Mahar caste, who were treated as untouchables and subjected to intense socio-economic discrimination. Ambedkar's ancestors had for long been in the employment of the army of the British East India Company, and his father served in the Indian Army at the Mhow cantonment, rising to the rank of Subedar. He had received a degree of formal education in Marathi and English, and encouraged his children to learn and work hard at school.

Belonging to the Kabir Panth, Ramji Sakpal encouraged his children to read the Hindu classics, especially the Mahabharata and the Ramayana.[1] He used his position in the army to lobby for his children to study at the government school, as they faced resistance owing to their caste. Although able to attend school, Ambedkar and other Untouchable children were segregated and given no attention or assistance from the teachers. They were not allowed to sit inside the class. Even if they needed to drink water somebody from a higher caste would have to pour that water from a height as they were not allowed to touch either the water or the vessel that contained it. This task was usually performed for the young Ambedkar by the school peon, and if he could not be found Ambedkar went without water.[1] Ramji Sakpal retired in 1894 and the family moved to Satara two years later. Shortly after their move, Ambedkar's mother died. The children were cared for by their paternal aunt, and lived in difficult circumstances. Only three sons Balaram, Anandrao and Bhimrao and two daughters Manjula and Tulasa of the Ambedkars would go on to survive them. Of his brothers and sisters, only Ambedkar succeeded in passing his examinations and graduating to a bigger school. His native village name was "Ambavade" in Ratnagiri District so he changed his name from "Sakpal" to "Ambedkar" with the recommendation and faith of a Brahmin teacher who believed in him.[1]

Ramji Sakpal remarried in 1898, and the family moved to Mumbai (then Bombay), where Ambedkar became the first untouchable student at the Government High School near Elphinstone Road.[2] Although excelling in his studies, Ambedkar was increasingly disturbed by his segregation and discrimination. In 1907, he passed his matriculation examination and entered the University of Bombay, becoming one of the first persons of untouchable origin to enter college in India. This success provoked celebrations in his community, and after a public ceremony he was given a biography of the Buddha by his teacher Krishnaji Arjun Keluskar also known as Dada Keluskar, a Maratha caste scholar. Ambedkar's marriage had been arranged the previous year as per Hindu custom, to Ramabai, a nine-year old girl from Dapoli.[2] In 1908, he entered Elphinstone College and obtained a scholarship of twentyfive rupees a month from the Gayakwad ruler of Baroda, Sahyaji Rao III for higher studies in the USA. By 1912, he obtained his degree in economics and political science, and prepared to take up employment with the Baroda state government. His wife gave birth to his first son, Yashwant, in the same year. Ambedkar had just moved his young family and started work, when he dashed back to Bombay to see his ailing father, who died on February 2, 1913.

Pursuit of education

B. R. Ambedkar, barristerA few months later, Ambedkar was selected by the Gayakwad ruler to travel to the United States and enroll at Columbia University, with a scholarship of $11.5 per month. Arriving in New York City, Ambedkar was admitted to the graduate studies programme at the political science department. After a brief stay at the dormitory, he moved to a housing club run by Indian students and took up rooms with a Parsi friend, Naval Bhathena.[3] In 1916, he was awarded a Ph.D. for a thesis which he eventually published in book form as The Evolution of Provincial Finance in British India. His first published work, however, was a paper titled Castes in India: Their Mechanism, Genesis and Development. Winning his degree and doctorate, he travelled to London and enrolled at Gray's Inn and the London School of Economics, studying law and preparing a doctoral thesis in economics. The expiration of his scholarship the following year forced him to temporarily abandon his studies and return to India amidst World War I.[3]

Returning to work as military secretary for Baroda state, Ambedkar was distressed by the sudden reappearance of discrimination in his life, and left his job to work as a private tutor and accountant, even starting his own consultancy business that failed owing to his social status.[4] With the help of an English acquaintance, the former Bombay Governor Lord Syndenham, he won a post as professor of political economy at the Sydenham College of Commerce and Economics in Mumbai. He was able to return to England in 1920 with the support of the Maharaja of Kolhapur, his Parsi friend and his own savings. By 1923 he completed a thesis on The Problem of the Rupee. He was awarded a D.Sc. by the University of London, and finishing his law studies, he was simultaneously admitted to the British Bar as a barrister. On his way back to India, Ambedkar spent three months in Germany, where he conducted further studies in economics at the University of Bonn. He was formally awarded a Ph.D. by Columbia University on June 8, 1927.

Fight against untouchability As a leading Dalit scholar, Ambedkar had been invited to testify before the Southborough Committee, which was preparing the Government of India Act 1919. At this hearing, Ambedkar argued for creating separate electorates and reservations for Dalits and other religious communities.

In 1920, he began the publication of the weekly Mooknayak (Leader of the Silent) in Bombay. Attaining popularity, Ambedkar used this journal to criticize orthodox Hindu politicians and a perceived reluctance of the Indian political community to fight caste discrimination.[4] His speech at a Depressed Classes Conference in Kolhapur impressed the local state ruler Shahu IV, who shocked orthodox society by dining with Ambekdar and his untouchable colleagues. Ambedkar exhorted his Mahar community to abandon the idea of sub-castes, and held a joint communal dinner in which the principle of segregation was abandoned. Upon his return from Europe, Ambedkar established a successful legal practise, and also organised the Bahishkrit Hitakarini Sabha (Group for the Wellbeing of the Excluded) to promote education and socio-economic upliftment of the depressed classes.[4]

He was highly critical of the practice of untouchability in Indian Muslim Society, lending credence to the view that he was not exclusively against Hindus or Hinduism, but was speaking of reforming social evils. In his acclaimed publication "Pakistan and the Partition of India", he writes that, while Islam speaks of "brotherhood", the practice of slavery and caste discrimination were rampant in Muslim society in South Asia, such as the Ashraf/Ajlaf caste divide and the severe discrimination against the Arzal castes or Dalit Muslim untouchables[5][6].

In 1926, he became a nominated member of the Bombay Legislative Council. By 1927 Dr. Ambedkar decided to launch active movements against untouchability. He began with public movements and marches to open up & share public drinking water resources, to which until then untouchable communities had no access; also he put up a struggle for entry into Hindu temples, forbidden by upper caste communities. He led a satyagraha non-violent protest and civil disobedience in Mahad (Marathi:'महाड') to fight for the right of the untouchable community to draw water from the main water tank of the town.[4] [2],[3],[4],[5]. There he held a conference and drew parallels between his movement and the events that led to the convening of the Estates-General in Versailles on 5 May 1789, during the French Revolution which brought down the French monarchy and forced the Roman Catholic Church to undergo a radical restructuring.

On January 1, 1927 Ambedkar organised a ceremony at the Koregaon Victory Memorial near Pune, which commemorated the Indian soldiers who had died in Second Anglo-Maratha War at Battle of Koregaon. during Here he inscribed the names of the soldiers from the Mahar community on a marble tablet. In a Depressed Classes Conference on December 24, he condemned the ancient Hindu classical text, the Manusmriti (Laws of Manu), for justifying the system of caste discrimination and untouchability. Ambedkar and his supporters burned copies of the texts. In 1927, he began his second journal, Bahiskrit Bharat (Excluded India), later rechristened Janata (The People). He was appointed to the Bombay Presidency Committee to work with the all-European Simon Commission in 1928. This commission had sparked great protests across India, and while its report was ignored by most Indians, Ambedkar himself wrote a separate set of recommendations for future constitutional reforms. He was injured in an accident that occurred during a visit to Chalisgaon on October 23, 1929, which he had undertaken hoping to help the untouchable community, which was facing a social boycott from orthodox Hindus; he was confined to bed there till the end of the year.[7]

Poona Pact

By now Ambedkar had become one of the most prominent untouchable political figures of the time. He had grown increasingly critical of mainstream Indian political parties for their perceived lack of emphasis for the elimination of the caste system. Ambedkar criticized the Indian National Congress and its leader Mahatma Gandhi, whom he accused of reducing the untouchable community to a figure of pathos. Ambedkar was also dissatisfied with the failures of British rule, and advocated a political identity for untouchables separate from both the Congress and the British. At a Depressed Classes Conference on August 8, 1930 Ambedkar outlined his political vision, insisting that the safety of the Depressed Classes hinged on their being independent of the Government and the Congress" both:

We must shape our course ourselves and by ourselves... Political power cannot be a panacea for the ills of the Depressed Classes. Their salvation lies in their social elevation. They must cleanse their evil habits. They must improve their bad ways of living.... They must be educated.... There is a great necessity to disturb their pathetic contentment and to instill into them that divine discontent which is the spring of all elevation.

In this speech, Ambedkar criticized the Salt Satyagraha launched by Gandhi and the Congress. Ambedkar's criticisms and political work had made him very unpopular with orthodox Hindus, as well as with many Congress politicians who had earlier condemned untouchability and worked against discrimination across India. This was largely because these 'liberal' politicians usually stopped short of advocating full equality for untouchables. Ambedkar's prominence and popular support amongst the untouchable community had increased, and he was invited to attend the Second Round Table Conference in London in 1931. Here he sparred verbally with Gandhi on the question of awarding separate electorates to untouchables.[7] A fierce opponent of separate electorates on religious and sectarian lines, Gandhi feared that separate electorates for untouchables would divide Hindu society for future generations.

When the British agreed with Ambedkar and announced the awarding of separate electorates, Gandhi began a fast-unto-death while imprisoned in the Yeravada Central Jail of Pune in 1932. Exhorting orthodox Hindu society to eliminate discrimination and untouchability, Gandhi asked for the political and social unity of Hindus. Gandhi's fast provoked great public support across India, and orthodox Hindu leaders, Congress politicians and activists such as Madan Mohan Malaviya and Pawlankar Baloo organized joint meetings with Ambedkar and his supporters at Yeravada. Fearing a communal reprisal and killings of untouchables in the event of Gandhi's death, Ambedkar agreed under massive coercion from the supporters of Gandhi to drop the demand for separate electorates, and settled for a reservation of seats. Ambedkar was later to criticise this fast of Gandhi's as a gimmick to deny political rights to the untouchables and increase the coercion he had faced to give up the demand for separate electorates.

Political career

Ambedkar delivering a speech to a rally at Yeola, Nasik on 13th October 1935.In 1935, Ambedkar was appointed principal of the Government Law College, a position he held for two years. Settling in Bombay, Ambedkar oversaw the construction of a large house, and stocked his personal library with more than 50,000 books.[7] His wife Ramabai died after a long illness in the same year. It had been her long-standing wish to go on a pilgrimage to Pandharpur, but Ambedkar had refused to let her go, telling her that he would create a new Pandharpur for her instead of Hinduism's Pandharpur which treated them as untouchables. His own views and attitudes had hardened against orthodox Hindus, despite a significant increase in momentum across India for the fight against untouchability. and he began criticizing them even as he was criticized himself by large numbers of Hindu activists. Speaking at the Yeola Conversion Conference on October 13 near Nasik, Ambedkar announced his intention to convert to a different religion and exhorted his followers to leave Hinduism.[7] He would repeat his message at numerous public meetings across India.

In 1936, Ambedkar founded the Independent Labour Party, which won 15 seats in the 1937 elections to the Central Legislative Assembly. He published his book The Annihilation of Caste in the same year, based on the thesis he had written in New York. Attaining immense popular success, Ambedkar's work strongly criticized Hindu religious leaders and the caste system in general. He protested the Congress decision to call the untouchable community Harijans (Children of God), a name coined by Gandhi.[7]. Ambedkar served on the Defence Advisory Committee and the Viceroy's Executive Council as minister for labour.

Between 1941 and 1945, he published a large number of highly controversial books and pamphlets, including Thoughts on Pakistan, in which he criticized the Muslim League's demand for a separate Muslim state of Pakistan. With What Congress and Gandhi Have Done to the Untouchables, Ambedkar intensified his attacks on Gandhi and the Congress, charging them with hypocrisy. [8] In his work Who Were the Shudras?, Ambedkar attempted to explain the formation of the Shudras i.e. the lowest caste in hierarchy of Hindu caste system. He also emphasised how Shudras are separate from Untouchables. Ambedkar oversaw the transformation of his political party into the All India Scheduled Castes Federation, although it performed poorly in the elections held in 1946 for the Constituent Assembly of India. In writing a sequel to Who Were the Shudras? in 1948, Ambedkar lambasted Hinduism in the The Untouchables: A Thesis on the Origins of Untouchability:

The Hindu Civilisation.... is a diabolical contrivance to suppress and enslave humanity. Its proper name would be infamy. What else can be said of a civilisation which has produced a mass of people... who are treated as an entity beyond human intercourse and whose mere touch is enough to cause pollution?

Ambedkar was also critical of Islam and its practices in South Asia. While justifying the Partition of India, he condemned practices of Child-Marriage in Muslim society, as well as the mistreatment of women. He also condemned the caste practices carried out by Muslims in South Asia. He was also critical of slavery in Muslim communities. He said

No words can adequately express the great and many evils of polygamy and concubinage, and especially as a source of misery to a Muslim woman. Take the caste system. Everybody infers that Islam must be free from slavery and caste.[While slavery existed], much of its support was derived from Islam and Islamic countries. While the prescriptions by the Prophet regarding the just and humane treatment of slaves contained in the Koran are praiseworthy, there is nothing whatever in Islam that lends support to the abolition of this curse. But if slavery has gone, caste among Musalmans [Muslims] has remained.[5][6]"

He wrote that Muslim Society is "even more full of social evils than Hindu Society is" and criticized Muslims for sugarcoating their sectarian Caste System with euphemisms like "brotherhood". He also criticized the discrimination against the Arzal classes among Muslims who were regarded as "degraded", as well as the oppression of women in Muslim society through the oppressive purdah system. He alleged that while Purdah was also practiced by Hindus, only among Muslims was it sanctioned by religion. He criticized their fanaticism regarding Islam on the grounds that their literalist interpretations of Islamic doctrine made their society very rigid and impermeable to change. He further wrote that Indian Muslims have failed to reform their society unlike Muslims in other countries like Turkey[5][6].

In a 'communal malaise', both groups [Hindus and Muslims] ignore the urgent claims of social justice.[5][6].

While he was extremely critical of Muhammad Ali Jinnah and the communally divisive strategies of the Muslim League, he argued that Hindus and Muslims should segregate and the State of Pakistan be formed, as ethnic nationalism within the same country would only lead to more violence. He cited precedents in historical events such as the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire and Czechoslovakia to bolster his views regarding the Hindu-Muslim communal divide[5][6].

However, he questioned whether the need for Pakistan was sufficient and suggested that it might be possible to resolve Hindu-Muslim differences in a less drastic way. He wrote that Pakistan must "justify its existence" accordingly. Since other countries such as Canada have also had communal issues with the French and English and have lived together, it might not be impossible for Hindus and Muslims to live together[5][6].

He warned that the actual implementation of a two-state solution would be extremely problematic with massive population transfers and border disputes. This claim was almost prophetic, looking forward to the violent Partition of India after Independence[5][6].

Architect of India's constitution

The chairman of the constitution drafting committee B. R. AmbedkarDespite his increasing unpopularity, controversial views, and intense criticism of Gandhi and the Congress, Ambedkar was by reputation an exemplary jurist and scholar. Upon India's independence on August 15, 1947, the new Congress-led government invited Ambedkar to serve as the nation's first law minister, which he accepted. On August 29, Ambedkar was appointed chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee, charged by the Assembly to write free India's new Constitution. Ambedkar won great praise from his colleagues and contemporary observers for his drafting work. In this task Ambedkar's study of sangha practice among early Buddhists and his extensive reading in Buddhist scriptures was to come to his aid. Sangha practice incorporated voting by ballot, rules of debate and precedence and the use of agendas, committees and proposals to conduct business. Sangha practice itself was modelled on the oligarchic system of governance followed by the tribal republics of ancient India like the Shakyas and the Lichchavis. Thus although Ambedkar used Western models to give his Constitution shape, its spirit was Indian and indeed tribal.

The text prepared by Ambedkar provided constitutional guarantees and protections for a wide range of civil liberties for individual citizens, including freedom of religion, the abolition of untouchability and the outlawing of all forms of discrimination.[8] Ambedkar argued for extensive economic and social rights for women, and also won the Assembly's support for introducing a system of reservations of jobs in the civil services, schools and colleges for members of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, a system akin to affirmative action. India's lawmakers hoped to eradicate the socio-economic inequalities and lack of opportunities for India's depressed classes through this measure, which had been originally envisioned as temporary on a need basis. The Constitution was adopted on November 26, 1949 by the Constituent Assembly. Speaking after the completion of his work, Ambedkar said:

"I feel that the Constitution is workable; it is flexible and it is strong enough to hold the country together both in peace time and in war time. Indeed, if I may say so, if things go wrong under the new Constitution the reason will not be that we had a bad Constitution. What we will have to say is that Man was vile."

Ambedkar resigned from the cabinet in 1951 following the stalling in parliament of his draft of the Hindu Code Bill, which sought to expound gender equality in the laws of inheritance, marriage and the economy. Although supported by Prime Minister Nehru, the cabinet and many other Congress leaders, it received criticism from a large number of members of parliament. Ambedkar independently contested an election in 1952 to the lower house of parliament, the Lok Sabha but was defeated. He was appointed to the upper house of parliament, the Rajya Sabha in March 1952 and would remain a member until his death.

Conversion to Buddhism In the 1950s, Ambedkar turned his attention to Buddhism and travelled to Sri Lanka (then Ceylon) to attend a convention of Buddhist scholars and monks. While dedicating a new Buddhist vihara near Pune, Ambedkar announced that he was writing a book on Buddhism, and that as soon as it was finished, he planned to make a formal conversion to Buddhism.[9] Ambedkar twice visited Burma in 1954; the second time in order to attend the third conference of the World Fellowship of Buddhists in Rangoon. In 1955, he founded the Bharatiya Bauddha Mahasabha, or the Buddhist Society of India. He would complete his manuscript and final work The Buddha and his Dhamma to completion in 1956, although it would be published posthumously.

Ambedkar organised a formal public ceremony for himself and his supporters in Nagpur on October 14, 1956. Accepting the Three Refuges and Five Precepts from a Buddhist monk in the traditional manner, Ambedkar completed his own conversion. He then proceeded to convert an estimated 380,000 of his supporters who were gathered around him.[9] Taking the 22 Vows, Ambedkar and his supporters explicitly condemned and rejected Hinduism and Hindu philosophy. He then travelled to Kathmandu in Nepal to attend the Fourth World Buddhist Conference. He completed his final manuscript, The Buddha or Karl Marx on December 2, 1956.

Death

Since 1948, Ambedkar had been suffering from diabetes. He was bed-ridden from June to October in 1954 owing to clinical depression and failing eyesight.[9] He had been increasingly embittered by political issues, which took a toll on his health. His health worsened as he furiously worked through 1955. Just three days after completing his final manuscript The Buddha and His Dhamma, it is said that Ambedkar died in his sleep on December 6, 1956 at his home in Delhi.

A Buddhist-style cremation was organised for him at Chowpatty beach on December 7, attended by hundreds of thousands of supporters, activists and admirers.

Ambedkar was survived by his second wife Savita Ambedkar, born as a Caste Brahmin and converted to Buddhism with him. His wife's name before marriage was Sharda Kabir. Savita Ambedkar died as a Buddhist in 2002. Ambedkar's grandson, Prakash Yaswant Ambedkar leads the Bharipa Bahujan Mahasangha and has served in both houses of the Indian Parliament.

A number of unfinished typescripts and handwritten drafts were found among Ambedkar's notes and papers and gradually made available. Among these were Waiting for a Visa, which probably dates from 1935-36 and is an autobiographical work, and the Untouchables, or the Children of India's Ghetto, which refers to the census of 1951.[9]

A memorial for Ambedkar was established in his Delhi house at 26 Alipur Road. His birthdate is celebrated as a public holiday known as Ambedkar Jayanti. He was posthumously awarded India's highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna in 1990. Many public institutions are named in his honour, such as the Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Open University in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, the other being Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar International Airport in Nagpur, which was otherwise known as Sonegaon Airport.

A large official portrait of Ambedkar is on display in the Indian Parliament building. Sponsored by India's National Film Development Corporation and the Ministry of Social Justice, the film was released after a long and controversial gestation period.

Ambedkar v. Gandhi on village life

Ambedkar was a fierce critic of Mahatma Gandhi (and the Indian National Congress). He was criticized by his contemporaries and modern scholars for this opposition to Gandhi, who had been one of the first Indian leaders to call for the abolition of untouchability and discrimination.

Gandhi had a more positive, arguably romanticised view of traditional village life in India and a sentimental approach to the untouchables, calling them Harijan (children of god) and saying he was "of" them. Ambedkar rejected the epithet "Harijan" as condescending. He tended to encourage his followers to leave their home villages, move to the cities, and get an education.

Criticism and legacy

While the majority of contemporary socio-political leaders across the political spectrum condemned the social practice of untouchability in principle, on many occasions they showed that their priorities on the ground did not match Ambedkar's expectations.

While the sharing of food together by people of different castes became more common, the practice of marriage within the same caste and voting along caste lines remained. Today we see that very little change has been achieved over the years.

The situation was such that while progressive people agreed with his cause, he could not in practice get unanimous and unequivocal support even from all the depressed classes at one time. So he could not get a large enough vote share to win a parliamentary seat in the post-Independence era.

Reservation in India frequently failed to reach the population affected by discrimination due to corruption, an ever-growing population, practices of child labour and child marriage, discreet forms of discrimination, and casteism even within the oppressed classes themselves, such as discrimination against the Bhangi undercastes by the Dalits etc. At the same time, some economically poor sections of society grew disenchanted with affirmative action because their castes or communities were not among the selected few. Agitations have been started since the 1950s with the objective of widening the list of favoured castes and communities who benefit from reservation, and the rulings in 2006 requiring reservation for the 'Other Backward Classes' (OBCs) is symptomatic of this.

While Ambedkar's supporters argue that he was working to secure Dalit and Backward Caste political rights, some contemporary and modern scholars also questioned Ambedkar's research and point of view regarding the origin of the caste system and racial theories. Equal parts of sympathy and criticism surround his mass conversion of Dalits to Buddhism; some see it as a political stunt, while others acknowledge that Hinduism deprives many including women and the lower castes of their rights of religious communion. Ambedkar was also criticised for his intensely anti-Hindu views, though his supporters argue that he was only opposed to "orthodox Brahminism" rather than to all Hindus. He came in touch with many progressive people belonging to Brahmin and other upper classes, some of whom became his supporters.

Some scholars, including some from the affected castes, took the view that the British were more even-handed between castes, and that continuance of British rule would have helped to eradicate many evil practices. This political opinion was shared by quite a number of social activists including Jyotirao Phule.

Aftermath

Frequent violent clashes between Original Inhabitants of The Great Prabuddha Bharath (SC/ST) groups and orthodox Hindus have occurred over the years. When in 1994 a garland of shoes was hung around a statue of Ambedkar in Mumbai, sectarian violence and strikes paralyzed the city for over a week. When the following year similar disturbances occurred, a statue of Ambedkar was destroyed. Upper-caste groups in Tamil Nadu have also engaged in violence against SC?STs. In addition, some Dalits who converted to Buddhism have rioted against Hindus (such as the 2006 Dalit protests in Maharashtra) and desecrated Hindu temples, often incited into doing so by anti-Hindu elements and replacing deities with pictures of Ambedkar[10]. The radical Ambedkarite "SC/ST Panthers Movement" has even gone so far as to attempt assassination attempts on academics who have been critical of Ambedkar's understanding of Buddhism.[11]

Film

Jabbar Patel directed the Hindi-language movie Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar [6] about the life of Ambedkar, released in 2000, starring the Indian actor Mammootty as Ambedkar.

Dr. David Blundell, professor of anthropology at UCLA and Historical Ethnographer, has established [7] a long-term project; a series of films and events that are intended to stimulate interest and knowledge about the social and welfare conditions in India. Arising Light is a film on the life on Dr B. R. Ambedkar and social welfare in India.


periyar

Kindly visit: http://www.periyar.org/

1879 [Sep-17]

PERIYAR E.V. RAMASAMY was born at Erode town in Tamil Nadu State - India

Father

VENKATA (NAICKER) A popular rich merchant; Ardent devotee of Hindu religion. (A Vaishnavite)

Mother

CHINNA THAYAMMAL alias MUTHAMMAL

1885 [Age - 06]

He was sent to a small primary school normally run at a House - pial in those days.

1889 [Age - 10]

His school career ended within 5 years.

1891 [Age - 12]

He entered his fathers trade.

1895

He used to hear Tamil Vaishnav religious Gurus talks on mythologies at his house, enjoying hospitability of his parents. As a boy, he started questioning the contradictions and absurdities in the fables of Hindu deities spread by the Invader Arya Race ie., Brahmins for subjugating Dravidian Race.

Blossoming of rationalism and atheism slowly in the mind of this youth -

Ramasamy.

1898

He married NAGAMMAL, aged 13. He reformed his orthadox wife and sowed rationalistic views in her mind.

1900

He became the father of a female - child which expired within 5 months and thereafter had no children.

1904

He undertook "renunciation" of family because of the harsh reprimand of his father.

He went first to Vijayawada in Andhra State. Then he proceeded to Hyderabad and Kolkatta.

INSULT AT KAASI ENLIGHTENS HIS RATIONALISM

He reached Kaasi (Varanasi), a noted sacred town of Hindu pilgrimage on the bank of the River Ganges. There he could not get free meals easily at choultries which exclusively fed Brahmins forbidding other Hindu castes.

Having starved severely for some days, this handsome young man Ramasamy found no other better way than to enter a choultry with the appearance of a Brahmin wearing a thread on his bare chest. But his moustache betrayed him. So the gate-keeper not only prevented his entry but also pushed him rudely to the street.

At that moment, as the feast was over inside the choultry, the leaves with food left over were thrown at the street.

The unbearable burning hunger for the past few days forced Ramasamy to compete with the street - dogs in eating the remnants of food in the leaves.

While eating that food, the eyes of Ramasamy looked at the letters carved on the front wall of the building. They revealed the truth that the choultry exclusively occupied by the highest caste viz., Brahmins, had been built only by a wealthy merchant of Dravidian Race from Tamil Nadu.

Suddenly in the mind of this young man, some questions could have sparked such as: "Why and how the Brahmins can obstruct the Dravidians from taking meals in the choultry although the choultry was built with the money of a Dravidian Philanthropist? Why the Brahmins behaved so mercilessly and fanatically as to push the communities of the Dravidian race even to starvation - death by adamantly enforcing their evil casteism?"

No justifiable answers came to convince the judicious thinking of Periyar on the above questions.

The disgrace inflicted by the Brahmins at KAASI upon him without the least mercy, made a deep wound in the heart of Periyar and it inflamed intense hatred towards that Aryan race and their creation of innumerable Gods.

Though Kasi (Varanasi) has been acclaimed as the most "sacred town" by the Brahmins, the worst ugly scenes of immoral activities, prostitution, cheating, looting, begging crowds for alms, floating dead bodies on the River Ganges turned Periyar to abhor that so-called holy-town. Consequently, a re-thinking on his renunciation led him to return to his family life.

On returning to Erode - his father delegated all his trade rights to this second son and renamed his major commercial concern under the title: "E.V. Ramasamy Naicker Mandi"

1905 onwards :

SELFLESS SOCIAL SERVICES

Besides being a well-known wealthy businessman in Erode Mr. E.V.R. entered into public life by rendering social services selflessly.

One noteworthy instance:

Once the dreadful contagious disease plague attacked Erode. Hundreds of people died and thousands fled for saving their life. But this noble man did not desert his native town like other rich merchants. He himself carried the dead bodies to the cremation ground while even the close kith and kin did not touch them for last rites due to the fear of the contagion of the plague disease.

He commanded enormous influence over other traders in the bazaar street of Erode. He mediated and solved many disputes among the businessmen with neutrality and uprightness.

In his youthful years he was attracted by the Tamil scholar Pandithamani Ayothidhaasar who vehemently condemned the caste - system and Hindu religion of Brahmins with the principles of rationalism and Buddhism.

Despite his intense hatred towards the Hindu religion and its caste - system - particularly the cruel 'Untouchability' imposed by the Brahmins to supress the Dravidian race - the executive efficiency and the unshakable honesty of E.V.R. fetched the awards of many posts in various public institutions.

Periyar was made Honorary Magistrate by the British Government.

He held many honorary positions like the President, the Secretary, Vice-President etc., in various public institutions numbering 29 such as - District Board, Taluk Board, Urban Bank, Davasthanam (Religious Trust), Public Library, War Recruitment Committee, Association of Agriculturists, Association of Merchants, Mahajana School Committee... etc.,

1906 :

FRIENDSHIP OF TAMIL SCHOLARS

There was a Tamil Scholar by name: Pulavar Marudhaiya Pillai at Karur. His logical arguments and daring condemnation of Hindu religion, caste-system, deceptive myths in the epics and Vedic sasthras spread by the Brahmins, had attracted admiration of even the ordinary rural people in the areas around Erode and Karur.

His bosom - friendship played a major role in inculcating atheism firmly in the mind of Periyar and in moulding the latter as a probing rational thinker.

Intimacy of another Tamil Scholar Sage KAIVALYAM had also enriched the rational intuition of Periyar.

Many higher officials and learned persons like Engineer P.V. MANICKA NAICKER befriended this Erode Beacon, because of his progressive views.

1909

Unyielding to stiff protest of orthodox family members, Periyar arranged the remarriage of his sister's daughter who became a child widow at the age of 9

Periyar Movement

As a congress leader 1919-1925

The basic philosophy of Periyar E.V.Ramasamy (17.9.1879 - 24.12.1973) was all men and women should live with dignity and have equal opportunities to develop their physical, mental and moral faculties. To achieve this, he wanted to put an end to all kinds of unjust discriminations and to promote Social Justice and rational outlook.

To put his principle into practice, Periyar associated himself with the Madras Presidency Association (MPA) in 1917. He was one of its vice-presidents. The Association advocated communal representation and demanded reservation for the Non-Brahmins and minority communities, as a 'sine qua non' of removing the injustices.

When Mahatma Gandhi (M.K.Gandhi: 1869 -1948) took the lead in the Indian National Congress, Periyar joined the organisation in 1919. He resigned 29 public posts he held at that time, including the municipal chairmanship of Erode town. He gave up his very lucrative wholesale dealership in grocery and agricultural products, and closed his newly begun spinning mill. Periyar wholeheartedly undertook the constructive programme - spreading the use of Khadi, picketing toddy shops, boycotting the shops selling foreign cloth and eradication of untouchability. He courted imprisonment for picketing toddy shops in Erode in 1921. When his wife as well as his sister joined the agitation, it gained momentum, and the administration was forced to come to a compromise.

In 1922, Periyar moved a resolution in the Tamil Nadu Congress Committee when it met at Tiruppur. The resolution required people of all castes to be allowed to enter and worship in all the temples, as a measure to end birth-based discrimination. Citing the authority of Vedas and other Hindu scriptures, the Brahmin members of the Committee opposed the resolution and stalled its passage. This reactionary stand of the members of upper Varna provoked Periyar to declare that he would burn Manu dharma Sastra, Ramayana etc. to show his disapproval to accept such scriptures to govern the social, religious and cultural aspects of the people.

Periyar's determination to bring about socio-cultural revolution impelled him to support even his opponents when they implemented his progressive scheme. Though a Congress leader, he supported in 1923, the Justice Party's measure to form Hindu Religious Endowment Board with a view to put an end to the age-old monopoly and exploitation of the upper castes in the managements of Hindu temples and religious endowments.

Periyar's vigorous and spirited role in the Vaikom Satyagraha (1924-25) contributed in no mean measure for the triumph of that first historic social struggle in the history of modern India. This paved the way for the "untouchables" to use public roads without any inhibition and for other prospective egalitarian social measures.

At Cheranmaadhevi near Tirunelveli in Southern Tamil Nadu, they started a National training school as an alternative to those run under the control of the British Government. That school, known as Gurukulam, was funded by the Tamil Nadu Congress Committee and by other non-Brahmin philanthropists. It was managed by V.V.S.lyer, a Brahmin. Under his management, they showed discrimination between the Brahmin and Non-Brahmin students. Brahmin boys were treated in a better way than the others with regard to food, shelter and the cirriculum. Along with his companions Periyar stoutly opposed the discriminatory practice and put an end to it.

It was Periyar's firm conviction that universal enjoyment of human rights will become a reality only when the Varna-Jaathi (caste) system was eradicated. Until the social reconstruction took place, he wanted communal representation as a measure of affirmative action to, uphold social justice. So he tried, every year from 1919, to make the Tamil Nadu Congress Committee to accept the policy of reservation to different social groups and communities. But his efforts bore no fruit in this regard. Finally he left Congress in November 1925 at the Kancheepuram Conference. He had to part company with Mahatma Gandhil because the later was not prepared to put an end to the Brahmin domination and to fight against caste system.

Self - respect Movement 1925- 39

Periyar's philosophy is that different sections of a society should have equal rights to enjoy the fruits of the resources and the development of the country; they should all be represented, in proportion to their numerical strength, in the governance and the administration of the state. This principle had been enunicated earlier by those who stood for social justice, particularly by the South Indian Liberal Federation, popularly known as Justice Party. Periyar's unique contribution was his insistence on rational outlook to bring about intellectual emancipation and a healthy world-view. He also stressed the need to abolish the hierarchal, graded, birth-based caste structure as a prelude to build a new egalitarian social order. In other words, he wanted to lay a sound socio-cultural base, before raising a strong structure of free polity and prosperous economy.

It was in this context, the Self-Respect Movement, founded in 1925, carried on' a vigorous and ceaseless propaganda, against ridiculous and harmful superstitions, traditions, customs and habits. He wanted to dispel the ignorance of the people and make them enlightened. He exhorted them to take steps to change the institutions and values that led to meaningless divisions and unjust discrimination. He advised them to change according to the requirements of the changing times and keep pace with the modern conditions.

Self-respecters performed marriages without Brahmin priests (prohits) and without religious rites. They insisted on equality between men and women in all walks of life. They encouraged inter-caste and widow marriages. Periyar propagated the need for birth control even from late 1920s. He gathered support for lawful abolition of Devadasi (temple prostitute) system and the practice of child marriage. It was mainly due to his consistent and energetic propaganda, the policy of reservations in job opportunities in government administration was put into practice in the then Madras Province (which included Tamilnadu) in 1928.

Conferences

Though the Self-Respect movement was started in 1925, the first provincial conference was organised by Periyar at Chengalpet (near Chennai and Kanchipuram) only in February 1929. It was presided over by W.P. Soundarapandian. M.R Jeyakar was the president of the second conference conducted at Erode in 1930. Sir RK. Shanmugam occupied the chair in the third provincial conference that met at Viruthunagar. Apart from enthusing the people, these conferences passed resolutions meant to promote Caste eradication, Social integration and equal rights to women.

Since the British rulers in India had no vested interest in perpetuating the inequitable Varna-Jaathi social structure based on Vedic Sanathana Dharma, Periyar and his followers found that they could influence or pressurise the alien government to take measures to remove social inequality. So they adopted a moderate policy in the struggle for political independence.

From the beginning of 1930s, Periyar added the programme of fighting for economic equality to his original programme of working for social equality and Cultural Revolution. Along with the veteran communist leader Com. M.Singaravel, he organised industrial and agricultural labourers to stand against the exploitation of big capitalists and landlords. In mid -1930's, the central and provincial governments took steps to ban the Communist Party and the organisations purported to have similar programmes. They started to stop the activities of the Self-Respect Movement. Periyar had to take a crucial decision. He had known by experience that there were supporters for the work to carry on the freedom struggle and to organise the labourers. But only a few came forth to expose the religion based traditional evils, and struggle against the exploitation of the powerful Brahminical upper castes. Under this circumstance, he toned down his socialist activities in order to be free to carry on the task of the socio-cultural emancipation of the disadvantaged and the downtrodden sections.

In 1934, there was an unsuccessful move through C.Rajagopalachari, known as Rajaji, to bring Periyar back into the fold of the Congress Party. Periyar prepared a programme of action consisting of measures to promote Social Justice, through reservations, to implement socialisation of vital and large-scale commercial and industrial activities, and to remove the hardships of the debt-ridden peasants. He sent the programme to the ruling Justisce Party and the Congress Party that was growing popular. The Congress Party did not accept it, as the policy of reservation was not agreeable to it. As Justice Party agreed to most of the measures including communal representation to uphold Social Justice, Periyar continued to support it.

In 1937, Justice Party that was in power in the then Madras Province from 1921, except for a brief period, lost the elections to the Congress Party. Rajagopalachari who introduced compulsory study of Hindi language in the high schools headed the Congress Government. Those who opposed this effort to make non-Hindi speaking people second-class citizens organised a vigorous agitation under the dynamic leadership of Periyar. More than 1200 persons including women with children were imprisoned in 1938, of which two, Thalamuthu and Natarasan, lost their lives due to the rigours in prison. When the agitation gained momentum Periyar was sentenced to undergo rigorous imprisonment for two years, though released in six months (Periyar was in gaol five times in 1920s and four times in 1930s).

In November 1938, a women's conference in Madras (now Chennai) passed a resolution to refer to E.V.Ramasamy always as Periyar (the great man.). While undergoing imprisonment, the Justice Party elected him as its President on 29th December 1938.

Periyar who opposed compulsory study of Hindi in the then Madras Province was sentenced to undergo rigorous imprisonment for two years. But he was released after about six months of confinement from 26th November 1938 to 22nd May 1939. After his release, he announced that he would continue his agitation against the imposition of Hindi.

Justice Party

We have seen that Periyar was elected while he was in prison, as the leader of the South Indian Liberal Federation, popularly known as Justice Party, in its Provincial Conference held in Madras (Chennai) on 29, 30 December 1938. He was basically a fighter for human rights for all from the beginning to the end of his public life. Now he added a new dimension to his movement, viz., and demand for an independent Dravida Naadu. He was driven to make this demand in 1938-39, because he found the Brahminical upper castes, whom he opposed for their social oppression, were in league with the North Indian Bania community (comprador capitalists) in imposing Hindi and in exploiting economically the people of South India.

Periyar's concept of Dravidians was not based on the purity of blood related to a race, but on values and ways of life. The Brahminical upper castes who followed the discriminatory socio-cultural principles, practices and traditions of Varna-Jaathi (caste system) originally enunicated in the Sanskrit scriptures like Vedas, Ithihaasas, Puraanas, Dharma Sastras etc. are Aryans. Those who subscribe to the egalitarian Tamil tradition and values of humanism are Dravidians. It may be recalled here that while addressing the conference of Backward Classes and Scheduled.Castes in Kanpoor in Uttar Pradesh in December 1944, he appealed to the Non-Brahmins of North- India to give up the religious appellation of Hindu and call themselves as Dravidians.

The Second World War broke out in September 1939. As a protest against the British rulers involving India in the war without consulting the High Command of their party, the Congress ministries in Madras and seven other Provinces resigned on 29th October of the same year. As Periyar was the leader of the opposition Justice Party, he was asked by the Governor and Governor general twice in 1940 and 1942 to form the ministry. Though a Congress leader, his friend C.Rajagopalachari personally requested Periyar to accept the offer, assuring his outside support to the Justice Party ministry. He explained that he wanted to put an end to the rule of the Governor and his advisers. But Periyar refused to head the Provincial Government on both the occasions. His refusal was on two grounds: First, he felt it improper to form the ministry without a popular mandate. Secondly, he firmly believed that his main task of annihilating caste system and spreading rational humanist principles would receive a set back, if he assumed power.

Periyar left for Mumbai (Bombay) on 5th January 1940. Dr. B.R.Ambedkar gave dinner- parties twice in his honour. They' met the Muslim League leader M.A.Jinnah at his residence in Mumbai on 8th January 1940. Periyar explained then his decision to work for an independent State known as Dravida Naadu.

On 21st January 1940, the Madras provincial Government ruled by the Governor and his advisers abolished the compulsory study of Hindi in schools. M.A.Jinnah sent a telegram to Periyar congratulating him on the success of his endeavour to ward off the imposition of Hindi.

When the Justice Party was defeated in the 1937 general elections after being in power for a very long spell from 1921, most of its leaders were disheartened and became inactive. It was at this moment of crisis, Periyar accepted the leadership of the party because he always felt the need for the existence of a vigorous political party essentially oriented to work for the upliftment of the socially deprived sections of the people. At this critical movement, two of the old guards staunchly stood by him. They were Sir R.K.Shanmugam and Sir A.T. Panneerselvam. At the time, the former was the Dewan of the Princely State of Kochi (now a part of Kerala) and then became Independent India's first finance minister in 1947. The latter was a member of the Governor's council and then a minister in Madras province in 1930s. On 1st March 1940, he lost his life in a plane crash while flying over Oman Sea on his way to London where he was to assume office as an adviser to the Secretary of State for India in the British Government. Periyar lamented that the sudden and tragic demise of Panneerselvam was an irreparable loss to the people of Tamil Nadu.

The 15th State Conference of the Justice Party was held in Tiruvarur in August 1940. It was on this occasion, Chinnakancheepuram Natarajan Annadurai (C.N.A.), respectfully mentioned later as Arignar Anna, became the Joint Secretary of the Party. He fascinated the youth by his unique style of writing and oratory. He played a great role in popularising the principles, policies and programmes of Periyar through his essays, short stories, novels and plays.

In February 1941, the founder-leader of Radical Democratic Party, M.N.Roy, came to Chennai and stayed as Periyar's guest. He sought Periyar's cooperation to form a grand All India alliance against the Congress Party. Both of them supported the war efforts of Great Britain as they considered British Imperialism a lesser evil than the Fascism of Mussolini, Nazism of Hitler and the Militarism of Tojo. As a result of Periyar's persistent demand, the degrading practice of serving separately the Brahmins and the 'others' in the restaurants in railway stations was abolished in March 1941.

The conservative section in the Justice Party disliked Periyar's radical social reform programme, his critical view of religious literature and the propagation of rationalist ideas. Unmindful of their opposition, he continued his onward march and gathered around him the youth and the common people. It was during this period in 1942-43 that Maniammai joined the movement and came to attend to the personal needs of Periyar. She was devoted to the leader and served him sincerely. They married later in 1949.

Dravidar Kazhagam - 1944 - 1973

The Justice Party's provincial conference held in Salem on 27th August 1944 marked a turning point in Periyar's movement. The name of the Party was changed as Dravidar Kazhagam. The members were asked to give up the posts, positions and titles conferred by the British rulers. They were also required to drop the caste suffix of their names. It was also decided that the members of the movement should not contest the elections. In other words, the Justice Party, which was political, was transformed into Dravidar Kazhagam and became a non-political socio-cultural movement. It remains so even today.

It was in the historic Salem conference, Periyar allowed Mr. K.Veeramani, the present President of Dravidar Kazhagam, who had not yet completed 11 years then, to stand on the table and address the gathering. Arignar Anna introduced him to the audience as the Thiru Gnanasambandar of the Self-respect movement. (Gnanasambandar was a precocious devotee and composer of hymns in Tamil in the Saivite lore). In the last week of December 1944 and in the first week of January 1945, Periyar undertook a tour of North India. On 27th December 1944, he spoke in a conference of the Radical Democratic Party in Calcutta (Kolkotta). M.N.Roy introduced him to those assembled as his atheist preceptor. In 1945, a volunteer corps of black shirts was organised.

The Dravidar Kazhagam flag, in the ratio of 3: 2, a red circle in the middle in the black background, was adopted in 1946. The black represented the deprivations and the indignities to which the Dravidians are subjected to under the Hindu religious milieu. The red stands for the determined efforts to dispel the ignorance and blind faith among the people and to liberate them materially and mentally from all kinds of exploitation, particularly those of social and cultural. A two-day conference of black-shirt volunteer corps was organised in Madurai in May 1946. On the second day the pandal was burnt down at the instigation of Brahminical Hindu Sanathanis. In the same year on 9th December, Periyar raised his sure voice against the manner in which the Constituent Assembly was constituted.

Periyar declared that 15 August 1947, when India became politically free, was a day of mourning because the event marked, in his opinion, only a transfer of power to the Brahmin - Bania Combine, whose socio-cultural domination, in addition to economic exploitation, would be worse than the British rule. He also viewed the adoption of the Republican Constitution of India in 1950 in a similar vein.

Though he had basic differences with Mahatma Gandhi, Periyar was terribly grieved when he fell a victim to the bullets of a religious fundamentalist of the Hindutva variety on 30th January 1948. He even suggested on the occasion that India should be renamed as Gandhi Naadu.

The Congress government of Madras Province banned the black-shirt volunteer corps in March 1948. But that only made Dravidar Kazhagam more popular. As a result more than a lakh of people, most of them in black shirts, assembled in the D.K.Conference held at Tutucorin on 8,9 May 1948.

Periyar revived the agitation against Hindi when it was again introduced in the schools in June 1948. Though the authorities were stubborn in the initial stages and took stern steps against the agitations, they had to yield in course of time to the popular will, and withdrew the scheme of compulsory study of Hindi.

The firmly entrenched and deeply rooted social evils in India centre around the existence and perpetuation of the caste system known as Varna-Jaathi which forms a basic and inseparable part of the theory and practice of Hindu religion that sanctifies the stratified hierarchy or graded inequality. The beneficiaries of this social structure are the Brahminical upper castes.

Upper caste people who have enormous material resources and mental capabilities obtained through unjust privileges and exclusive traditional advantages. Those who work for the complete transformation of the social order have to wage an unequal war. By his experience and serious thought, Periyar was convinced that the individuals and movements that undertake the task of eradicating the social evils in India have to pursue the goal with devotion and dedication without deviating from the path and with uncompromising zeal. If they contest elections aiming to assume political power, they would lose vigour and sense of purpose. But many among his followers had a different view. They wanted to enter into politics and have a share in running the government. They were looking for an opportunity to part with Periyar. When he married Maniammai on 9th July 1948, they quit Dravidar Kazhagam stating that Periyar had set a bad example by marrying a young woman in his old age - he was 70 and she 30. Those who parted company with Periyar formed Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam - DMK, under the leadership of C.N.Annadurai (Arignar Anna).

Least perturbed by sentimental and motivated protests, Periyar marched on with redoubled vigour to found an enlightened egalitarian society.

After the adoption of the Republican Constitution on 26th January 1950, Brahmins went to the Madras High Court and then to the Supreme Court in the same year asking for the discontinuance of the provision of reservation in educational institutions to the historically disadvantaged communities, on the plea that the provision violated the fundamental right to non-discrimination. The courts upheld the plea and declared reservations meant to promote Social Justice unconstitutional. Periyar organised meetings and conferences against the judgment, and also initiated agitations that gained momentum as days passed by. As a result, the Constitution {First Amendment Act} was passed in 1951 adding the Clause 40 the Article 15: "Nothing in this article or in clause (2) of Article 29 shall prevent the State from making any special provision for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or for the Scheduled Castes and_ Scheduled Tribes."

The Periyar Self-respect Propaganda Institution was registered on 23rd September 1952. In 1953, as instructed by Periyar, the Buddha's Day was celebrated through out the state urging the need to follow a rationalist way of life, and the idols of the elephant god Vinayaga (Ganesha) were broken to demonstrate symbolically the inefficacy of the innumerable deities worshipped by the educated and uneducated people.

In the meanwhile C.Rajagopalachari who had become the Chief Minister of Madras State for the second time between 1952 and 1954, had introduced the scheme of conducting classes in the schools in the forenoon and asking the students to learn the traditional jobs of their parents in the afternoon. At the first stage it was implement in the rural areas of the state. The Dravidian leaders rightly assessed that the scheme was a clever device to keep the Shudra and Panchama castes as illiterates or semi-literates. Their children had just begun to attend school after centuries of denial of educational opportunities. They dubbed C. Rajagopalachari's scheme as Castiest Education Plan (Kula Kalvi Thittam) and began to agitate under Periyar's leadership demanding its withdrawal. As a consequence, the Chief Minister had to resign in March 1954, and Kamaraj assumed office on 14th April.

Kamaraj abolished the half-day-teaching scheme, and assured Periyar that his Government would extent educational facilities to people in every nook and corner of the state. He also assured that he would sincerely implement the policy of communal representation opening up opportunities to the underprivileged in education and administration. As Kamaraj adhered truly to his assurances, Periyar gave him his unstinted backing. Though Periyar supported Congress nearly 30 years after he quit the same in 1925, his support was more to the person than to the party.

In November and December 1954 and in the first week of January 1955, Periyar and his wife Maniammai went on a propaganda tour to Burma and Malaysia. In Burma (now Myanmar), he attended the Buddhist Conference, and had a discussion with Dr. B.R.Ambedkar. Perhaps this was the last meeting between the two great men, before the latter passed away on 6th December 1956. They had similar views on almost all the points related to socio-religious issues in India.

Periyar went to the burial ground in Thanjavur on 28 March 1955 to pay homage to Pattukkottai Azhagirisamy (Azhagiri, the dare-devil), an ardent follower of Dravidar Kazhagam principles and a fiery speaker, who passed away on the same day in 1949. He found a board indicating a separate place for burial for Shudras! Periyar wrote a letter to the district collector expressing his objection to the display of the board and to the practice of following "Varna dharma" even while burrying or cremating. As a consequence, the board was removed and the practice discontinued.

On 1st August 1956, the Dravidar Kazhagam undertook an agitation of burning the portrait of Lord Rama as he symbolised the preservation of Varna dharma. Periyar was placed under preventive arrest on this occasion.

The States in India were reorganised on linguistic basis on 1st November 1956, and Periyar welcomed this measure.

In those days, the board "Brahmins Hotel" was displayed, following the lead given by the Brahmins, to indicate that only vegetarian food was served there. Dravidar Kazhagam objected to the Varna dharma connotation and started an agitation symbolically in front of a hotel in Madras (Chennai) on 5th May 1957. Batches of volunteers agitated daily and 1010 of them courted arrest till 22nd March 1958 when it culminated in success.

The provisions of the Constitution that helped to safeguard Varna-Jaathi (Caste system) was burnt by about 10,000 volunteers of Dravidar Kazhagam on 26th November 1957. In this historic agitation, about 3000 of them were sentenced to undergo various terms of rigorous imprisonment, from two months to three years.

On December 14, 1957, Periyar was sentenced to undergo six months imprisonment in a case based on fabricated police diaries where in he was accused of asking his followers to use force against Brahmins, an accusation that Periyar naturally denied.

Two of the volunteers, Ramasamy and Vellaichamy, imprisoned for burning the provisions of the Constitution supporting casteism, died in jail. Their bodies were obtained with great effort by Maniammai from the unwilling and obstructing prison authorities and burried with due honours, after being taken in an emotionally charged procession through the main streets of Tiruchirappalli. Due to the rigours they underwent in prison, about 15 people died soon after they were released.

In January 1959, Periyar went to Bangalore to participate in the All India Official Language Conference. Along with General Kariappa and Medappa, he stressed the need to retain English as the Union Official Language. In February he undertook a tour of North India and propagated his principles of rationalism, social justice and self-respect way of life.

In June 1960, Periyar asked people to burn the map of India as a protest against the Central Government using the Union of India for upholding and safeguarding caste system. About 4000 people were arrested for taking part in this agitation.

In 1962, Periyar wrote a special article in the Tamil Rationalist daily, Viduthalai", welcoming the present President of Dravidar Kazhagam, Thiru K.Veeramani who had offered to become a full time volunteer of the movement giving up his lucrative profession of a lawyer.

The Congress leader K.Kamaraj expressed his wish to resign Chief Ministership and work whole time to strengthen the Party. Periyar sent a telegram to Kamaraj stating that it would be suicidal to the people of Tamil Nadu and to him, if he quit the office as the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu. But Kamaraj did not change his decision, and consequently M.Baktavatsalam became the Chief Minister on 3rd October 1963.

As recommended by the National Integration Commission under the Chairmanship of Sir C.P. Ramaswamy Iyer, the Parliament enacted a law in 1963, prohibiting the propagation of ideas demanding separation from the Indian Union. Periyar vehemently opposed the law.

In April 1964, Dravidar Kazhagam conducted meetings throughout the State, condemning the Supreme Court's verdict against the State's Act fixing a ceiling to land holding.

Periyar criticized the spontaneous and fierce agitation that raged through out Tamil Nadu between January 25 and February 15, 1965 against the imposition of Hindi resulting in several deaths, because it was rudderless and unorganized.

In the name of protecting cows, an unruly mob, motivated by the Hindutva ideology attempted to burn the Delhi residence of K.Kamaraj and kill him on 7th November 1966. He escaped by sheer chance. Periyar strongly condemned this barbaric attack and called upon people to be vigilant to protect Kamaraj by all means.

Dravidar Kazhagam supported congress party in 1957, 1962 and 1967 general elections, and opposed DMK, which formed the government in the State in 1967. Soon after, Arignar Anna (C.N.Annadurai) went to Tiruchirappalli along with all his ministers and paid his homage to his mentor. Periyar was happy when the DMK regime renamed Madras State as Tamil Nadu and made Self-respect marriages legal. It was a non-religious mode of performing marriages introduced by Periyar in late 1920s. Though law till 1967 did not recognize such marriages, thousands of them were conducted due to the influence of the principles of Self-respect.

In October 1967, Periyar undertook a North Indian tour and asked people to work for the eradication of caste system. On 12th and 13th of October, he addressed a Conference of BCs, SCs, STs and minorities in Lucknow.

Periyar was deeply saddened when Arignar Anna, one of his chief disciples and an unquestioned leader of millions of Tamil Youth, passed away in his 60th year on 3rd February, 1969.

Dravidar Kazhagam decided in its Central Committee meeting in November to undertake an agitation demanding to put an end to the practice of appointing only Brahmins as Archakas in Agamic temples, as a way of removing one of the root causes of Varna-Jaathi.

The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) gave an Award to Periyar, and the Union Education Minister, Triguna Sen in Madras (Chennai) on 27th June 1970, presented it to him. The citation hailed Periyar as "the Prophet of the New Age, the Socrates of South East Asia, Father of Social Reform Movement, and Arch enemy of ignorance, superstitions, meaningless customs and base manners."

"Unmai", a Tamil monthly (now a fortnightly) and Modern Rationalist, an English monthly, were started by Periyar in 1970 and 1971 respectively to propagate the ideals of rational humanism more extensively. The Allahabad High Court lifted proscription of the Hindi version of Periyar's book on Ramayana in 1971. In the same year the proscription of "Ravana Kavyam" proscribed by the Congress Government of the Madras State was removed. On 12th January 1971, the DMK Government enacted a law giving equal opportunities to qualified persons to become the Archakas(priests) of Hindu Agamic temples irrespective of their birth in any Varna or Jaathi. On 23rd January a huge "procession of the eradication of superstitions" took place in Salem. The processionists carried large pictures and portraits truly depicting the events and gods described in epics and puranas. When a few intolerant orthodox onlookers threw footwears at the procession, the marchers used the same materials to beat the portrait of Rama beheading the Shudra Sambuka in deep meditation. This action of the Periyarists was blown out of proportion by the media through out India. They also published the pictures of gods and goddesses carried by the marchers. This event was used against DMK-Congress alliance in the general elections held in March 1971. But both the parties secured massive majority, the DMK in Tamil Nadu Assembly and the Congress in the Lokh Sabha.

On March 14, 1972 the Supreme Court gave a seemingly ambiguous judgment in the case against the Tamil Nadu Government's 1971 enactment that threw the job of Archakas open to all the qualified persons irrespective of their caste. As the bureaucracy interpreted this judgement, in favour of the conservatives who defended the status quoe , Periyar announced an agitation, exhorting people to work for equal human rights in all spheres including social, religious and cultural. This agitation had become necessary to remove the indignity to the people belonging to the Dravidian race because they were dubbed as Shudras and Panchamas according to Vedic and Brahminical Sanathana Dharma known as Hindu religion.

Periyar organised a conference in Chennai on 8th and 9th December 1973. It was known as "Eradication of the social indignity of the Tamils Conference". The conference decided to fight for equal rights and opportunities for persons of all castes to enter into Garba Graha (Sanctum Sanctorum), known as "Karuvarai Nuzhaivu Porattam" in Tamil. He undertook extensive tours to explain the need to bring to an end the Brahmin domination or privileges in priesthood and in other religious rites and ceremonies as an essential measure to reorganise the social order on the basis of equality.

In the meanwhile the court set aside on October 11, a case against inscribing on the pedestal of Periyar's statues, his famous pronouncements (made in 1967) denying god, and denouncing the worship and propagation of the same.

In his last meeting at Thiagaraya Nagar. Chennai on 19th December 1973, Periyar gave an inspiring clarion call for action to gain social equality and dignified way of life. He fell ill on the next day and breathed his last on 24th December 1973.

Periyar's life marked a turning in history and the beginning of a new era.

Moreinfo at http://www.dravidarkazhagam.org


Narayana guru

Kindly visit: http://www.narayanaguru.org/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Narayana_Guru

Life Sketch

In August 1856 when a child was born in a humble cottage in the pretty hamlet of Chempazhanthi near Trivandrum, no one knew it marked the dawn of the most remarkable epoch in the social evolution of Kerala. This child was to blossom forth as the great sage Sree Narayana, the most revolutionary social reformer Kerala has produced.

To have proper appreciation of the magnitude of Sree Narayanas achievements, it is necessary to understand the background of the social conditions in which he was born and brought up. Kerala, reputed for its natural beauty and richness of life, was alas, the accursed land of caste tyranny at that time; to such an extent that it was really a lunatic asylum as Swami Vivekananda branded it. The non-caste Hindus, the Avarnas were groaning under the terrible weight of social, economic, religious and political oppression imposed upon them by caste Hindus or Savarnas. Not only temples of God but temples of learning were also shut against them by twin weapons of untouchability and unapproachability. They had to toil hard for their caste-Hindu masters with hardly any reward. They had to suffer a multitude of disabilities that broke the very backbone of their life.

Numerically Ezhavas or Thiyyas are the largest non-caste Hindu community in Kerala. Sree Narayana was born into a middle class family of this community. His parents, Madan Asan and Kutty Amma endearingly called him Nanu. At the age of five, he began his education in the neighboring school in the old Gurukula model. After his elementary education in this school, he became the disciple of a great Sanskrit scholar Raman Pillai Asan of Puthuppally in Central Travancore. Under his masters tutelage, he became well versed in Sanskrit classics. For some time he too functioned as an Asan, a teacher of infant pupils. Thus he came to be known as Nanu Asan. Nanu, even from his boyhood had an ascetic bent of mind. When he was on the threshold of his youth, he had to undergo the ceremonial of a marriage due to parental pressure. But he never led a married life. Sree Narayanas mind was always agitated by a spiritual urge that induced him along with a fellow-spiritualist renowned as Chattampi Swami, to become the disciple of a man named Ayyavu, the then Superintendent of the British Residency in Trivandrum from whom he learned Yoga. At the age of twenty-three he left his family, renounced the pleasures of his world and wandered about as an avadhutha or mendicant, keeping his body and soul together by the alms he received from all sorts of people. Soon human eyes detected the Sanyasin and devotees began to gather around him at Aruvippurm, the seat of his meditation.

They participated in his prayers and spiritual learning. In due course the sage emerged from his retreat and like The Awakened One, came out to shed light onto a world of darkness. Thus began his crusade against social inequality and other iniquities.

In those days, the foundation and consecration of a Hindu temple was the exclusive monopoly of the Brahmins. Sree Narayanas first revolutionary act was the challenge thrown against this monopoly, by him consecrating temples. The first in this line was the temple dedicated to Shiva in Aruvippuram in 1888 A.D. In the temple is inscribed in Malayalam the following ideal, which epitomizes the Sree Narayana creed. This is the ideal place Where all live in full harmony Without distinction of Caste or prejudice of Creed.

The people of the Ezhava community were the first to be awakened by the teachings of Sree Narayana and to be inspired into a spirit of mass militancy to eradicate their social disabilities. This was partly because the great Guru was born in that community and partly because the Ezhavas constituted the largest single community among the downtrodden masses in Kerala. Thanks to Sree Narayana, the Ezhavas came to have their own temples on the model of caste-Hindu temples that denied them admission, and in their temples they could worship the deities until then monopolized by caste Hindus. Within a few years Sree Narayana established a multitude of temples all over Kerala. The temples at Vakkom, Kulathur and Kovalam in south Travancore area, at Cherai, Koorkancherry and Peringottukara in Cochin area, and Tellicherry, Cannanore and Calicut in the Malabar area of Kerala State and Mangalore in Karnataka state are some of the most celebrated among these temples. It is significant that the history of founding of Temples by Sree Narayana was a process of evolution through which he slowly prepared the minds of the masses in the progressive realization of more and more revolutionary ideas. First he founded the temples dedicated to Shiva in the caste-Hindu pattern. Then in 1912 he made a departure from this when the temple dedicated to Sharada, the goddess of learning was founded at Varkala, thereby including the ideal of the worship of knowledge. Revolutionary changes were also introduced in the traditional rituals and ceremonials to be observed in temples. The next milestone in the path of his reform was the foundation of a temple in Murikkumpuzha near Trivandrum in 1922, where, in the place of a deity a bright light revealing the words Truth, Duty, Kindness, Love was installed. The climax of his temple reform was the installation of a mirror for worship in the temple founded at Kalavancode in Sherthallai. The mirror is symbolic of Sree Narayanas teachings that man should find his salvation not in lifeless deities but in himself by the development and utilization of his inner self.

Long before the Temple Entry Proclamation of the Travancore government in 1936 whereby government temples were thrown open to all Hindus, the temples established by Sree Narayana had become the asylum for worship, of the Original Inhabitants of Prabuddha Bharath and Arogiya Rakshakas(Protectors of the Life of All Beings)'. Sree Narayanas temples made no discrimination on the ground of caste, or creed. Unlike caste Hindu temples, they were open to both Hindus and non-Hindus.

Sree Narayana was a true rishi who lived with the people and for the people. He knew that without providing material comforts, it is futile to hold out the illusion of spiritual happiness to the starving and suffering millions. So he conducted a veritable campaign to eradicate the material disabilities of the downtrodden sections of Hindus. In 1903, Dr. P. Palpu, a devotee of Sree Narayana, founded a social organization called S.N.D.P Yogam (Sree Narayana Dharma Paripalana Yogam), the organization to promote the Dharma of Sree Narayana. This organization has done invaluable service in the epic struggle against caste system in Kerala. The organizers of S.N.D.P made Sree Narayana as its first President. The first General Secretary of S.N.D.P Yogam was Kumaran Asan, the peerless pioneer among modern Malayalam poets. He was one of the dedicated disciples of Sree Narayana. In fact the spiritual philosophy and the crusade against caste that illumine Kumaran Asans poetry were inspired mainly by association with and inspiration from the great Guru. Sree Narayana never went about preaching. He was essentially a Karma Yogi. But his silence eloquent, the inner light that emanated from his resplendent personality, inspired and enlightened all around him, wherever he went. He traveled throughout and outside. Wherever he went, he earned disciples and devotees in large numbers. In 1928 he founded the Dharma Sangha, an order of Sanyasins who were expected to be his true disciples. The members of this order were to propagate and perpetuate the teachings of Guru. Early in 1921 an All Kerala Fraternity Conference was held at Alwaye, and in this conference was delivered his eternal message One Caste, One Religion, One God for Mankind. In the wake of this conference Gurus illustrious disciple K. Ayyappan started the Sahodhara (Brotherhood) movement in Cherai, his native place, to eradicate the caste system by promoting inter-caste marriage and inter-dining. Sahodharan Ayyappan braved formidable opposition from the reactionary elements, mostly from his own community-the Ezhavas. But inspired by the teachings and blessings of Sree Narayana, Sahodharan Ayyappan conducted a mammoth campaign to create a casteless society in Kerala. His tireless work went a long way to mitigate the rigors of the caste system in his country.

Sree Narayana founded two Ashrams, at Varkala and Alwaye, with educational institutions attached to them. These Ashrams remain the centers of purity and universal fraternity, the ideals, which the Guru greatly cherished and nourished. Sree Narayana did not attempt to found a new religion, but he propounded a great creed, the creed of Universal Goodness.

Like Sree Shankara, Sree Narayana was a profound thinker, a great seer and a born poet. He was also a great scholar in Sanskrit and Tamil. He has been the author of many works in Malayalam and Sanskrit, which are Atmopadesa Sathakam and Darsanamala which epitomize his great moral and spiritual precepts. He has also beautifully translated Tamil works like Thirukkural and Ozhuvilotukkam into Malayalam. In his works he has superbly expounded the Advaita philosophy. 'Daiva Dasakam' a simple prayer written by Guru.

Sree Narayana is one of those rare men whose greatness was recognized even while they were alive. No better testimony is needed for this than the fact that Rabindranath Tagore and Mahatma Gandhi had visited and paid respects to him. Tagore, when he visited Kerala in 1922, interviewed the Guru and was deeply impressed that he remarked-

Among the Paramahamsas alive in India now, there is none Who has lived such a life of purity as Swami Sree Narayana.

When Mahatma Gandhi visited Sree Narayana in 1923, there was a heart-to-heart exchange of ideas between them and in their dialogue Sree Narayana made no secret of his strong feelings, about the need to eradicate the caste system root and branch.

The last great conference, which was convened at the behest of Sree Narayana, was the All Religious Conference, the Parliament of religions held at Alwaye in 1924. In this conference where eminent representatives of all great religions assembled, Sree Narayana proclaimed that the conference was convened Not to argue and win but to know and to make known. In a message which he delivered at the conference, he said This great Parliament of religions makes it abundantly clear that the ultimate goal of all religions is same and so there is no need for followers of different religions to indulge in mutual conflict.

The great Guru Sree Narayana attained Samadhi on September 20, 1928. Thus physically Guru disappeared, but spiritually he lives forever in the minds of mankind.


Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj

Shrimant Shahu Shivaji Raje Bhonsle Chhatrapati Maharaj (1682-1749) was the fourth ruler of the Maratha Empire created by his grandfather, Chhatrapati Shivaji, and was officially the Raja of Satara (now in state of Maharashtra, India). More popularly known as Chattrapati Shahuji, he came out of captivity by the Mughals and survived a civil war to gain the throne in 1707. Somewhat of a roi faińeant, he was a good judge of character, but was content to let his Prime Ministers (the Peshwas) rule on a day-to-day basis.

He was the son of the second Chattrapati Sambhaji who was killed by the Mughals in 1689.

Contents [hide] 1 Imprisonment 2 Civil war 3 Accomplishments 4 Socio-political revolution 5 Family 6 Death 7 References

Imprisonment

During Mughal-Maratha war of 27 years Shahuji was imprisoned by the Mughals after the fall of Raigarh, the Maratha capital in 1689. The Marathas emerged as victorious in this long war. The Mughals retreated around 1707. After the death of the then Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in 1707, the next Emperor Bahadur Shah released Shahuji in 1707 under conditions which rendered him a vassal of the Mughal emperor.

Civil war

After his release Shahuji had to contend with a competing claim by his aunt, Tarabai and her son, Raje Sambhaji II (son of Rajaram). She set up a competing Kingdom of Kolhapur. With the assistance of Balaji Vishwanath who was later appointed the Peshwa (Marathi for Prime Minister), Shahuji outmanoeuvered Tarabai in 1714 and consolidated his power.

Accomplishments

Shahuji's primary accomplishment was stabilising the fractured Maratha empire after defeat of the Mughals by Marathas. During war of 27 years ,many maratha nobles became powerful .He was the binding force of the Marathas. Under his patronage his many civilian officers like Balaji or army commanders like Bajirao,Raghoji Bhosale and many more expanded the maratha frontiers. In a real sense he was the emperor of contemporary India, but remained grateful to even weak descendants of the great mughals for the reasons during his captivity, Mughals raised him as a prince only and never compromised with honor of his or his mother. He spent his entire childhood and youth, from age 7 to age 28 in the custody of mughals. He had passed through hardships and all uncertainties of life. Born as a prince, became a prisoner at the age of 7, became a Chattrapati at the age of 28 and saw the empire spreading all over the continent. These all events made him rather stronger person .

Socio-political revolution

As a patron, he always gave space to the rising talented buds to act and as an authority made those ambitious chiefs to submit before his highness. Shahuji was instrumental in giving space to new talents irresepctive their background. His reign saw rise of many like Balaji, Shinde and many more talented people who later became the strong support on which the Maratha empire expanded and flourished, especially Bajirao Peshwa and Holkars in North. He is credited with establishing the position of Peshwa, which later became a hereditary position. In addition to appointing the first Peshwa, he also appointed a young Balaji Bajirao I as Peshwa on April 17, 1719, after the premature death of his father. He also appointed Nanasaheb, as Peshwa. These three Peshwa saw the rise essentially due to their patron otherwise it was not possible. These three more or less bear the influence of their master. He is also responsible for appointing Sarkhel Kanhoji Angre to the position of the first Maratha naval chief, in return for his moving loyalty from the Tarabai camp. During his tenure almost all sections of society rose to power. Perhaps Maratha empire was the most socially mobile empire which accommodated many new socio-economic groups which were hitherto miles away from the power. It had had an effect on the social fabric of the nation. Maharashtra witnessed a spate of social changes in late 19th century as a result of this.

Family

Shahuji had four wives, and fathered two sons and four daughters. He adopted two sons, Meherban Shrimant Fatehsinh I Raje Sahib Bhonsle and Shrimant Rajaram II Raje Bhonsle Chhatrapati Maharaj Sahib in 1745 (who succeeded him as the Raja of Satara).

Death

After Shahuji's death in 1749 his adopted son, Rajaram II succeeded him, but he was largely incompetent. The Maratha empire was primarily governed by the Peshwas from then onwards, with the Chattrapatis remaining the titular head. He passed and with him had gone away the dignity of the marathas. Whatever unity they were having vanished and with the Battle of Panipat, Marathas fell apart never to unite till freedom movement.

Kindly visit:

http://www.kanpuruniversity.org/

http://www.maharashtraitparks.com/itparks_about_kolh.htm

Shri Chatrapati Shahu Maharaj

History and Heritage

Kolhapur, a south western Indian city in the state of Maharashtra has been mentioned as Karvir in the Hindu mythology. In about the 3rd century BC, Kolhapur was an important Buddhist Centre. There are entries in the old religious texts showing that once upon a time this city was a centre of religion, religious power and trade. It has been also referred to as Dakshin Kashi.

The history of Kolhapur can be divided into three time periods, the Hindu period upto 1347 AD, the Muslim period from 1347 to 1700 AD and the Maratha period from 1700 onwards.

During the regime of Saatwahan dynasty this city was very rich. But there is evidence to prove that this city was devastated in the 8th and the 9th century due to earthquakes. In the later years the 'Rashtrakuta' Kings re-established this city. In the 12th century this was the capital of the King Shildatta.

During the British regime, Shri Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj became the King of Kolhapur in the year 1894. It was the capital of the former princely state of Kolhapur, which became part of India in 1947. The former state, which extended from the Western Ghats - mountains east to the Deccan plain, was a stronghold of the Hindu people known as the Marathas. Kolhapur had been a princely state during the British rule on India. At the time of independence Kolhapur was merged in India along with most of the other princely states. Kolhapur's palaces are renowned examples of Indo-British architecture and the gardens of the city attract many tourists.


Fight to attain equal rights for peasants and the original inhabitants of India

Jyotirao Phule

Jyotirao Govindrao Phule (Marathi:ज्योतिराव गोविंदराव फुले) (April 11, 1827 November 28, 1890), also known as Mahatma Jyotiba Phule was an activist, thinker, social reformer and revolutionary from Maharashtra in the nineteenth century. His remarkable influence was apparent in fields like education, agriculture, caste system, women and widow upliftment and removal of untouchability. He is most known in society for his efforts to educate women and the original inhabitants of India. He, after educating his wife, opened the first school for girls in India in August 1848.

In September, 1873, Jyotirao, along with this followers, formed the Satya Shodhak Samaj (Society of Seekers of Truth) with Jyotirao as its first president and treasurer. The main objective of the organisation was to liberate the Shudras and Ati-Shudras and to prevent their exploitation by the Brahmins.

For his fight to attain equal rights for peasants and the original inhabitants of India and his contribution to the field of education he is regarded as one of the most important figure in Social Reform Movement in Maharashtra.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Ideology 3 Social activism 4 Connection with women activists 5 Legacy 6 Published works 7 References

Early life

Jotirao Govindrao Phule was born in Pune to a family of the "Maali(Gardener)" original inhabitants of India. His father, Govindrao, was a vegetable-vendor, and his mother died when he was 9 months old. After completing his primary education, Jyotirao had to leave the school and help his father by working on the family's farm. He was married at the age of 12. His intelligence was recognised by a Muslim and a Christian neighbor, who persuaded his father to allow Jyotirao to attend the local Scottish Mission's High School, which he completed in 1847.

Influenced by [[Thomas Mann Paine]] books '[[The world is my country Rights of Man]]','[[My religion is to do good]]','My own mind is my own church'. Phule developed a keen sense of social justice, becoming passionately critical of the Indian caste system. He argued that education of women and the original inhabitants of India was a vital priority in addressing social inequalities.

Ideology

Phule portrayed aryans as invaders and original inhabitants of India people as original inhabitants of India, and described aryan culture along with caste system as alien to these Original people whom he termed Bahujan Samaj[1].Phule called these invaders Brahmins and brave original inhabitants Kshatriya [2]. Satyashodhak Samaj

On 24 September 1873, Rashtrapita Jotirao Govindrao formed the 'Satya Shodhak Samaj' (Society of Seekers of Truth) with himself as its first president and treasurer. The main objectives of the organisation were to liberate the Shudras and Ati Shudras and to prevent their exploitation by the Arya Brahmins. Through this Satya Shodhak Samaj, Jotirao refused to regard the Vedas as sacrosanct. He opposed idolatry and denounced the chaturvarnya system (the caste system).

According to Satya Shodhak Samaj, existence of God was replaced by Nirmik, the creator. Satya Shodhak Samaj propounded the spread of rational thinking and rejected the need for a Brahman priestly class as educational and religious leaders. Phule, in an attempt to explain caste oppression, turned the Aryan theory of race upside down. According to this inverted theory, the Aryans were indeed of foreign origin, but were far from superior compared to the race they conquered. "They were cruel and violent invaders who had overturned an originally prosperous and egalitarian society." Brahman rule, supported by state power and religious hegemony, was seen as the root cause of oppression for the original inhabitants of India who were the indigenous masses.

When Phule established the Satya Shodhak Samaj, Savitribai became the head of the women's section which included ninety female members. Moreover, she worked tirelessly as a school teacher for original inhabitants of India girls. On his death bed Phule is rumored to have turned to his wife and said "You must carry on our work with the same determination and spirit."

Deenbandhu, the mouthpiece of the Satya Shodhak Samaj, played an important role in Satya Shodhak Samajs movement. After Jotiba's death in 1890 his spirited followers went on spreading the movement to the remotest parts of Maharashtra. Soon Shahu Maharaj, the ruler of Kolhapur princely state, gave a lot of financial and moral support and Satya Shodhak Samaj in its new incarnation as non-brahmin party carried on the work of superstition removal vigorously. Two instances from the lives of two devoted leaders of Satya Shodhak Samaj in this period can be cited at the outset. The first of these relates to the life of Bhaskarrao Jadhav, the veteran non-brahmin leader. When Shahu Maharaj, who was humiliated in the Vedokta controversy, had set up Kshatra Jagatguru, Bhaskarrao opposed the move. On top of it, when all leaders including Shahu Maharaj saluted kshatra Jagatguru, Bhaskarrao boldly declared that being a Satya Shodhak he could not bow his head before any religious leaders. Ideas of Satya Shodhak Samaj defy not just brahmin heads of religion, but also the whole institution of priesthood and the caste system based on inequality by birth. This is because at the root of the caste system is the superstition that sponsors the feelings of superiority of higher castes and the feelings of inferiority of original inhabitants of India.

The second instance relates to a strong and successful worker of Satya Shodhak Samaj, Once Shahu Maharaj had called Baburao Yadav for some work but he was very late in turning up.

Naturally Maharaj asked him about the delay.

Baburao took Maharaj to the balcony and from that balcony he pointed the bullock-carts resting at a distance. Maharaj could not understand the point. Soon, however Maharaj saw that Baburao Yadav's bullock cart was full of red coloured stones of different sizes. Maharaj further asked Yadav to explain how his late coming was related to those stones. Then Yadav explained,

" Sir I was delayed in reaching your palace because on the way I collected all these stones anointed with red sindhur, as these so called gods sitting on the boundaries of the village farms were responsible for converting villagers into stones! I collected all of them in my cart. That is why I was delayed in reaching here."

These two instances reveal how Satya Shodhak Samaj had created the psyche against blind faith from top to bottom of the movement. Jotiba firmly believed that if you want to create a new social system based on freedom, equality, brotherhood, human dignity, economic justice and value devoid of exploitation, you will have to overthrow the old, unequal and exploitative social system and the values on which it is based. Knowing this well, Jotiba attacked blind faith and faith in what is given in religious books and the so-called god's words. He tore to pieces the misleading myths that were ruling over the minds of women, shudras and ati-shudras. Yielding to god or fate, astrology and other such rubbish rituals, sacredness, god-men, etc. was deemed irrational and absurd. This was explained by giving innumerable examples. He also led campaigns to remove the economic and social handicaps that breed blind faith among women, shudras and ati-shudras. Jotiba subjected religious texts and religious behavior to the tests of rationalism. He characterised this faith as outwardly religious but in essence politically motivated movements. He accused them of upholding the teachings of religion and refusing to rationally analyse religious teachings. He maintained that at the root of all calamities was the blind faith that religious books were created or inspired by god.

Therefore, Phule wanted to abolish this blind faith in the first instance. All established religious and priestly classes find this blind faith useful for their purposes and they try their best to defend it. He questions

" if there is only one God, who created the whole mankind, why did he write the Vedas only in Sanskrit language despite his anxiety for the welfare of the whole mankind? What about the welfare of those who do not understand this language?"

Phule concludes that it is untenable to say that religious texts were God-created. To believe so is only ignorance and prejudice. All religions and their religious texts are man-made and they represent the selfish interest of the classes, which are trying to pursue and protect their selfish ends by constructing such books. Phule was the only sociologist and humanist in his time that could put forth such bold ideas. In his view, every religious book is a product of its time and the truths it contains have no permanent and universal validity. Again these texts can never be free from the prejudices and the selfishness of the authors of such books.

This devastating criticism is all the more valid in the Hindu religion, because here clever brahmins had loaded farmer's backs with selfish interests, under the garb of religion. Out of their 'hatred for shudras, the brahmins prevented resurgence of shudras by creating religion based hierarchical caste system and imposed sacredness, out of the fear that some day shudras would rise again to challenge the brahmin supremacy, they banned teaching to shudras altogether. The ban on the education of the original inhabitants of India resulted in the illiterate women and the shudras losing their reasoning faculty and acquiring faith in worthless stories in Harivijay, etc., and following pilgrimage, worshipping Satyanarayan and chanting Gods` name million times a day.

Women and shudras do not realise that they have been deprived of human rights through a perfidious plot of the brahmins. Phule also pointed out the dominance of men against women in the religious texts. However, despite his concept of 'Nirmik', he does not prescribe elaborate rituals and blind pursuits of gods' images and temples. He vehemently opposed worthless rituals and any intermediary between god and person. No sacrifices to god are acceptable to him. He advocates gender equality, opposes hierarchical superiority and propagates honesty and conscientious behavior. There is no sin and no other world and no cycle of births after this life. Man had to use his rational faculty to go through life. He attacked astrology and Vastushastra.

Phule believed in overthrowing the social system in which man has been deliberately made dependent on others, illiterate, ignorant and poor, with a view to exploiting him. To him blind faith eradication formed part of a broad socioeconomic transformation. This was his strategy for ending exploitation of human beings. Mere advice, education and alternative ways of living are not enough, unless the economic framework of exploitation comes to an end.

After Jotiba's death in 1890, there was a period of lull, when the flame lit by Jotiba waned. The Satya Shodhak Samaj movement was totally a social movement and nothing to do with the politics, but the members of Satya Shodhak Samaj dissolved Satya Shodhak Samaj and merged it with Congress party in 1930.

Mahatma Phule had a favourable opinion about the British Rule in India at least from the point of view of introducing modern notions of justice and equality in Indian society and taking India into the future. He also had a favourable opinion about Christianity and Buddhism.

Social activism

He was assisted in his work by his wife, Savitribai Phule, and together they started the first school for girls in India in 1848, for which he was forced to leave his home. He initiated widow-remarriage and started a home for upper caste widows in 1854, as well as a home for new-born infants to prevent female infanticide. Phule tried to eliminate the stigma of Hindu Untouchability surrounding the original inhabitants of India by opening his house and the use of his water-well to the members of the lower castes.

He formed Satya Shodhak Samaj (Society of Seekers of Truth) on September 24, 1873, a group whose main aim was to liberate the Hindu Shudra and Untouchables castes from exploitation and oppression.

Phule was a member of Pune municipality from 1876 to 1882.

Connection with women activists

Some of India's first modern feminists were closely associated with Phule, including his wife Savitribai Phule; Pandita Ramabai, a brahmin woman who made waves in the atmosphere of liberal reformism when she converted to Christianity; Tarabai Shinde, the non-brahmin author of a fiery tract on gender inequality which was largely ignored at the time but has recently become well-known; and Muktabai, a fourteen-year-old pupil in Phules school, whose essay on the social oppression of the Mang and Mahar castes is also now justly famous.


Nana Sahab Peshwa

1857 - Chapter

Reproduced from : INDIAN POSTS & TELEGRAPHS PHILATELY BRANCH INFORMATION SHEET

INDIA'S STRUGGLE FOR FREEDOM

NANA SAHEB

The First War of Independence (1857-58) was the first general widespread uprising against the rule of the British East India Company. The Doctrine of Lapse, issue of cartridges greased with animal fat to Indian soldiers, introduction of British system of education and a number of social reforms had infuriated a very wide section of the Indian people, who rose in revolt at a number of places all over India. The East India Company was brought under the direct rule of the British Crown as a result of this uprising.

Of the very large number of freedom fighters, who led the struggle, four are being commemorated through the present series, which is a part of the larger series on India's Struggle for Freedom.

A Maratha, one of the leaders of the First War of Independence, Nana Saheb was born in 1824 to Narayan Bhatt and Ganga Bai. In 1827 his parents went to the court of the last Peshwa Baji Rao, who adopted Nana Saheb, thus making him heir-presumptive to the throne.

Nana Saheb was well educated. He studied Sanskrit and was known for his deep religious nature. On the death of the last Peshwa, Baji Rao-II, in 1851 the Company's Government stopped the annual pension and the title. Nana Saheb's appeal to the Court of Directors was not accepted. This made him hostile towards the British rulers. When the First War of Independence broke out, he assumed leadership of the mutineers in Kanpur. After seizing Kanpur, which had a small British garrison, Nana Saheb proclaimed himself the Peshwa and called for the total extermination of the British power in India.

Kanpur was recaptured by the British under General Havelock and the last serious engagement (16 July, 1857) resulted in a total rout of Nana's forces. Nana rode away to an unknown destination in Nepal in 1859 and probably perished in the jungle. Avanti Bai

Rani Avantibai (died March 20, 1858) was the wife of Vikramaditya Singh, the ruler of the Indian state of Ramgarh. When he died, leaving his wife with no heir, the British placed Ramgarh under their administration. Avantibai vowed to fight the British to regain her land and her throne. She raised an army of four thousand and personally led it against the British in 1857. When, after a few months' struggle, she saw that her defeat was imminent, she killed herself on her own sword.

An important aspect of the first rebellion against the British rule in 1857 was the central role played by women.

The role played by Maharani Avanti Bai of Ramgarh, who belonged to the Lodhi community of Mandla district in Madhya Pradesh, would be remembered by her country.

She fought against the British interference in her domains affairs. When the British appointed an officer to oversee the affairs of her state after her husband, Maharaja Vikramaditya Singh, fell ill, Maharani Avanti Bai aroused the patriotic feelings of her people against the British.

People from all segments of the society joined hands with the Maharani to fight against the British rulers.

The UP Folklore and Mayawathi These battles of the mind won, the BSP had another challenge. When Kanshi Ram passed the baton on to Maywati, the BSP cadres were faced with the challenge of selling a woman leader to the masses. The 1857 memories were again revived to erect statues and disseminate stories of the contribution of Mahaviridevi (popular in the Muzaffarnagar region), that of Courageous Lady Jhalkaribai ( popular in Bundelkhand and central UP), who along with her husband Makka Pasi is said to have laid down her life in the revolt at Sikendarabagh in Lucknow. In the region touching Madhya Pradesh, the folk stories of Avantibai Lodhi have been propagated. The three women belong to different Scheduled caste /Scheduled Tribe communities but the attempt has been to make them popular amongst all SC/STs, and then show Iron Lady Mayawati as coming from this rich tradition of Scheduled caste /Scheduled Tribe women heroes.

Queen Avantibai

AVANTIBAI

When Vikramaditya Singh, the ruler of Ramgarh State died leaving behind his wife Avantibai and no heir to the throne, the British put the state under court administration. Avantibai vowed to win back her land from the British. She raised an army of four thousand men and led it herself against the British in 1857. A fierce battle ensured and Avantibai fought most valiantly but could not hold out for long against the superior strength of the British army. When her defeat become imminent she killed herself with her own sword and became a martyr on 20-03-1858

Homage to Maharani Advanti Bai

Tribune News Service

New Delhi, August 16

The Delhi Pradesh Congress Committee (DPCC) paid homage to Maharani Advanti Bai at a function held at the DPCC office premises here today. Addressing the gathering, the Delhi Pradesh Congress Committee chief, Mr Prem Singh, highlighted the important role played by Maharani Avanti Bai in the Indias freedom movement.

It may be recalled that an important aspect of the first rebellion against the British rule in 1857 was the central role played by women.

The role played by Maharani Avanti Bai of Ramgarh, who belonged to the Lodhi community of Mandla district in Madhya Pradesh, would be remembered by her country.

DPCC chief said she fought against the British interference in her domains affairs. When the British appointed an officer to oversee the affairs of her state after her husband, Maharaja Vikramaditya Singh, fell ill, Maharani Avanti Bai aroused the patriotic feelings of her people against the British.

People from all segments of the society joined hands with the Maharani to fight against the British rulers.

The UP Folklore and Mayawathi

Its been a point of great interest when I actually came across this particular piece in one of the news papers over here. Folk heroes / Heroines can make you win votes and seats is amazing come on you lofty politicians here is a lesson for you snatch it and keep going.....

Look at what one of my fellow blogger writes on Mayawathy's success formula of Folk combinations....

These battles of the mind won, the BSP had another challenge. When Kanshi Ram passed the baton on to Maywati, the BSP cadres were faced with the challenge of selling a woman leader to the masses. The 1857 memories were again revived to erect statues and disseminate stories of the contribution of Mahaviridevi (popular in the Muzaffarnagar region), that of Courageous Lady Jhalkaribai ( popular in Bundelkhand and central UP), who along with her husband Makka Pasi is said to have laid down her life in the revolt at Sikendarabagh in Lucknow. In the region touching Madhya Pradesh, the folk stories of Avantibai Lodhi have been propagated. The three women belong to different SC/STcommunities but the attempt has been to make them popular amongst allSC/STs, and then show Iron Lady Mayawati as coming from this rich tradition of SC women heroes.

Queen Avantibai

The Interview has been taken from (courtesy:

Indiatimes.com)

Badri Narayan is a social historian and cultural anthropologist. He teaches at the G B Pant Social Science Institute, Allahabad. In an e-mail interview with Avijit Ghosh, he discusses the cultural assertion of SC/STs in north India:

We have seen the political assertion of SC/STs in UP. Is there a parallel on the cultural front?

My book, Women heroes and SC/ST assertion in North India: Culture, Identity and Politics, shows how SC/STs of north India, especially of UP, are selectively retelling their traditional folk stories and how they are creating new stories. It focuses on invention, formation and reconstruction of cultural resources of SC/ST communities in the new social-political condition and their use in the construction of contemporary SC/ST identity by the communities themselves and by Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP). Cultural resources in the form of myths, memories, histories and heroes are key factors in BSPs growing electoral success. Some of the women heroes (viranganas) associated with these myths were culled out by the BSP to build up the image of their leader Mayawati. Women heroes such as Jhalkari Bai, Uda Devi, Mahaviri Devi, Avanti Bai and others were selected by BSP and used to build the image of Mayawati.

Jhalkari Bai, a little known chapter on a woman's courage in colonial India Click here for the story (rediff.com) But Jhalkari Bai's saga is a study in contrast. She was the 'double' of Rani Laxmibai of Jhansi, the legendary warrior who fought the invading British army in the first War of Independence. A little known figure in Indian history, Jhalkari Bai lives on in the folklore of the Bundelkhand region.

Laxmibai was struck by Jhalkari's uncanny resemblance to her. After being told about her courage, she ordered Jhalkari's induction into the Durga Dal. Jhalkari, along with the other village women, was trained in shooting and igniting the cannons at a time when the Jhansi army was being strengthened to face any British intrusion.

When Jhalkari Bai fought as Lakshmi Bai,Usha Bande

Tribuneindia.com

One of Lakshmi Bai's favourite female soldiers was Jhalkari Bai, the chief of Durgavahini, the women's force. A Koree by cast, Jhalkari remained Lakshmi Bai's close associate and helper during the battle.

Historical records reveal that an internal informer betrayed Jhalkari out of jealousy. Uncertain about her true identity, the British vacillated for a while but when convinced that the so-called 'Rani' was not the queen of Jhansi but a maid named Jhalkari impersonating as Lakshmi Bai, they released her. Jhalkari, it is said, lived till 1890 and became a legend in her time. Extolled for her bravery and acumen, she found place in many ballads of the time. Big story: It lies in the small tales

(Times of India)

MYSTERIOUS GIRL!

That warrior Uda Devi joined the hallowed ranks of women revolutionists like Rani Laxmi Bai and Begum Hazrat Mahal to free the state from the British yoke is well known.

"I've heard that the unknown woman soldier at Sikanderbagh has now been named as Uda Devi. But there's no mention of anyone by this name in any of the Mutiny records that historians have looked at. On the other hand, there's more than one account of an armed woman who was sitting in a large peepal tree in the Residency's walled enclosure , and picking off the Highlanders as they came into the garden. When a number of bodies were observed piling up under the tree, a sergeant was ordered to shoot into the branches. This he did, and a body fell on the ground, its bodice opening to reveal a woman soldier. But she was not an Indian! In fact, the dead woman was one of Wajid Ali Shah's Amazons - a group of African women brought in as slaves - who formed part of the Nawab's retinue. They were dressed in men's uniform and rode on horseback to accompany their master."

It's not for nothing that we Indians are called a forgiving nation ! History has many such examples according to historian Dr Yogesh Pravin, who talks of the inexplicable regard that people in Musabagh, a village near Lucknow, have for an English Captain referred to fondly as Gora baba. "The English might be despised for their years of rule here," he recounts, "but Captain F Wales, who died fighting the mutineers in Musabagh in 1857, is actually worshipped by people around the place. The locals offer cigarettes and alcohol on his mazaar for the Baba was said to be fond of smoking and drinking. Moreover, inexplicably , people have forever believed that by offering prayers at his mazaar, their prayers would be fulfilled. All this is regardless of the fact that he was an English soldier who opposed the mutineers!" How and why are they being viewed as symbols of Dalit assertion?

These heroes symbolise the claim of the Dalits having played a major role in the making of the Indian nation and help them prove their legitimacy to rule in the present. These stories enable them to assert that they had sacrificed more than any other caste for this nation. Hence, they have more right over the welfare policies and schemes launched by the government. Through these stories they also claim that they produced brave and committed women leaders in the past and their leader Mayawati represents a continuum of that history.

What are the SC/ST memories of 1857?

SC/STs in their popular narratives remember 1857 more than any other phase of the national movement. They remember many histories of British oppression on SC/ST villages in Avadh and between Allahabad and Kanpur. They have many touching local histories linked with trees and tunnels where they made sacrifices in the 1857 rebellion. They also claim that the 1857 rebellion was triggered by Matadin Bhangi, a SC/ST in the Barrackpore cantonment, since it was he who exposed the presence of animal grease in the cartridges to Mangal Pandey.

How did BSP use historical material to expand its electoral base?

Maharashtrian heroes of SC/ST movement were also renarrated in UPs bahujan politics. But BSP laid more emphasis on the heroes who were already part of the collective memories of local SC/ST societies. BSP brought these local caste heroes in the public space by installing statues at chaurahas, building memorials in the parks and organising and supporting various celebrations around these heroes. Gradually they were transformed as symbol of SC/ST self-respect. Tags: viranganas, folklore, folkheroes, up, mayawathy

Uda Devi

Mayawati discovered Uda Devi who had been shot dead by British soldiers in Lucknow during the 1857 uprising. Pasis of Uttar Pradesh have invented their caste-history by glorifying their nationalist caste-icon, Uda Devi.It is Pasis attempt to integrate themselves with the history of the freedom movement According to historians and academics from the city, the Revolt of 1857 was about much more than acts of valour performed by the revolutionaries.

IT'S not just the heady tales of valour we've read in our History books that transformed the so-called Sepoy mutiny into India's First war of independence. As we join the nation in celebrating 150 years of the Revolt of 1857, historians and academics dig out untold, yet riveting, anecdotes that make the revolt in Oudh come alive for Lucknowites.

MYSTERIOUS GIRL!

That warrior Uda Devi joined the hallowed ranks of women revolutionists like Rani Laxmi Bai and Begum Hazrat Mahal to free the state from the British yoke is well known.

But historian Rosie Llewellyn-Jones , known for her in-depth works on Lucknow throws fresh light on the subject. Jones shares an extract about the mysterious Uda Devi at Sikanderbagh, from her forthcoming book, "I've heard that the unknown woman soldier at Sikanderbagh has now been named as Uda Devi. But there's no mention of anyone by this name in any of the Mutiny records that historians have looked at. On the other hand, there's more than one account of an armed woman who was sitting in a large peepal tree in the Residency's walled enclosure , and picking off the Highlanders as they came into the garden. When a number of bodies were observed piling up under the tree, a sergeant was ordered to shoot into the branches. This he did, and a body fell on the ground, its bodice opening to reveal a woman soldier.

The Nawabi Era

The garden part of the NBRI encompasses within its limits the historical 'Sikandar Bagh', which was laid out around 1800 A.D., as a royal garden, by Nawab Saadat Ali Khan and was later improved upon by Nawab Wajid Ali Shah, the last king of Avadh, during the first half of the 19th century. It was, in fact, Nawab Wajid Ali Shah who named the garden as "Sikandar Bagh", after one of his favourite queens, Sikander Mahal Begum. Measuring about 150 square metre and having a small pavilion in the middle, the garden must have been the venue of innumerable performances of the famous 'Ras-lilas', 'Kathak' dance, music and poetic 'mehfils' and other cultural activities for which the last Nawab was very well known!

The Sikander Bagh was, later, also the venue for a fierce battle during the uprising of 1857, when about 2000 freedom fighters, who had barricaded themselves in the garden, were killed in a vicious British attack. Articles like cannon balls, swords and shields, pieces of muskets and rifles, etc., accidentally dug out of the garden over the years and now displayed in the NBRI Exposition and scars of cannon balls on the old walls of the garden, still remind one of that historic event. A still greater and more visible reminder of that battle is the statue, erected some years ago in the old campus of the garden, of Uda Devi, a brave passi lady, who fought side by side with the besieged soldiers. Attired in a male battle dress, she had perched herself atop a tree in the garden, with some ammunition and a gun in hand, and kept the British attackers at bay till her ammunition was exhausted and she dropped dead on the ground, her body riddled with bullets.

We are fully aware of the glorious history of the Passis who were once the rulers of Lucknow and several other parts of UP. We have read Chief Minister Mayawati's preface to her Passi Minister R.K. Chowdhury's book,PasseeSamrajya(1997).

R.K. Chowdhury has done such a work. He says before 800 years Lucknow, Allahabad and Faizabad were under Passi kings.

We learn that the Passi population figures are very much suppressed. In the 1991 census, the Scheduled Caste population of undivided UP was 2.93 crores (22%). In this, the Passis constitute 1.5 crore which includes all the different sub-subcastes of Passis. One claim puts the Passi population at 2 crore out of the total SC/ST population of 4.5 crore. Subcaste-wise population census will verify the truth. Maharaja Bijlee Paasee is the most famous name in the Passi history. He was the ruler of Awadh during the 12th century. Maharaja Lakhan Paasee was a famous ruler of Lucknow which derives its name from him. The King George Medical College of Lucknow stands on the ruins of his palace. Q: We have seen the political assertion of Sarvajan (The Entire People All Inclusive) in UP. Is there a parallel on the cultural front?

Women heroes and Sarvajan (The Entire People All Inclusive) assertion in North India: Culture, Identity and Politics, shows how Sarvajans (The Entire Peoples)of north India, especially of UP, are selectively retelling their traditional folk stories and how they are creating new stories. It focuses on invention, formation and reconstruction of cultural resources of Sarvajan (The Entire People All Inclusive) communities in the new social-political condition and their use in the construction of contemporary Sarvajan (The Entire People All Inclusive) identity by the communities themselves and by Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP). Cultural resources in the form of myths, memories, histories and heroes are key factors in BSP's growing electoral success. Some of the women heroes (viranganas) asso-ciated with these myths were culled out by the BSP to build up the image of their leader Mayawati. Women heroes such as Jhalkari Bai, Uda Devi, Mahaviri Devi, Avanti Bai and others were selected by BSP and used to build the image of Mayawati.

Q: How and why are they being viewed as symbols of Sarvajan (The Entire People All Inclusive) assertion?

These heroes symbolise the claim of the Sarvajan (The Entire People All Inclusive) having played a major role in the making of the Indian nation and help them prove their legitimacy to rule in the present. These stories enable them to assert that they had sacrificed more than any other caste for this nation. Hence, they have more right over the welfare policies and schemes launched by the government. Through these stories they also claim that they produced brave and committed women leaders in the past and their leader Mayawati repre-sents a continuum of that history.

Q: What are the Sarvajan (The Entire People All Inclusive) memories of 1857?

Sarvajan (The Entire People All Inclusive) in their popular narratives remember 1857 more than any other phase of the national movement. They remember many histories of British oppression on Sarvajan (The Entire People All Inclusive) villages in Avadh and between Allahabad and Kanpur. They have many touching local histories linked with trees and tunnels where they made sacrifices in the 1857 rebellion. They also claim that the 1857 rebellion was triggered by Matadin Bhangi, a Sarvajan (The Entire People All Inclusive) in the Barrackpore cantonment, since it was he who exposed the presence of animal grease in the cartridges to Mangal Pandey.

Q: How did BSP use historical material to expand its electoral base?

Maharashtrian heroes of Sarvajan (The Entire People All Inclusive) movement were also renarrated in UP's bahujan politics. But BSP laid more emphasis on the heroes who were already part of the collective memories of local Sarvajan (The Entire People All Inclusive) societies. BSP brought these local caste heroes in the public space by installing statues at chaurahas, building memorials in the parks and organising and supporting various celebrations around these heroes. Gradually they were transformed as symbol of Sarvajan (The Entire People All Inclusive) self-respect

Jhalkari Bai

Though the recorded history does not reveal much about the antecedents or heroic exploits of Jhalkari Bai, she is a living memory in the folklore of the Bundelkhand region even today. Jhalkari was a village girl who had to take charge of the household chores in her childhood itself, following the early loss of her mother. It is said that she once had an encounter with a tiger while collecting firewood in the jungle and killed it with her axe. Jhalkari also bore an uncanny resemblance to Rani Lakshmi Bai of Jhansi, because of which the Rani took a special liking to her and inducted her into the women's wing of her army. The people of Jhansi resented the annexation by the British. They rallied around Rani Lakshmi Bai and resolved to take up arms to uphold the independence of their state. In 1858, there were several attacks on the Jhansi fort by the British and their native allies. The Rani marshalled her forces well and repulsed these attacks. It is said that when the fall of the fortress became imminent, Jhalkari Bai and some generals convinced Lakshmi Bai to escape quietly with a handful of supporters. As a ploy to deceive the British, Jhalkari dressed up like the Rani and took command of the army. The British found out the truth too late, as the Rani had covered a considerable distance by then. Though Jhalkari Bai was forced to surrender, it is believed that the British military officers, who were impressed by her loyalty, courage and fighting prowess treated her with respect and freed her. Rani Lakshmibai

1828 17 June 1858

Rani LaxmiBai

Alternate name: Manu,Manikarnika Place of birth: Kashi, Uttar Pradesh, India

Place of death: Gwalior,India

Movement: Indian Independence Movement

Lakshmibai, The Rani of Jhansi (c. 1828 17 June 1858)(Marathi- झाशीची राणी), the queen of the Maratha-ruled princely state of Jhansi in North India, was one of the leading figures of the Indian rebellion of 1857, and a symbol of resistance to British rule in India.

She was born at Kashi and died at Gwalior. Her childhood name was Manikarnika. She is sometimes referred to as the Boudicca of India. Lakshmi Bai was a Maharashtrian born sometime around 1828 at Kashi (presently known as Varanasi). An alternate date of 19 November 1835 was asserted by D. B. Parasnis in his biography of the Rani. However, no other credible historian agrees with this date and all the evidence points to 1828. The simplest and most direct evidence comes via John Lang. In his account of his meeting with the Rani in 1854 he mentions that her vakil said she was a woman of about 26 years.[citation needed]

Her father Moropanth Tambey was a Karhade Brahmin and her mother Bhagirathibai was cultured, intelligent and religious.Manikarnika was affectionately called Manu by her family. Manu lost her mother at the age of four, and responsibility of looking after the young girl fell to her father. She completed her education and martial training, which included horse riding, fencing and shooting, when she was still a child. She was married to Raja Gangadhar Rao Newalkar, the Maharaja of Jhansi in 1842, and became the queen of Jhansi. After their marriage, she was given the name Lakshmi Bai. The ceremony of the marriage was performed at the Ganesh Mandir, the temple of Lord Ganesha situated in the old city of Jhansi. Rani Lakshmi Bai gave birth to a son in 1851, but this child died when he was about four months old.

In 1853 Gangadhar Rao fell very ill and he was persuaded to adopt a child. To ensure that the British would not be able to contest the adoption, the Rani had it witnessed by the local British representatives. Maharaja Gangadhar Rao expired the following day, 21 November 1853.

Contents

1 Annexation 2 The war 3 Epilogue 4 Literature on Jhansi ki Rani 5 References 6 See also 7 External links

Annexation

At that time, Lord Dalhousie was the Governor General of British India. Though little Damodar Rao, adopted son of late Maharaja Gangadhar Rao and Rani Lakshmi Bai, was Maharaja's heir and successor under Hindu tradition, the British rulers rejected Rani's claim that Damodar Rao was their legal heir. Lord Dalhousie decided to annex the state of Jhansi under the Doctrine of Lapse.

The Rani then did the unprecedented: she sought the advice of a British lawyer, John Lang, and appealed her case in London. Although these petitions were well-argued, they were ultimately rejected. The British Indian authorities clearly sought to punish Rani for her presumptuous behavior.[citation needed] They confiscated the state jewels and deducted her husband's debts from her annual pension of Rs. 60,000. She was required to leave Jhansi fort for the Rani Mahal in Jhansi town, as well. But Rani Lakshmi Bai was determined to defend Jhansi. She proclaimed her decision with the famous words :Mi mahji Jhansi nahi dehnar (I will not give up my Jhansi).

The war

Jhansi became a center of the rebellion upon the outbreak of violence in 1857. Rani Lakshmi Bai started strengthening the defense of Jhansi and assembled a volunteer army. Women were recruited as well as men and given military training. Rani was accompanied by her generals. Many from the local population volunteered for service in the army ranks, with the popular support for her cause on the rise. In September and October of 1857, the Rani led the successful defense of Jhansi from the invading armies of the neighboring rajas of Datia and Orchha.

In January of 1858, the British Army started its advance on Jhansi, and in March laid siege to the city. After two weeks of fighting the British captured the city, but the Rani escaped in the guise of a man, strapping her adopted son Damodar Rao closely on her back. She fled to Kalpi where she joined Tantya Tope. During the battle for Gwalior the Rani met her death on 17 June. During this battle the Rani's original horse was mortally wounded. He had to be replaced by a younger, more energetic, but less trained horse.

The folklore surrounding her during the war is that during the battle the Rani was trying to escape and two British officers followed her. The horse reached a cliff and being insufficiently trained, could not pass over it. The British set upon her by surrounding her. As she was cornered, she knew there was only one option to take was to jump off which she did. A Brahmin, who found her, carefully took her into his ashram. She lay there unconscious for a moment then her last words were "Jai Hind!", meaning victory to India. In actual fact, most sources have the Rani being shot or run through with a saber and there is no mention of a cliff. It is also unlikely that the many princes who led the Mutiny were in any way more than peripherally concerned with the concept of a united India. All were uniformly concerned with the loss of their personal powers and privileges, and at most, with regional issues. Indeed Laksmi Bai's main objective throughout the Mutiny seems to have been to secure the throne of Jhansi for her adopted son. For a considerable length of time after the start of the Mutiny, she was in correspondence with the British and professed to be on the British side, stating in her letters that she hoped in return that the East India Company would eventually restore all privileges to her son. There are also allegations that Lakshmi Bai did not do enough to prevent the massacre of the British garrison at Jhansi. It is probable that soldiers in her pay took part in the massacre.

The British captured Gwalior three days later. In his report of the battle for Gwalior, General Rose commented that the Rani had been "the bravest and the best" of the rebels. Because of her unprecedented bravery, courage and wisdom and her progressive views on women's empowerment in 19th century India, and due to her sacrifices, she became an icon of Indian nationalist movement.

Epilogue

The fall of Jhansi and the death of Rani Lakshmibai was the last series of the resistance to British Raj under the Sepoy Mutiny. Its immediate effects included:

Due to her bravery, she became a national hero and the epitome of female bravery in India. When the Indian National Army, formed by Subhas Chandra Bose of Indian prisoners of war to fight the British created its first female unit, it was named after her.

Her father, Moropant Tambe, was captured and hanged a few days after the fall of Jhansi.

Her adopted son, Damodar Rao, was given a pension by the British Raj, although he never received his inheritance.

The administration of an undivided India passed on from the East India Company to the British crown.

The Rani was memorialized in bronze statues at both Jhansi and Gwalior, both of which portray her in equestrian style.

Literature on Jhansi ki Rani

The Queen of Jhansi is English translation of Jhansir Rani by Mahashweta Devi. This book is fictional reconstruction of life of Rani LaxmiBai and was originally published in Bangla, year 1956, ISBN 81-7046-175-8.

Subhadra Kumari Chauhan created a famous heroic poem in honour of Jhansi ki Rani which is very popular in India.

Flashman in the Great Game - Two meetings between Flashman and the Rani are described in this historical fiction about the Indian Revolt by George MacDonald Fraser.

The Rebel (Jhansi Ki Rani) is a new film by Ketan Mehta, and is a companion piece to his film "Mangal Pandey: The Rising. The screenplay is by Farrukh Dhondy from a story by Chandra Prakash Dwivedi. The film is currently in pre-production. IMdB page

La femme sacre, in French, by Michel de Grce. A novel based on the Rani of Jhansi's life in which the author imagines an affair between the Rani and an English lawyer.

Begum Hazrat Mahal

was the wife of Nawab Wajid Ali Shah of Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, Hazrat Mahal was known as the Begum of Avadh (a.k.a. Oudh). She was stunning beautiful, and used her courage and leadership qualities to rebel against the British East India Company during the First Indian War of Independence.

After her husband had been sent away in exile to Calcutta, she with the cooperation of a zealous hand of supporters like Sarafaddaulah, Bal Krishna, Raja Jai Lal and Mammon Khan worked incessantly to revive the fortunes of Avadh. She seized control of Lucknow in association with the revolutionary forces and set up her son, Prince Birjis Qadr, as the ruler of Avadh, Hazrat Mahal worked in association with Nana Saheb but later escaped from Lucknow and joined the Maulavi of Faizabad in the attack on Sahajahanpur. She was driven from pillar to post, but she made her retreat with fortitude. She rejected with the contempt the promises of allowance and status held out to her by the British against whom her hatred was unrelenting. In the end after bearing misfortunate and misery throughout the period of resistance, she found asylum in Nepal where she died in 1879.

BAHADUR SHAH II

'Abu Zafar Sirajuddin Muhammad Bahadur Shah Zafar ی ' Emperor of Mughal Empire

Bahadur Shah Zafar in 1858, just after his show trial in Delhi and before his departure for exile in Rangoon. This is possibly the only photograph of a Mughal emperor ever taken. Reign September 28, 1838 September 14, 1857

Titles Born October 24, 1775

Delhi,Mughal Empire

Died November 7, 1862

Rangoon,Burma, British_Raj

Buried Bahadur Shah Zafar Dargah,Rangoon,Burma

Predecessor Mughal Emperor Akbar Shah II

Successor Mughal Empire abolished Descendants listed 22 sons including Mirza Mughal Mirza Khazr Sultan Jawan Bakht Jamshed Bakht Mirza Quaish Mirza Fathul Mulk Bahadur (alias Mirza Fakhru) Mirza Shah Abbas Unknown number of daughters including Rabeya Begum Begum Fatima Sultan Raunaq Zamani Begum (Poss. Grand Daughter) Kulsum Zamani Begum

Consort Begum Zeenat Mahal

Wife/wives Begum Ashraf Mahal

Begum Akhtar Mahal

Begum Zeenat Mahal

Begum Taj Mahal

Dynasty Mughal Empire

Father Mughal Emperor Akbar Shah II

Mother Lalbai

Abu Zafar Sirajuddin Muhammad Bahadur Shah Zafar, (Urdu: ی ), or Bahadur Shah II, (Urdu: ), also known as Bahadur Shah. Zafar (Urdu: ) was his nom de plume, or takhallus, as an Urdu poet), was the last of the Mughal emperors in India. He was born on October 24, 1775, and was the son of Akbar Shah II from his Hindu wife Lalbai. He became the Mughal Emperor upon his father's death on September 28, 1838.

Contents

1 Emperor and the Mutiny 2 Legacy 3 Wives 4 Descendants 5 Epitaph 6 Another Verse 7 See also 8 References 9 External links 10 Kuliyat Buhadar Shah Zafar Online

Emperor and the Mutiny Emperor Bahadur Shah II presided over a Mughal empire that stretched barely beyond the modern city of Delhi. The Sikh Empire in the Punjab and Kashmir, the Maratha Empire, and the British Empire were the dominant political and military powers in 19th-century India. Hundreds of minor kings fragmented the land. The emperor was paid some respect and allowed a pension and authority to collect some taxes, and maintain a token force in Delhi by the British, but he posed no threat to any power in India. Bahadur Shah II himself did not excel in statecraft or possess any imperial ambitions. As the Indian rebellion of 1857 spread, Indian regiments seized Delhi. Seeking a figure that could unite all Indians, Hindu and Muslim alike, most rebelling Indian kings and the Indian regiments accepted Zafar as the Emperor of India, under whom the smaller Indian kingdoms would unite until the British were defeated. Zafar was the least threatening and least ambitious of monarchs, and the legacy of the Mughal Empire was more acceptable a uniting force to most allied kings than the domination of any other Indian kingdom. When the rebellion was crushed, he fled to Humayun's Tomb and hid there. However, he was captured and his sons Mirza Mughal and Khizar Sultan and his grandson Abu Bakr were executed in his presence by Major Hodson and, infamously, their severed heads presented to him in plates instead of his food. [1] He told the British that this was the way that the sons of Mughals came to their fathers with their heads in red (i.e., dead).[1] He was exiled to Rangoon, Burma (now Yangon, Myanmar) in 1858 along with his wife Zeenat Mahal and the remaining members of the family. A formal end was declared to the Mughal Dynasty that began with Babur in 1526. In 1877, the title Emperor of India was assumed by the reigning British monarch, who at that time was Queen Victoria; it was held in that manner until 1948, when it was retroactively terminated effective August 14, 1947. Bahadur Shah died in exile on November 7, 1862; he was buried near Shwedagon Pagoda, Yangon, at the site that later became known as Bahadur Shah Zafar Dargah.[2] His wife Zinat Mahal died in 1886.[3]

Legacy

Bahadur Shah Zafar was also one of the greatest Urdu poets in Indian history. He wrote a large number of Urdu Ghazals, out of these Urdu poetry, a large chunk was lost and destroyed during the unrest of 1857-1858, yet a large collection still survive, which was later on compiled as Kulliyyat-i Zafar. The court that he maintained, arguably pretentious and decadent for a ruler whose writ extended only to Delhi's Red Fort, was home to other writers of high standing in Urdu and South Asian literature, including Ghalib, Dagh, Mumin, and Zauq (Dhawq). Modern India has respected him as one of the first nationalists, who actively opposed the foreign rule of the British in the Indian soil. Several movies in Hindi/Urdu were made depicting his role during the rebellion as hero. Some streets have been named after him.One of such road is Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg in New Delhi and Bahadur Shah Zafar Road in Lahore, Pakistan. A statue of Bahadur Shah Zafar has been erected at Vijayanagram Palace at Bhelupura in Varanasi. The road leading from Bhelupura Police Station to Durgakund Tank has also been named as Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg. From 1959, an academy named as All India Bahadur Shah Zafar Academy has been working in this regard to spread among people the knowledge of his contribution in the first national freedom movement of India.

In Bangladesh, the Victoria Park of old Dhaka, has been renamed as Bahadur Shah Zafar Park to depict the respect innate in the hearts of the Bangladeshis for him. Wives

Begum Zeenat Mahal, wife of Bahadur Shah Zafar Bahadur Shah Zafar is known to have had four wives. In order of marriage they are [4] Begum Ashraf Mahal Begum Akhtar Mahal Begum Zeenat Mahal Begum Taj Mahal

Descendants

Sons of Bahadur Shah. On the left is Jawan Bakht, and on the right is Mirza Shah Abbas.

At least three lines of descent from Bahadur Shah Zafar are known:

Delhi line -- son: Mirza Fathul Mulk Bahadur (alias Mirza Fakhru); grandson: Mirza Farkhunda Jamal; great-grandchildren: Hamid Shah and Begum Qamar Sultan; great-great-granddaughters (daughters of Begum Qamar Sultan): Begum Tahira Sultan & Pakizah Sultan Begum.

Howrah line -- son: Jawan Bakht, grandson: Jamshid Bakht, great-grandson: Mirza Muhammad Bedar Bakht (married Sultana Begum). Currently she owns a tea stall in Howrah.

Hyderabad line -- son: Mirza Quaish, grandson: Mirza Abdullah, great-grandson: Mirza Pyare (married Habib Begum), great-great-granddaughter: Begum Laila Ummahani (married Yakub Habeebuddin Tucy).

There are also other descendants of other mughal kings beside Bahadur Shah Zafar II. Most of them used to have or inherited governor or courtier positions; some were viziers or worked in the court of the shah. When the mutiny came most of them fled the capital and changed their family name from mirza, mughal, beg,... to something more common. Some escaped to distant principalities and held courtier positions there, such as Jalaluddin Mirza's line of Bengal Zamindari under the Maharaja of Dighapatia or the Toluqari Family who claims to be Baron Gardner's descendants as well.Thereby many mughals today who are direct descendants of the mughal kings have other professions.

Epitaph

Zafar, pictured in a 1919 book of Hindustani Lyrics The following poem was written by Bahadur Shah Zafar as his epitaph. In Roman Transliteration Lagta nahiin hai jii mera ujray dayar mein Kis kii banii hai aalam-e-na-payedar mein Kah do in hasarataun se kahiin awr jaa basen Itanii jagah kahan hai dil-i daaghdaar mein Bulbul ko baghban say na sayyad say gila Kismat main qaid likhi thi mausam-e-bahar main Umr-i daraaz maang ke laaye they chaar din Do aarzu mein kat gaye do intezaar mein Hai kitna bad nasiib Zafar dafn ke liye Do gaz zamiin bhii na milii ku-ye yaar mein

English Translation

My heart is not happy in this despoiled land Who has ever felt fulfilled in this transient world Tell these emotions to go dwell elsewhere Where is there space for them in this besmirched (bloodied) heart? The nighthingale laments neither to the gardnerer nor to the hunter Imprisonment was written in fate in the season of spring I had requested for a long life a life of four days Two passed by in pining, and two in waiting. How unlucky is Zafar! For burial

Even two yards of land were not to be had, in the land (of the) beloved

In Urdu

The Urdu version is the full version taken from.[5] ی ی ی ̚ ی ی ی ی ǁی ی

ǟ ی ی ی ᘪی ʪی ی

ی ی ی ̐ ǟ ی

ی ی ی ی

ʪ ی ی

ϐی ی ی ی ی

ی ѡ ی ی Ȫی ی ی ی

Mangal Pandey

c.19 July 18278 April 1857

Place of birth: Nagwa, Ballia, Oudh

Place of death: Barrackpore, Calcutta, India

Mangal Pandey (c. July 19, 18278 April 1857) (Hindi: मंगल पांडे), also known as Shaheed Mangal Pandey (Shaheed means martyr in Arabic and Hindustani), was a sepoy (soldier) in the 34th Regiment of the Bengal Native Infantry (BNI) of the English East India Company.

Life

Pandey was born in the village of Nagwa in district Ballia Uttar Pradesh. Families in Nagwa village claim Mangal Pandey to be their first ancestor and trace their family lineage to him.[1] There is some dispute over his exact place of birth. One account (Misra, 2005) claims that Mangal Pandey was born in a Bhumihar Brahmin family to Divakar Pandey of Surhupur village of Faizabad districts Akbarpur Tehsil.

[1] He joined the British East India Company forces in 1849 at the age of 22, as per this account. Pandey was part of the 5th Company of the 34th BNI regiment. He is primarily known for attacking his British officers in an incident that sparked what is known to the British as the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 and to Indians as the First War of Indian Independence. Mangal Pandey was a devout Brahmin and he practiced his religion diligently.

The 1857 Incident

At Barrackpore (now Barrackpur), near Calcutta on March 29, 1857, in the afternoon, Lieutenant Baugh, Adjutant of the 34th Native Infantry, was informed that several men of his regiment were in an excited state.

Further, it was reported to him that one of them, Mangal Pandey raged in front of the regiment's barracks on the parade ground, armed with a loaded musket, calling upon the men to rebel and threatening to shoot the first European he set his eyes on. Baugh immediately buckled on his sword, placed loaded pistols in his holsters, mounted his horse, and galloped to the lines. Pandey, who heard the hoof-beat of the approaching horse, took position behind the station gun, which was in front of the quarter-guard of the 34th, took aim at Baugh and fired. He missed Baugh, but the bullet struck his horse in the flank, and both horse and rider were brought down..[2] Baugh quickly disentangled himself, and, seizing one of his pistols, advanced towards Pandey and fired. He missed. Before Baugh could draw his sword, Pandey attacked him with a talwar(an Indian heavy sword) and closing with the adjutant, slashed him on the shoulder and neck and brought him to the ground. It was then that another sepoy, Shaikh Paltu, intervened and tried to restrain Pandey even as he tried to reload his musket.

[2] The English Sergeant-Major, Hewson, had arrived on the ground, summoned by a native officer, prior to Baugh. He had ordered the jemadar in command of the quarter-guard to arrest Mangal Pandey. To this, the jemadar expostulated that he could not take Pandey on alone. At this, Hewson ordered him to fall in his guard with loaded weapons. In the meantime, Baugh had arrived on the field shouting 'Where is he? Where is he?' Hewson called out to Baugh, 'Ride to the right, Sir, for your life. The sepoy will fire at you!'

[3] At that point Pandey fired, with the consequences outlined in the last paragraph.

Hewson had charged towards Pandey as he was fighting with Lieutenant Baugh. He then locked in combat with Pandey and was knocked to the ground from behind by a blow from Pandey's musket. The sound of the firing had brought other sepoys from the barracks; they remained mute spectators. At this juncture, Shaikh Paltu, while trying to defend the two Englishmen called upon the other sepoys to assist him.[2] Assailed by other sepoys, who threw stones and shoes at his back, he called on the guard to help him hold Pandey, but they threatened to shoot him if he did not let go of Pandey.

[3] On the order of the Jemadar of the troops, a man called Ishwari Prasad, the sepoys advanced and struck at the two prostrate officers. They then threatened Shaikh Paltu and ordered him to release Pandey, whom he had been vainly trying to hold back. However, Paltu, continued to hold Pandey until Baugh and the sergeant-major had had time to rise. [2] Himself wounded by now, Paltu was obliged to loosen his grip. He backed away in one direction and Baugh and Hewson in another, while being struck with the butt ends of the guards' muskets. In the meantime, report of the incident had been carried to the commanding officer General Hearsey, who then galloped to the ground with his two sons. Taking in the scene, he rode up to the guard, drew his pistol and ordered them to do their duty by seizing Mangal Pandey. The General threatened to shoot the first man that disobeyed. The men of the guard fell in, and followed Hearsey in the direction where Pandey was still ranting and raving. Pandey, then realizing the situation he had put himself in, put the muzzle of the musket to his breast and discharged it by pressing the trigger with his foot. He collapsed burned and bleeding but not mortally wounded.[2] He recovered, was brought to trial less than a week later. When asked whether he had been under the influence of any substances, he admitted to having used bhang ( an Indian drug) and opium of late. He pleaded to not knowing what he was doing when intoxicated. He stated steadfastly that he had mutinied on his own accord and that none had played any role in egging him on. When asked to defend himself, he said "I did not know what I was doing. I did not know who I wounded and who I did not. What more shall I say? I have nothing more to say. I have no evidence." [3] He was sentenced to death by hanging along with the Jemadar. His execution was scheduled for April 18, but was carried out ten days prior to that date. The Jemadar Ishwari Prasad joined him on the gallows on April 21. [2] The 34th N.I. Regiment was disbanded "with disgrace" on May 6 as a collective punishment, after a detailed investigation by the Government, for failing to perform their duty in restraining a mutinous soldier and protecting their officer. This came after a period of six weeks in the course of which, petitions for leniency were examined in Calcutta. Shaikh Paltu was promoted on the spot to the post of Havaldar (native sergeant) by General Hearsay, for his gallant conduct. .[2]

Motivation

The primary motivation behind Mangal Pandey's behaviour is attributed to a new type of bullet cartridge used in the Enfield P-53 rifle which was to be introduced in the Bengal Army that year.

The cartridge was rumoured to having been greased with animal fat (primarily pig fat and cow fat, which animals are not consumed by Muslims and Hindus respectively, the former being abhorrent to Muslims and the latter a holy animal of the Hindus).[4] The cartridges had to be bitten at one end prior to use.[5] The mutineers were of the opinion that this was an intentional act of the British, with the aim of defiling their religions. Commandant Wheeler of the 34th BNI was known as a zealous Christian preacher, and this may also have impacted the Company's behaviour. The husband of Captain Wilma Halliday of 56th BNI had the Bible printed in Urdu and Nagri and distributed among the sepoys, thus raising suspicions amongst them that the British were intent on converting them to Christianity.[6] Also, the 19th and 34th Native Infantry were stationed at Lucknow during the time of annexation of Oudh for mis-government by the Nawab on February 7, 1856. The annexation had another implication for sepoys in the Bengal Army (a significant portion of whom came from that princely state). Before the annexation, these sepoys had the right to petition the British Resident at Lucknow for justicea significant privilege in the context of native courts. As a result of the annexation, they lost that right, since that state no longer existed. Moreover, this action was seen by the residents of the state as an affront to their honour, the annexation being done in violation of an existing treaty.

Thus, it was quite natural that sepoys were affected by the general discontent which had been stirred up by the annexation. In February 1857, both these regiments were situated in Barrackpore. The 19th Native Infantry Regiment is important because it was the regiment charged with testing the new cartridges on February 26, 1857. However, right up to the mutiny the guns had not been issued to them and the cartridges in the magazine of the regiment were as free of grease as they had been through the preceding half century. However, the paper used in wrapping the cartridges was of a different colour, arousing suspicions. The non-commissioned officers of the regiment refused to accept the cartridges on the 26 February. This information being conveyed to the commanding officer, Colonel Mitchell, he took it upon himself to try to convince the sepoys that the cartridges were no different from those they had been accustomed to and that they need not bite it. He concluded his exhortation with an appeal to the native officers to uphold the honour of the regiment and a threat to court-martial such sepoys as refused to accept the cartridge. However, the next morning the regiment rose in rebellion and it was only due to the persuasive powers of Colonel Mitchell and his sagacity that the sepoys were convinced to return to their barracks. A Court of Enquiry was ordered which after an investigation lasting nearly a month, recommended the disbanding of the regiment. The same was carried out on the 31 March. The 19th N.I. Regiment, far from being dismissed with dishonour, as is held by some, were allowed to retain their uniforms and provided by the Government with an allowance to return home.

The Enfield Rifle and Cartridge

The P-53 was officially known as the Pattern 1853 Enfield Rifle Musket. Introduced in the British Army by the War Department during 1854 in the Crimean War, they proved very effective at a range of 50 to 300 yards. It was introduced in the Bengal Army by the East India Company in early-1857. The rifle used a Metford-Pritchitt cartridge that required the use of a heavy paper tube containing 2 drams (68 grains) of musket powder and a 530-grain, pure lead bullet. As the bullet incorporated no annular grease rings like the French and American mini ball bullets introduced in 1847, it was wrapped with a strip of greased paper to facilitate loading. The cartridge itself was covered with a thin mixture of beeswax and mutton tallow for waterproofing.

To load his rifle, the sepoy had to first bite off the rear of the cartridge to pour the powder down the barrel. He then inverted the tube (the projectile was placed in the cartridge base up), pushed the end-portion into the muzzle to the approximate depth of the bullet and tore off the remaining paper. The bullet could then be easily rammed on top of the charge.

Since Hindus consider cows as sacred and Muslims regard pigs as dirty, native sepoys could be expected to have reservations in its usage. The company therefore kept this fact a secret. Thus, when it came out as a rumour, it had an even more damaging effect, as all kinds of rumours started spreading. For instance, it was thought that the British planned to make their sepoys outcaste in the society in order to force them to convert to Christianity.

Another rumour said the British had adulterated the wheat flour distributed to the sepoys with ground bone-dust of bullocks.

The matter could have been worsened by the fact that an overwhelming number of sepoys in the Bengal Native Infantry were Brahmins from Awadh. As Brahmins are generally vegetarians and are not supposed to eat or touch meat, the resistance was even stronger.

The Commander-in-Chief, General George Anson reacted to this crisis by saying, "I'll never give in to their beastly prejudices," and despite the pleas of his junior officers, he did not compromise. Later, the British contemplated reducing the discontent by allowing the sepoys to use their own grease made of ghee (clarified butter). Lord Canning sanctioned a proposal of Major-General Hearsey to this effect. However, the proposal was shot down by the Meerut-based Adjutant-General of the Army Colonel C. Chester, who felt it would be tantamount to an admission of guilt and could therefore worsen the matter.[7] He falsely claimed that the sepoys had been using cartridges greased with mutton fat for years and that there was therefore no reason to give in now. This claim was however not correct as native sepoys had till then only used Brown Bess muskets for which unsmeared paper cartridges were employed. The Government let itself be convinced and rescinded the order allowing the usage of ghee. In fact, some historians, including contemporary observers such as Malleson (The Indian Mutiny of 1857, edition 2005, pp. 15-31) regard an obvious contempt for the sensitivities of the Indians, displayed by some officers of the British-Indian Government, as one of the primary reasons that augmented, if not caused, the spread of the mutiny. Malleson, a British military officer stationed in 1857 in Calcutta, recounts many incidents in his analysis of the mutiny where British actions displayed a complete disregard for innocuous local norms and thus contributed to widespread discontent.

Consequences

The attack by, and punishment of, Pandey is widely seen as the opening scene of what came to be known as the 'Indian Rebellion of 1857'.

 

Spiritual Community of The True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One-Nibbana-The Wings to Awakening -An Antho


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Spiritual Community of The True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One

Nibbana nibbana

Nibbana names the transcendent and singularly ineffable freedom that stands as the final goal of all the Buddha's teachings.

Defined in terms of what it is... "This is peace, this is exquisite the resolution of all fabrications, the relinquishment of all acquisitions, the ending of craving; dispassion; cessation; Nibbana."

AN 3.32

There's no fire like passion, no loss like anger, no pain like the aggregates, no ease other than peace.

Hunger: the foremost illness. Fabrications: the foremost pain. For one knowing this truth as it actually is, Unbinding is the foremost ease.

Freedom from illness: the foremost good fortune. Contentment: the foremost wealth. Trust: the foremost kinship. Unbinding: the foremost ease.

Dhp 202-205

The enlightened, constantly absorbed in jhana, persevering, firm in their effort: they touch Unbinding, the unexcelled safety from bondage.

Dhp 23

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...and in terms of what it is not "There is that dimension where there is neither earth, nor water, nor fire, nor wind; neither dimension of the infinitude of space, nor dimension of the infinitude of consciousness, nor dimension of nothingness, nor dimension of neither perception nor non-perception; neither this world, nor the next world, nor sun, nor moon. And there, I say, there is neither coming, nor going, nor stasis; neither passing away nor arising: without stance, without foundation, without support [mental object]. This, just this, is the end of stress."

Ud 8.1

"There is, monks, an unborn unbecome unmade unfabricated. If there were not that unborn unbecome unmade unfabricated, there would not be the case that emancipation from the born become made fabricated would be discerned. But precisely because there is an unborn unbecome unmade unfabricated, emancipation from the born become made fabricated is discerned."

Ud 8.3

Where water, earth, fire, & wind have no footing: There the stars do not shine, the sun is not visible, the moon does not appear, darkness is not found. And when a sage, a brahman through sagacity, has known [this] for himself, then from form & formless, from bliss & pain, he is freed.

Ud 1.10

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One's first breakthrough to Nibbana puts an end to so much suffering Then the Blessed One, picking up a little bit of dust with the tip of his fingernail, said to the monks, "What do you think, monks? Which is greater: the little bit of dust I have picked up with the tip of my fingernail, or the great earth?"

"The great earth is far greater, lord. The little bit of dust the Blessed One has picked up with the tip of his fingernail is next to nothing. It's not a hundredth, a thousandth, a one hundred-thousandth this little bit of dust the Blessed One has picked up with the tip of his fingernail when compared with the great earth."

"In the same way, monks, for a disciple of the noble ones who is consummate in view, an individual who has broken through [to stream-entry], the suffering & stress that is totally ended & extinguished is far greater. That which remains in the state of having at most seven remaining lifetimes is next to nothing: it's not a hundredth, a thousandth, a one hundred-thousandth, when compared with the previous mass of suffering. That's how great the benefit is of breaking through to the Dhamma, monks. That's how great the benefit is of obtaining the Dhamma eye."

SN 13.1

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What happens to one who has fully realized Nibbana? [Aggivessana Vacchagotta:] "But, Master Gotama, the monk whose mind is thus released: Where does he reappear?"

[The Buddha:] "'Reappear,' Vaccha, doesn't apply."

"In that case, Master Gotama, he does not reappear."

"'Does not reappear,' Vaccha, doesn't apply."

"...both does & does not reappear."

"...doesn't apply."

"...neither does nor does not reappear."

"...doesn't apply."

"How is it, Master Gotama, when Master Gotama is asked if the monk reappears... does not reappear... both does & does not reappear... neither does nor does not reappear, he says, '...doesn't apply' in each case. At this point, Master Gotama, I am befuddled; at this point, confused. The modicum of clarity coming to me from your earlier conversation is now obscured."

"Of course you're befuddled, Vaccha. Of course you're confused. Deep, Vaccha, is this phenomenon, hard to see, hard to realize, tranquil, refined, beyond the scope of conjecture, subtle, to-be-experienced by the wise. For those with other views, other practices, other satisfactions, other aims, other teachers, it is difficult to know. That being the case, I will now put some questions to you. Answer as you see fit. What do you think, Vaccha: If a fire were burning in front of you, would you know that, 'This fire is burning in front of me'?"

"...yes..."

"And suppose someone were to ask you, Vaccha, 'This fire burning in front of you, dependent on what is it burning?' Thus asked, how would you reply?"

"...I would reply, 'This fire burning in front of me is burning dependent on grass & timber as its sustenance.'"

"If the fire burning in front of you were to go out, would you know that, 'This fire burning in front of me has gone out'?"

"...yes..."

"And suppose someone were to ask you, 'This fire that has gone out in front of you, in which direction from here has it gone? East? West? North? Or south?' Thus asked, how would you reply?"

"That doesn't apply, Master Gotama. Any fire burning dependent on a sustenance of grass and timber, being unnourished from having consumed that sustenance and not being offered any other is classified simply as 'out' (unbound)."

"Even so, Vaccha, any physical form by which one describing the Tathagata would describe him: That the Tathagata has abandoned, its root destroyed, like an uprooted palm tree, deprived of the conditions of existence, not destined for future arising. Freed from the classification of form, Vaccha, the Tathagata is deep, boundless, hard to fathom, like the sea. 'Reappears' doesn't apply. 'Does not reappear' doesn't apply. 'Both does & does not reappear' doesn't apply. 'Neither reappears nor does not reappear' doesn't apply.

"Any feeling... Any perception... Any mental fabrication...

"Any consciousness by which one describing the Tathagata would describe him: That the Tathagata has abandoned, its root destroyed, like an uprooted palm tree, deprived of the conditions of existence, not destined for future arising. Freed from the classification of consciousness, Vaccha, the Tathagata is deep, boundless, hard to fathom, like the sea."

MN 72

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The victory cry of the arahants "Birth is ended, the holy life fulfilled, the task done. There is nothing further for this world."

SN 22.59 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The end of samsara Some are born in the human womb, evildoers in hell, those on the good course go to heaven, while those without effluent: totally unbound.

Dhp 126


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The Awakened One

A Sketch of the Buddha's Life

Readings from the Pali Canon

"Indeed, the Blessed One is worthy and rightly self-awakened, consummate in knowledge & conduct, well-gone, an expert with regard to the world, unexcelled as a trainer for those people fit to be tamed, the Teacher of divine & human beings, awakened, blessed." AN 11.12

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This selection of excerpts from the Pali canon provides a rough outline of the life of the Buddha. I hope you will find enough in this anthology to gain at least an inkling both of the range of the Buddha's teachings and of the sweeping trajectory of his extraordinary life.

For more thorough accounts of the Buddha's life, please see these two excellent anthologies: The Splendour of Enlightenment: A Life of the Buddha (two volumes), compiled by Phra Khantipalo (Bangkok: Mahamakut Rajavidyalaya Press, 1976), and The Life of the Buddha by Bhikkhu anamoli (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1992).

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Contents

The Bodhisatta (Buddha-to-be)

The Awakening

After the Awakening

Setting the Wheel of Dhamma in Motion

Forty-five years of teaching

The Buddha's last days Postscript: Many names for the Buddha

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The Bodhisatta (Buddha-to-be)

Asita, the seer, visits the newborn prince [Date: -80 BE]

Asita the seer, in his mid-day meditation, saw the devas of the Group of Thirty exultant, ecstatic dressed in pure white, honoring Indra, holding up banners, cheering wildly, & on seeing the devas so joyful & happy, having paid his respects, he said:

"Why is the deva community

so wildly elated?

Why are they holding up banners & waving them around?

Even after the war with the Asuras

when victory was the devas',

the Asuras defeated

even then there was no excitement like this. Seeing what marvel are the devas so joyful?

They shout,

they sing,

play music,

clap their hands,

dance.

So I ask you, who live on Mount Meru's summit. Please dispel my doubt quickly, dear sirs."

"The Bodhisatta, the foremost jewel, unequaled,

has been born for welfare & ease in the human world,

in a town in the Sakyan countryside, Lumbini.

That's why we're all so wildly elated. He, the highest of all beings,

the ultimate person,

a bull among men, foremost of all people,

will set turning the Wheel [of Dhamma]

in the grove named after the seers,

like a strong, roaring lion,

the conqueror of beasts."

Hearing these words,

Asita quickly descended [from heaven] and went to Suddhodana's dwelling.

There, taking a seat, he said to the Sakyans: "Where is the prince?

I, too, want to see him."

The Sakyans then showed to the seer named Asita

their son, the prince,

like gold aglow,

burnished by a most skillful smith in the mouth of the furnace,

blazing with glory, flawless in color. On seeing the prince blazing like flame,

pure like the bull of the stars

going across the sky the burning sun,

released from the clouds of autumn he was exultant, filled with abundant rapture.

The devas held in the sky a many-spoked sunshade of a thousand circles.

Gold-handled whisks waved up & down,

but those holding the whisks & the sunshade couldn't be seen.

The matted-haired seer named Dark Splendor,

seeing the boy, like an ornament of gold on the red woolen blanket,

a white sunshade held over his head, received him, happy & pleased.

And on receiving the bull of the Sakyans,

longingly, the master of mantras & signs exclaimed with a confident mind:

"This one is unsurpassed,

the highest of the biped race."

Then, foreseeing his own imminent departure, he, dejected, shed tears.

On seeing him weeping,

the Sakyans asked:

"But surely there will be no danger for the prince?"

On seeing the Sakyans' concern he replied, "I foresee for the prince no harm.

Nor will there be any danger for him. This one isn't lowly: be assured.

This prince will touch the ultimate self-awakening.

He, seeing the utmost purity,

will set rolling the Wheel of Dhamma through sympathy for the welfare of many.

His holy life will spread far & wide.

But as for me,

my life here has no long remainder;

my death will take place before then.

I won't get to hear the Dhamma of this one with the peerless role.

That's why I'm stricken,

afflicted, & pained."

Snp III.11

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The young prince grows disenchanted with his life of luxury "Monks, I lived in refinement, utmost refinement, total refinement. My father even had lotus ponds made in our palace: one where red-lotuses bloomed, one where white lotuses bloomed, one where blue lotuses bloomed, all for my sake. I used no sandalwood that was not from Varanasi. My turban was from Varanasi, as were my tunic, my lower garments, & my outer cloak. A white sunshade was held over me day & night to protect me from cold, heat, dust, dirt, & dew.

"I had three palaces: one for the cold season, one for the hot season, one for the rainy season. During the four months of the rainy season I was entertained in the rainy-season palace by minstrels without a single man among them, and I did not once come down from the palace. Whereas the servants, workers, & retainers in other people's homes are fed meals of lentil soup & broken rice, in my father's home the servants, workers, & retainers were fed wheat, rice, and meat.

"Even though I was endowed with such fortune, such total refinement, the thought occurred to me: 'When an untaught, run-of-the-mill person, himself subject to aging, not beyond aging, sees another who is aged, he is horrified, humiliated, & disgusted, oblivious to himself that he too is subject to aging, not beyond aging. If I who am subject to aging, not beyond aging were to be horrified, humiliated, & disgusted on seeing another person who is aged, that would not be fitting for me.' As I noticed this, the [typical] young person's intoxication with youth entirely dropped away.

"Even though I was endowed with such fortune, such total refinement, the thought occurred to me: 'When an untaught, run-of-the-mill person, himself subject to illness, not beyond illness, sees another who is ill, he is horrified, humiliated, & disgusted, oblivious to himself that he too is subject to illness, not beyond illness. And if I who am subject to illness, not beyond illness were to be horrified, humiliated, & disgusted on seeing another person who is ill, that would not be fitting for me.' As I noticed this, the healthy person's intoxication with health entirely dropped away.

"Even though I was endowed with such fortune, such total refinement, the thought occurred to me: 'When an untaught, run-of-the-mill person, himself subject to death, not beyond death, sees another who is dead, he is horrified, humiliated, & disgusted, oblivious to himself that he too is subject to death, not beyond death. And if I who am subject to death, not beyond death were to be horrified, humiliated, & disgusted on seeing another person who is dead, that would not be fitting for me.' As I noticed this, the living person's intoxication with life entirely dropped away."

AN 3.38

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At age 29, the young prince goes forth into homelessness [Date: -51 BE]

"Before my Awakening, when I was still an unawakened Bodhisatta, the thought occurred to me: 'The household life is crowded, a dusty road. Life gone forth is the open air. It isn't easy, living in a home, to lead the holy life that is totally perfect, totally pure, a polished shell. What if I, having shaved off my hair & beard and putting on the ochre robe, were to go forth from the home life into homelessness?'

"So at a later time, when I was still young, black-haired, endowed with the blessings of youth in the first stage of life, having shaved off my hair & beard though my parents wished otherwise and were grieving with tears on their faces I put on the ochre robe and went forth from the home life into homelessness."

MN 36

Passers-by take notice of his serene radiance and mindfulness On going forth, he avoided evil deeds in body. Abandoning verbal misconduct, he purified his livelihood. Then he, the Buddha, went to Rajagaha, the mountain fortress of the Magadhans, and wandered for alms, endowed with all the foremost marks. King Bimbisara, standing in his palace, saw him, and on seeing him, consummate in marks, said: "Look at this one, sirs. How handsome, stately, pure! How consummate his demeanor! Mindful, his eyes downcast, looking only a plow-length before him, as one who's not from a lowly lineage: Send the royal messengers at once to see where this monk will go."

They the messengers dispatched followed behind him. "Where will this monk go? Where will his dwelling place be?" As he went from house to house well-restrained, his sense-doors guarded, mindful, alert his bowl filled quickly. Then he, the sage, completing his alms round, left the city, headed for Mount Pandava. "That's where his dwelling will be." Seeing him go to his dwelling place, three messengers sat down, while one returned to tell the king. "That monk, your majesty, on the flank of Pandava, sits like a tiger, a bull, a lion in a mountain cleft."

Snp III.1

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A king wonders: "Why have you gone forth?" Hearing the messenger's words, the noble warrior king straight away went by royal coach, out to Mount Pandava. Going as far as the coach would go, he got down, went up on foot, and on arrival sat down. Sitting there, he exchanged courteous greetings, then said: "You are young, youthful, in the first stage of youth, endowed with the stature & coloring of a noble-warrior. You would look glorious in the vanguard of an army, arrayed with an elephant squadron. I offer you wealth : enjoy it. I ask your birth : inform me."

"Straight ahead, your majesty, by the foothills of the Himalayas, is a country consummate in energy & wealth, inhabited by Kosalans: Solar by clan, Sakyans by birth. From that lineage I have gone forth, but not in search of sensual pleasures. Seeing the danger in sensual pleasures and renunciation as rest I go to strive. That's where my heart delights."

Snp III.1

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The Bodhisatta soon surpasses the accomplishments of his teachers "Having gone forth in search of what might be skillful, seeking the unexcelled state of sublime peace, I went to Alara Kalama and, on arrival, said to him: 'Friend Kalama, I want to practice in this doctrine & discipline.'

"When this was said, he replied to me, 'You may stay here, my friend. This doctrine is such that a wise person can soon enter & dwell in his own teacher's knowledge, having realized it for himself through direct knowledge.'

"It was not long before I learned the doctrine. As far as mere lip-reciting & repetition, I could speak the words of knowledge, the words of the elders, and I could affirm that I knew & saw I, along with others.

"I thought: 'It isn't through mere conviction alone that Alara Kalama declares, "I have entered & dwell in this Dhamma, having realized it for myself through direct knowledge." Certainly he dwells knowing & seeing this Dhamma.' So I went to him and said, 'To what extent do you declare that you have entered & dwell in this Dhamma?' When this was said, he declared the dimension of nothingness.

"I thought: 'Not only does Alara Kalama have conviction, persistence, mindfulness, concentration, & discernment. I, too, have conviction, persistence, mindfulness, concentration, & discernment. What if I were to endeavor to realize for myself the Dhamma that Alara Kalama declares he has entered & dwells in, having realized it for himself through direct knowledge.' So it was not long before I quickly entered & dwelled in that Dhamma, having realized it for myself through direct knowledge. I went to him and said, 'Friend Kalama, is this the extent to which you have entered & dwell in this Dhamma, having realized it for yourself through direct knowledge?'

"'Yes, my friend...'

"'This, friend, is the extent to which I, too, have entered & dwell in this Dhamma, having realized it for myself through direct knowledge.'

"'It is a gain for us, my friend, a great gain for us, that we have such a companion in the holy life. So the Dhamma I declare I have entered & dwell in, having realized it for myself through direct knowledge, is the Dhamma you declare you have entered & dwell in, having realized it for yourself through direct knowledge. And the Dhamma you declare you have entered & dwell in, having realized it for yourself through direct knowledge, is the Dhamma I declare I have entered & dwell in, having realized it for myself through direct knowledge. The Dhamma I know is the Dhamma you know; the Dhamma you know is the Dhamma I know. As I am, so are you; as you are, so am I. Come friend, let us now lead this community together.'

"In this way did Alara Kalama, my teacher, place me, his pupil, on the same level with himself and pay me great honor. But the thought occurred to me, 'This Dhamma leads not to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to stilling, to direct knowledge, to Awakening, nor to Unbinding (nibbana), but only to reappearance in the dimension of nothingness.' So, dissatisfied with that Dhamma, I left.

"In search of what might be skillful, seeking the unexcelled state of sublime peace, I went to Uddaka Ramaputta and, on arrival, said to him: 'Friend Uddaka, I want to practice in this doctrine & discipline.'

"When this was said, he replied to me, 'You may stay here, my friend. This doctrine is such that a wise person can soon enter & dwell in his own teacher's knowledge, having realized it for himself through direct knowledge.'

"It was not long before I quickly learned the doctrine. As far as mere lip-reciting & repetition, I could speak the words of knowledge, the words of the elders, and I could affirm that I knew & saw I, along with others.

"I thought: 'It wasn't through mere conviction alone that Rama declared, "I have entered & dwell in this Dhamma, having realized it for myself through direct knowledge." Certainly he dwelled knowing & seeing this Dhamma.' So I went to Uddaka and said, 'To what extent did Rama declare that he had entered & dwelled in this Dhamma?' When this was said, Uddaka declared the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception.

"I thought: 'Not only did Rama have conviction, persistence, mindfulness, concentration, & discernment. I, too, have conviction, persistence, mindfulness, concentration, & discernment. What if I were to endeavor to realize for myself the Dhamma that Rama declared he entered & dwelled in, having realized it for himself through direct knowledge.' So it was not long before I quickly entered & dwelled in that Dhamma, having realized it for myself through direct knowledge. I went to Uddaka and said, 'Friend Uddaka, is this the extent to which Rama entered & dwelled in this Dhamma, having realized it for himself through direct knowledge?'

"'Yes, my friend...'

"'This, friend, is the extent to which I, too, have entered & dwell in this Dhamma, having realized it for myself through direct knowledge.'

"'It is a gain for us, my friend, a great gain for us, that we have such a companion in the holy life. So the Dhamma Rama declared he entered & dwelled in, having realized it for himself through direct knowledge, is the Dhamma you declare you have entered & dwell in, having realized it for yourself through direct knowledge. And the Dhamma you declare you have entered & dwell in, having realized it for yourself through direct knowledge, is the Dhamma Rama declared he entered & dwelled in, having realized it for himself through direct knowledge. The Dhamma he knew is the Dhamma you know; the Dhamma you know is the Dhamma he knew. As he was, so are you; as you are, so was he. Come friend, lead this community.'

"In this way did Uddaka Ramaputta, my companion in the holy life, place me in the position of teacher and pay me great honor. But the thought occurred to me, 'This Dhamma leads not to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to stilling, to direct knowledge, to Awakening, nor to Unbinding (nibbana), but only to reappearance in the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception.' So, dissatisfied with that Dhamma, I left."

MN 36

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He practices extreme austerities in the forest "I thought: 'Suppose that I, clenching my teeth and pressing my tongue against the roof of my mouth, were to beat down, constrain, & crush my mind with my awareness.' So, clenching my teeth and pressing my tongue against the roof of my mouth, I beat down, constrained, & crushed by mind with my awareness. Just as a strong man, seizing a weaker man by the head or the throat or the shoulders, would beat him down, constrain, & crush him, in the same way I beat down, constrained, & crushed my mind with my awareness. As I did so, sweat poured from my armpits. And although tireless persistence was aroused in me, and unmuddled mindfulness established, my body was aroused & uncalm because of the painful exertion. But the painful feeling that arose in this way did not invade my mind or remain.

"I thought: 'Suppose I were to become absorbed in the trance of non-breathing.' So I stopped the in-breaths & out-breaths in my nose & mouth. As I did so, there was a loud roaring of winds coming out my earholes, just like the loud roar of winds coming out of a smith's bellows... So I stopped the in-breaths & out-breaths in my nose & mouth & ears. As I did so, extreme forces sliced through my head, just as if a strong man were slicing my head open with a sharp sword... Extreme pains arose in my head, just as if a strong man were tightening a turban made of tough leather straps around my head... Extreme forces carved up my stomach cavity, just as if a butcher or his apprentice were to carve up the stomach cavity of an ox... There was an extreme burning in my body, just as if two strong men, grabbing a weaker man by the arms, were to roast & broil him over a pit of hot embers. And although tireless persistence was aroused in me, and unmuddled mindfulness established, my body was aroused & uncalm because of the painful exertion. But the painful feeling that arose in this way did not invade my mind or remain.

"Devas, on seeing me, said, 'Gotama the contemplative is dead.' Other devas said, 'He isn't dead, he's dying.' Others said, 'He's neither dead nor dying, he's an arahant, for this is the way arahants live.'

"I thought: 'Suppose I were to practice going altogether without food.' Then devas came to me and said, 'Dear sir, please don't practice going altogether without food. If you go altogether without food, we'll infuse divine nourishment in through your pores, and you will survive on that.' I thought, 'If I were to claim to be completely fasting while these devas are infusing divine nourishment in through my pores, I would be lying.' So I dismissed them, saying, 'Enough.'

"I thought: 'Suppose I were to take only a little food at a time, only a handful at a time of bean soup, lentil soup, vetch soup, or pea soup.' So I took only a little food at a time, only handful at a time of bean soup, lentil soup, vetch soup, or pea soup. My body became extremely emaciated. Simply from my eating so little, my limbs became like the jointed segments of vine stems or bamboo stems... My backside became like a camel's hoof... My spine stood out like a string of beads... My ribs jutted out like the jutting rafters of an old, run-down barn... The gleam of my eyes appeared to be sunk deep in my eye sockets like the gleam of water deep in a well... My scalp shriveled & withered like a green bitter gourd, shriveled & withered in the heat & the wind... The skin of my belly became so stuck to my spine that when I thought of touching my belly, I grabbed hold of my spine as well; and when I thought of touching my spine, I grabbed hold of the skin of my belly as well... If I urinated or defecated, I fell over on my face right there... Simply from my eating so little, if I tried to ease my body by rubbing my limbs with my hands, the hair rotted at its roots fell from my body as I rubbed, simply from eating so little.

"People on seeing me would say, 'Gotama the contemplative is black. Other people would say, 'Gotama the contemplative isn't black, he's brown.' Others would say, 'Gotama the contemplative is neither black nor brown, he's golden-skinned. So much had the clear, bright color of my skin deteriorated, simply from eating so little.

"I thought: 'Whatever priests or contemplatives in the past have felt painful, racking, piercing feelings due to their striving, this is the utmost. None have been greater than this. Whatever priests or contemplatives in the future will feel painful, racking, piercing feelings due to their striving, this is the utmost. None will be greater than this. Whatever priests or contemplatives in the present are feeling painful, racking, piercing feelings due to their striving, this is the utmost. None is greater than this. But with this racking practice of austerities I haven't attained any superior human state, any distinction in knowledge or vision worthy of the noble ones. Could there be another path to Awakening?'"

MN 36

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He confronts fear & terror head-on "I stayed in the sort of places that are awe-inspiring and make your hair stand on end, such as park-shrines, forest-shrines, & tree-shrines. And while I was staying there a wild animal would come, or a bird would make a twig fall, or wind would rustle the fallen leaves. The thought would occur to me: 'Is this that fear & terror coming?' Then the thought occurred to me: 'Why do I just keep waiting for fear? What if I were to subdue fear & terror in whatever state they come?' So when fear & terror came while I was walking back & forth, I would not stand or sit or lie down. I would keep walking back & forth until I had subdued that fear & terror. When fear & terror came while I was standing, I would not walk or sit or lie down. I would keep standing until I had subdued that fear & terror. When fear & terror came while I was sitting, I would not lie down or stand up or walk. I would keep sitting until I had subdued that fear & terror. When fear & terror came while I was lying down, I would not sit up or stand or walk. I would keep lying down until I had subdued that fear & terror."

MN 4

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Mara, the personification of evil, pays a visit "Monks, Mara is continually, ceaselessly, hovering around you, [thinking,] 'Perhaps I'll get an opportunity by means of the eye... the ear... the nose... the tongue... the body. Perhaps I'll get an opportunity by means of the intellect.' Thus, monks, you should dwell with the doors to your senses well-guarded."

SN 35.199

To me resolute in exertion near the river Nerajara, making a great effort, doing jhana to attain security from bondage

Namuci1 came, speaking words of compassion: "You are ashen, thin. Death is in your presence. Death has 1,000 parts of you. Only one part is your life. Live, good sir! Life is better. Alive, you can do acts of merit. Your living the holy life, performing the fire sacrifice, will heap up much merit. What use is exertion to you? Hard to follow the path of exertion hard to do, hard to sustain."

Saying these verses, Mara stood in the Awakened One's presence. And to that Mara, speaking thus, the Blessed One said this:

"Kinsman of the heedless, Evil One, come here for whatever purpose: I haven't, for merit, even the least bit of need. Those who have need of merit: those are the ones Mara's fit to address.

In me are conviction, austerity, persistence, discernment. Why, when I'm so resolute do you petition me to live? This wind could burn up even river currents. Why, when I'm resolute shouldn't my blood dry away? As my blood dries up gall & phlegm dry up. As muscles waste away, the mind grows clearer; mindfulness, discernment, concentration stand more firm. Staying in this way, attaining the ultimate feeling,2 the mind has no interest in sensual passions. See: a being's purity!

Sensual passions are your first army. Your second is called Discontent. Your third is Hunger & Thirst. Your fourth is called Craving. Fifth is Sloth & Drowsiness. Sixth is called Terror. Your seventh is Uncertainty. Hypocrisy & Stubbornness, your eighth. Gains, Offerings, Fame, & Status wrongly gained, and whoever would praise self & disparage others.

That, Namuci, is your army, the Dark One's commando force. A coward can't defeat it, but one having defeated it gains bliss. Do I carry muja grass?3 I spit on my life. Death in battle woud be better for me than that I, defeated, survive.

Sinking here, they don't appear, some priests & contemplatives. They don't know the path by which those with good practices go.

Seeing the bannered force on all sides the troops, Mara along with his mount I go into battle. May they not budge me from my spot. That army of yours, that the world with its devas can't overcome, I will smash with discernment as an unfired pot with a stone. Making my resolve mastered, mindfulness well-established, I will go about, from kingdom to kingdom, training many disciples. They heedful, resolute doing my bidding despite your wishes, will go where, having gone, there's no grief."

...

As he was overcome with sorrow, his lute fell from under his arm. Then he, the despondent spirit, right there disappeared.

Snp III.2

Notes:

1. Mara 2. The highest equanimity that can be attained through jhana. 3. Muja grass was the ancient Indian equivalent of a white flag. A warrior expecting that he might have to surrender would take muja grass into battle with him. If he did surrender, he would lie down with the muja grass in his mouth. The Buddha, in asking this rhetorical question, is indicating that he is not the type of warrior who would carry muja grass. If defeated, he would rather die than surrender.

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He abandons his austerities "I thought: 'I recall once, when my father the Sakyan was working, and I was sitting in the cool shade of a rose-apple tree, then quite withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful mental qualities I entered & remained in the first jhana: rapture & pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought & evaluation. Could that be the path to Awakening?' Then, following on that memory, came the realization: 'That is the path to Awakening.' I thought: 'So why am I afraid of that pleasure that has nothing to do with sensuality, nothing to do with unskillful mental qualities?' I thought: 'I am no longer afraid of that pleasure that has nothing to do with sensuality, nothing to do with unskillful mental qualities, but it is not easy to achieve that pleasure with a body so extremely emaciated. Suppose I were to take some solid food: some rice & porridge.' So I took some solid food: some rice & porridge. Now five monks had been attending on me, thinking, 'If Gotama, our contemplative, achieves some higher state, he will tell us.' But when they saw me taking some solid food some rice & porridge they were disgusted and left me, thinking, 'Gotama the contemplative is living luxuriously. He has abandoned his exertion and is backsliding into abundance.'

"So when I had taken solid food and regained strength, then quite withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful mental qualities, I entered & remained in the first jhana: rapture & pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought & evaluation. But the pleasant feeling that arose in this way did not invade my mind or remain. With the stilling of directed thoughts & evaluations, I entered & remained in the second jhana: rapture & pleasure born of composure, unification of awareness free from directed thought & evaluation internal assurance. But the pleasant feeling that arose in this way did not invade my mind or remain. With the fading of rapture I remained in equanimity, mindful & alert, and physically sensitive of pleasure. I entered & remained in the third jhana, of which the Noble Ones declare, 'Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasurable abiding.' But the pleasant feeling that arose in this way did not invade my mind or remain. With the abandoning of pleasure & pain as with the earlier disappearance of elation & distress I entered & remained in the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity & mindfulness, neither pleasure nor pain. But the pleasant feeling that arose in this way did not invade my mind or remain."

MN 36

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The Awakening [Date: -45 BE]

He finds the Middle Way "There are these two extremes that are not to be indulged in by one who has gone forth. Which two? That which is devoted to sensual pleasure with reference to sensual objects: base, vulgar, common, ignoble, unprofitable; and that which is devoted to self-affliction: painful, ignoble, unprofitable. Avoiding both of these extremes, the middle way realized by the Tathagata producing vision, producing knowledge leads to calm, to direct knowledge, to self-awakening, to Unbinding.

"And what is the middle way realized by the Tathagata that producing vision, producing knowledge leads to calm, to direct knowledge, to self-awakening, to Unbinding? Precisely this Noble Eightfold Path: right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration. This is the middle way realized by the Tathagata that producing vision, producing knowledge leads to calm, to direct knowledge, to self-awakening, to Unbinding."

SN 56.11

He penetrates the Three Knowledges "When the mind was thus concentrated, purified, bright, unblemished, rid of defilement, pliant, malleable, steady, & attained to imperturbability, I directed it to the knowledge of recollecting my past lives. I recollected my manifold past lives, i.e., one birth, two... five, ten... fifty, a hundred, a thousand, a hundred thousand, many eons of cosmic contraction, many eons of cosmic expansion, many eons of cosmic contraction & expansion: 'There I had such a name, belonged to such a clan, had such an appearance. Such was my food, such my experience of pleasure & pain, such the end of my life. Passing away from that state, I re-arose there. There too I had such a name, belonged to such a clan, had such an appearance. Such was my food, such my experience of pleasure & pain, such the end of my life. Passing away from that state, I re-arose here.' Thus I remembered my manifold past lives in their modes & details.

"This was the first knowledge I attained in the first watch of the night. Ignorance was destroyed; knowledge arose; darkness was destroyed; light arose as happens in one who is heedful, ardent, & resolute. But the pleasant feeling that arose in this way did not invade my mind or remain.

"When the mind was thus concentrated, purified, bright, unblemished, rid of defilement, pliant, malleable, steady, & attained to imperturbability, I directed it to the knowledge of the passing away & reappearance of beings. I saw by means of the divine eye, purified & surpassing the human beings passing away & re-appearing, and I discerned how they are inferior & superior, beautiful & ugly, fortunate & unfortunate in accordance with their kamma: 'These beings who were endowed with bad conduct of body, speech, & mind, who reviled the noble ones, held wrong views and undertook actions under the influence of wrong views with the break-up of the body, after death, have re-appeared in the plane of deprivation, the bad destination, the lower realms, in hell. But these beings who were endowed with good conduct of body, speech & mind, who did not revile the noble ones, who held right views and undertook actions under the influence of right views with the break-up of the body, after death, have re-appeared in the good destinations, in the heavenly world.' Thus by means of the divine eye, purified & surpassing the human I saw beings passing away & re-appearing, and I discerned how they are inferior & superior, beautiful & ugly, fortunate & unfortunate in accordance with their kamma.

"This was the second knowledge I attained in the second watch of the night. Ignorance was destroyed; knowledge arose; darkness was destroyed; light arose as happens in one who is heedful, ardent, & resolute. But the pleasant feeling that arose in this way did not invade my mind or remain.

"When the mind was thus concentrated, purified, bright, unblemished, rid of defilement, pliant, malleable, steady, & attained to imperturbability, I directed it to the knowledge of the ending of the mental fermentations. I discerned, as it had come to be, that 'This is stress... This is the origination of stress... This is the cessation of stress... This is the way leading to the cessation of stress... These are fermentations... This is the origination of fermentations... This is the cessation of fermentations... This is the way leading to the cessation of fermentations.' My heart, thus knowing, thus seeing, was released from the fermentation of sensuality, released from the fermentation of becoming, released from the fermentation of ignorance. With release, there was the knowledge, 'Released.' I discerned that 'Birth is ended, the holy life fulfilled, the task done. There is nothing further for this world.'

"This was the third knowledge I attained in the third watch of the night. Ignorance was destroyed; knowledge arose; darkness was destroyed; light arose as happens in one who is heedful, ardent, & resolute. But the pleasant feeling that arose in this way did not invade my mind or remain."

MN 36

Supreme Awakening! Through the round of many births I roamed without reward, without rest, seeking the house-builder. Painful is birth again & again.

House-builder, you're seen! You will not build a house again. All your rafters broken, the ridge pole destroyed, gone to the Unformed, the mind has come to the end of craving.

Dhp 153-4

He becomes the Tathagata "The world has been fully awakened to by the Tathagata. From the world, the Tathagata is disjoined. The origination of the world has been fully awakened to by the Tathagata. The origination of the world has, by the Tathagata, been abandoned. The cessation of the world has been fully awakened to by the Tathagata. The cessation of the world has, by the Tathagata, been realized. The path leading to the cessation of the world has been fully awakened to by the Tathagata. The path leading to the cessation of the world has, by the Tathagata, been developed.

"Whatever in this world with its devas, Maras, & Brahmas, its generations complete with contemplatives & priests, princes & men is seen, heard, sensed, cognized, attained, sought after, pondered by the intellect, that has been fully awakened to by the Tathagata. Thus he is called the Tathagata.

"From the night the Tathagata fully awakens to the unsurpassed Right Self-awakening to the night he is totally unbound in the Unbinding property with no fuel remaining, whatever the Tathagata has said, spoken, explained is just so (tatha) and not otherwise. Thus he is called the Tathagata.

"The Tathagata is one who does in line with (tathaa) what he teaches, one who teaches in line with what he does. Thus he is called the Tathagata.

"In this world with its devas, Maras, & Brahmas, its generations complete with contemplatives & priests, princes & men, the Tathagata is the unconquered conqueror, all-seeing, the wielder of power. Thus he is called the Tathagata."

Iti 112

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After the Awakening

The Buddha investigates the laws of cause-and-effect I have heard that on one occasion, when the Blessed One was newly Awakened staying at Uruvela by the banks of the Nerajara River in the shade of the Bodhi tree, the tree of Awakening he sat in the shade of the Bodhi tree for seven days in one session, sensitive to the bliss of release. At the end of seven days, after emerging from that concentration, in the third watch of the night, he gave close attention to dependent co-arising in forward and reverse order, thus:

When this is, that is. From the arising of this comes the arising of that. When this isn't, that isn't. From the cessation of this comes the cessation of that.

In other words:

From ignorance as a requisite condition come fabrications. From fabrications as a requisite condition comes consciousness. From consciousness as a requisite condition comes name-and-form. From name-and-form as a requisite condition come the six sense media. From the six sense media as a requisite condition comes contact. From contact as a requisite condition comes feeling. From feeling as a requisite condition comes craving. From craving as a requisite condition comes clinging/sustenance. From clinging/sustenance as a requisite condition comes becoming. From becoming as a requisite condition comes birth. From birth as a requisite condition, then old age and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, and despair come into play. Such is the origination of this entire mass of stress and suffering.

Now from the remainderless fading and cessation of that very ignorance comes the cessation of fabrications. From the cessation of fabrications comes the cessation of consciousness. From the cessation of consciousness comes the cessation of name-and-form. From the cessation of name-and-form comes the cessation of the six sense media. From the cessation of the six sense media comes the cessation of contact. From the cessation of contact comes the cessation of feeling. From the cessation of feeling comes the cessation of craving. From the cessation of craving comes the cessation of clinging/sustenance. From the cessation of clinging/sustenance comes the cessation of becoming. From the cessation of becoming comes the cessation of birth. From the cessation of birth, then old age and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, and despair all cease. Such is the cessation of this entire mass of stress and suffering.

Then, on realizing the significance of that, the Blessed One on that occasion exclaimed:

As phenomena grow clear to the brahman ardent, absorbed he stands, routing the troops of Mara, like the sun that illumines the sky.

Ud 1.3

He wonders: Whom should I revere as my teacher? I have heard that on one occasion, when the Blessed One was newly Self-awakened, he was staying at Uruvela on the bank of the Nerajara River, at the foot of the Goatherd's Banyan Tree. Then, while he was alone and in seclusion, this line of thinking arose in his awareness: "One suffers if dwelling without reverence or deference. Now on what priest or contemplative can I dwell in dependence, honoring and respecting him?"

Then the thought occurred to him: "It would be for the sake of perfecting an unperfected aggregate of virtue that I would dwell in dependence on another priest or contemplative, honoring and respecting him. However, in this world with its devas, Maras, & Brahmas, in this generation with its priests and contemplatives, its royalty and common-folk, I do not see another priest or contemplative more consummate in virtue than I, on whom I could dwell in dependence, honoring and respecting him.

"It would be for the sake of perfecting an unperfected aggregate of concentration...

"It would be for the sake of perfecting an unperfected aggregate of discernment...

"It would be for the sake of perfecting an unperfected aggregate of release...

"It would be for the sake of perfecting an unperfected aggregate of knowledge and vision of release that I would dwell in dependence on another priest or contemplative, honoring and respecting him. However, in this world with its devas, Maras, & Brahmas, in this generation with its priests and contemplatives, its royalty and common-folk, I do not see another priest or contemplative more consummate in knowledge and vision of release than I, on whom I could dwell in dependence, honoring and respecting him.

"What if I were to dwell in dependence on this very Dhamma to which I have fully awakened, honoring and respecting it?"

Then, having known with his own awareness the line of thinking in the Blessed One's awareness just as a strong man might extend his flexed arm or flex his extended arm Brahma Sahampati disappeared from the Brahma-world and reappeared in front of the Blessed One. Arranging his upper robe over one shoulder, he saluted the Blessed One with his hands before his heart and said to him: "So it is, Blessed One! So it is, One-Well-Gone! Those who were arahants, Rightly Self-awakened Ones in the past they, too, dwelled in dependence on the very Dhamma itself, honoring and respecting it. Those who will be arahants, Rightly Self-awakened Ones in the future they, too, will dwell in dependence on the very Dhamma itself, honoring and respecting it. And let the Blessed One, who is at present the arahant, the Rightly Self-awakened One, dwell in dependence on the very Dhamma itself, honoring and respecting it."

SN 6.2

He wonders: Should I teach this Dhamma to others? I have heard that on one occasion, when the Blessed One was newly Self-awakened, he was staying at Uruvela on the bank of the Nerajara River, at the foot of the Goatherd's Banyan Tree. Then, while he was alone and in seclusion, this line of thinking arose in his awareness: "This Dhamma that I have attained is deep, hard to see, hard to realize, peaceful, refined, beyond the scope of conjecture, subtle, to-be-experienced by the wise. But this generation delights in attachment, is excited by attachment, enjoys attachment. For a generation delighting in attachment, excited by attachment, enjoying attachment, this/that conditionality and dependent co-arising are hard to see. This state, too, is hard to see: the resolution of all fabrications, the relinquishment of all acquisitions, the ending of craving; dispassion; cessation; Unbinding. And if I were to teach the Dhamma and if others would not understand me, that would be tiresome for me, troublesome for me."

Just then these verses, unspoken in the past, unheard before, occurred to the Blessed One:

Enough now with teaching what only with difficulty I reached. This Dhamma is not easily realized by those overcome with aversion & passion.

What is abstruse, subtle, deep, hard to see, going against the flow those delighting in passion, cloaked in the mass of darkness, won't see.

As the Blessed One reflected thus, his mind inclined to dwelling at ease, not to teaching the Dhamma.

Then Brahma Sahampati, having known with his own awareness the line of thinking in the Blessed One's awareness, thought: "The world is lost! The world is destroyed! The mind of the Tathagata, the arahant, the Rightly Self-awakened One inclines to dwelling at ease, not to teaching the Dhamma!" Then, just as a strong man might extend his flexed arm or flex his extended arm, Brahma Sahampati disappeared from the Brahma-world and reappeared in front of the Blessed One. Arranging his upper robe over one shoulder, he knelt down with his right knee on the ground, saluted the Blessed One with his hands before his heart, and said to him: "Lord, let the Blessed One teach the Dhamma! Let the One-Well-Gone teach the Dhamma! There are beings with little dust in their eyes who are falling away because they do not hear the Dhamma. There will be those who will understand the Dhamma."

...

Then the Blessed One, having understood Brahma's invitation, out of compassion for beings, surveyed the world with the eye of an Awakened One. As he did so, he saw beings with little dust in their eyes and those with much, those with keen faculties and those with dull, those with good attributes and those with bad, those easy to teach and those hard, some of them seeing disgrace and danger in the other world. Just as in a pond of blue or red or white lotuses, some lotuses born and growing in the water might flourish while immersed in the water, without rising up from the water; some might stand at an even level with the water; while some might rise up from the water and stand without being smeared by the water so too, surveying the world with the eye of an Awakened One, the Blessed One saw beings with little dust in their eyes and those with much, those with keen faculties and those with dull, those with good attributes and those with bad, those easy to teach and those hard, some of them seeing disgrace and danger in the other world.

...

Then Brahma Sahampati, thinking, "The Blessed One has given his consent to teach the Dhamma," bowed down to the Blessed One and, circling him on the right, disappeared right there.

SN 6.1

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He wonders: To whom should I teach this Dhamma first?

"Then the thought occurred to me, 'To whom should I teach the Dhamma first? Who will quickly understand this Dhamma?' Then the thought occurred to me, 'This Alara Kalama is wise, competent, intelligent. He has long had little dust in his eyes. What if I were to teach him the Dhamma first? He will quickly understand this Dhamma.' Then devas came to me and said, 'Lord, Alara Kalama died seven days ago.' And knowledge & vision arose within me: 'Alara Kalama died seven days ago.' The thought occurred to me, 'A great loss has Alara Kalama suffered. If he had heard this Dhamma, he would have quickly understood it.'

"Then the thought occurred to me, 'To whom should I teach the Dhamma first? Who will quickly understand this Dhamma?' Then the thought occurred to me, 'This Uddaka Ramaputta is wise, competent, intelligent. He has long had little dust in his eyes. What if I were to teach him the Dhamma first? He will quickly understand this Dhamma.' Then devas came to me and said, 'Lord, Uddaka Ramaputta died last night.' And knowledge & vision arose within me: 'Uddaka Ramaputta died last night.' The thought occurred to me, 'A great loss has Uddaka Ramaputta suffered. If he had heard this Dhamma, he would have quickly understood it.'

"Then the thought occurred to me, 'To whom should I teach the Dhamma first? Who will quickly understand this Dhamma?' Then the thought occurred to me, 'They were very helpful to me, the group of five monks who attended to me when I was resolute in exertion. What if I were to teach them the Dhamma first?' Then the thought occurred to me, 'Where are the group of five monks staying now?' And with the divine eye, purified & surpassing the human, I saw that they were staying near Varanasi in the Deer Park at Isipatana.

"Then, having stayed at Uruvela as long as I liked, I set out to wander by stages to Varanasi. Upaka the Ajivaka saw me on the road between Gaya and the (place of) Awakening, and on seeing me said to me, 'Clear, my friend, are your faculties. Pure your complexion, and bright. On whose account have you gone forth? Who is your teacher? In whose Dhamma do you delight?'

"When this was said, I replied to Upaka the Ajivaka in verses:

'All-vanquishing, all-knowing am I, with regard to all things, unadhering. All-abandoning, released in the ending of craving: having fully known on my own, to whom should I point as my teacher?

I have no teacher, and one like me can't be found. In the world with its devas, I have no counterpart.

For I am an arahant in the world; I, the unexcelled teacher. I, alone, am rightly self-awakened. Cooled am I, unbound.

To set rolling the wheel of Dhamma I go to the city of Kasi. In a world become blind, I beat the drum of the Deathless.'

"'From your claims, my friend, you must be an infinite conqueror.'

'Conquerors are those like me who have reached fermentations' end. I've conquered evil qualities, and so, Upaka, I'm a conqueror.'

"When this was said, Upaka said, 'May it be so, my friend,' and shaking his head, taking a side-road he left.

"Then, wandering by stages, I arrived at Varanasi, at the Deer Park in Isipatana, to where the group of five monks were staying. From afar they saw me coming and, on seeing me, made a pact with one another, (saying,) 'Friends, here comes Gotama the contemplative: living luxuriously, straying from his exertion, backsliding into abundance. He doesn't deserve to be bowed down to, to be greeted by standing up, or to have his robe & bowl received. Still, a seat should be set out; if he wants to, he can sit down.' But as I approached, they were unable to keep to their pact. One, standing up to greet me, received my robe & bowl. Another spread out a seat. Another set out water for washing my feet. However, they addressed me by name and as 'friend.'

"So I said to them, 'Don't address the Tathagata by name and as "friend." The Tathagata, friends, is a worthy one, rightly self-awakened. Lend ear, friends: the Deathless has been attained. I will instruct you. I will teach you the Dhamma. Practicing as instructed, you will in no long time reach & remain in the supreme goal of the holy life for which clansmen rightly go forth from home into homelessness, knowing & realizing it for yourselves in the here & now.'

"When this was said, the group of five monks replied to me, 'By that practice, that conduct, that performance of austerities you did not attain any superior human states, any distinction in knowledge & vision worthy of a noble one. So how can you now living luxuriously, straying from your exertion, backsliding into abundance have attained any superior human states, any distinction in knowledge & vision worthy of a noble one?'

"When this was said, I replied to them, 'The Tathagata, monks, is not living luxuriously, has not strayed from his exertion, has not backslid into abundance. The Tathagata, friends, is a worthy one, rightly self-awakened. Lend ear, friends: the Deathless has been attained. I will instruct you. I will teach you the Dhamma. Practicing as instructed, you will in no long time reach & remain in the supreme goal of the holy life for which clansmen rightly go forth from home into homelessness, knowing & realizing it for yourselves in the here & now.'

A second time... A third time, the group of five monks said to me, 'By that practice, that conduct, that performance of austerities you did not attain any superior human states, any distinction in knowledge & vision worthy of a noble one. So how can you now living luxuriously, straying from your exertion, backsliding into abundance have attained any superior human states, any distinction in knowledge & vision worthy of a noble one?'

"When this was said, I replied to the group of five monks, 'Do you recall my ever having spoken in this way before?'

"'No, lord.'

"'The Tathagata, monks, is not living luxuriously, has not strayed from his exertion, has not backslid into abundance. The Tathagata, friends, is a worthy one, rightly self-awakened. Lend ear, friends: the Deathless has been attained. I will instruct you. I will teach you the Dhamma. Practicing as instructed, you will in no long time reach & remain in the supreme goal of the holy life for which clansmen rightly go forth from home into homelessness, knowing & realizing it for yourselves in the here & now.'

"And so I was able to convince them."

MN 26

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Setting the Wheel of Dhamma in Motion The Buddha's first sermon, to the group of five ascetics

I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying at Varanasi in the Game Refuge at Isipatana. There he addressed the group of five monks:

"There are these two extremes that are not to be indulged in by one who has gone forth. Which two? That which is devoted to sensual pleasure with reference to sensual objects: base, vulgar, common, ignoble, unprofitable; and that which is devoted to self-affliction: painful, ignoble, unprofitable. Avoiding both of these extremes, the middle way realized by the Tathagata producing vision, producing knowledge leads to calm, to direct knowledge, to self-awakening, to Unbinding.

[The Noble Eightfold Path] "And what is the middle way realized by the Tathagata that producing vision, producing knowledge leads to calm, to direct knowledge, to self-awakening, to Unbinding? Precisely this Noble Eightfold Path: right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration. This is the middle way realized by the Tathagata that producing vision, producing knowledge leads to calm, to direct knowledge, to self-awakening, to Unbinding.

[The Four Noble Truths] "Now this, monks, is the noble truth of stress: Birth is stressful, aging is stressful, death is stressful; sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair are stressful; association with the unbeloved is stressful, separation from the loved is stressful, not getting what is wanted is stressful. In short, the five clinging-aggregates are stressful.

"And this, monks, is the noble truth of the origination of stress: the craving that makes for further becoming accompanied by passion & delight, relishing now here & now there i.e., craving for sensual pleasure, craving for becoming, craving for non-becoming.

"And this, monks, is the noble truth of the cessation of stress: the remainderless fading & cessation, renunciation, relinquishment, release, & letting go of that very craving.

"And this, monks, is the noble truth of the way of practice leading to the cessation of stress: precisely this Noble Eightfold Path right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration.

[One's duties with regard to the Four Noble Truths] "Vision arose, insight arose, discernment arose, knowledge arose, illumination arose within me with regard to things never heard before: 'This is the noble truth of stress'... 'This noble truth of stress is to be comprehended'... 'This noble truth of stress has been comprehended.'

"Vision arose, insight arose, discernment arose, knowledge arose, illumination arose within me with regard to things never heard before: 'This is the noble truth of the origination of stress'... 'This noble truth of the origination of stress is to be abandoned'... 'This noble truth of the origination of stress has been abandoned.'

"Vision arose, insight arose, discernment arose, knowledge arose, illumination arose within me with regard to things never heard before: 'This is the noble truth of the cessation of stress'... 'This noble truth of the cessation of stress is to be directly experienced'... 'This noble truth of the cessation of stress has been directly experienced.'

"Vision arose, insight arose, discernment arose, knowledge arose, illumination arose within me with regard to things never heard before: 'This is the noble truth of the way of practice leading to the cessation of stress'... 'This noble truth of the way of practice leading to the cessation of stress is to be developed'... 'This noble truth of the way of practice leading to the cessation of stress has been developed.'

[The twelve-spoked Wheel of Dhamma] "And, monks, as long as this knowledge & vision of mine with its three rounds & twelve permutations concerning these four noble truths as they actually are present was not pure, I did not claim to have directly awakened to the right self-awakening unexcelled in the cosmos with its devas, Maras, & Brahmas, with its contemplatives & priests, its royalty & commonfolk. But as soon as this knowledge & vision of mine with its three rounds & twelve permutations concerning these four noble truths as they actually are present was truly pure, then I did claim to have directly awakened to the right self-awakening unexcelled in the cosmos with its devas, Maras & Brahmas, with its contemplatives & priests, its royalty & commonfolk. Knowledge & vision arose in me: 'Unprovoked is my release. This is the last birth. There is now no further becoming.'"

[The Noble Sangha is born] That is what the Blessed One said. Gratified, the group of five monks delighted at his words. And while this explanation was being given, there arose to Ven. Kondaa the dustless, stainless Dhamma eye: Whatever is subject to origination is all subject to cessation.

[The Wheel of the Dhamma begins to turn] And when the Blessed One had set the Wheel of Dhamma in motion, the earth devas cried out: "At Varanasi, in the Game Refuge at Isipatana, the Blessed One has set in motion the unexcelled Wheel of Dhamma that cannot be stopped by priest or contemplative, deva, Mara or God or anyone in the cosmos." On hearing the earth devas' cry, the devas of the Four Kings' Heaven took up the cry... the devas of the Thirty-three... the Yama devas... the Tusita devas... the Nimmanarati devas... the Paranimmita-vasavatti devas... the devas of Brahma's retinue took up the cry: "At Varanasi, in the Game Refuge at Isipatana, the Blessed One has set in motion the unexcelled Wheel of Dhamma that cannot be stopped by priest or contemplative, devas, Mara, or God or anyone at all in the cosmos."

So in that moment, that instant, the cry shot right up to the Brahma worlds. And this ten-thousand fold cosmos shivered & quivered & quaked, while a great, measureless radiance appeared in the cosmos, surpassing the effulgence of the devas.

Then the Blessed One exclaimed: "So you really know, Kondaa? So you really know?" And that is how Ven. Kondaa acquired the name Aa-Kondaa Kondaa who knows.

SN 56.11

The second sermon (On the Not-self Characteristic): Now there are six arahants in the world ...

"Thus, monks, any body whatsoever that is past, future, or present; internal or external; blatant or subtle; common or sublime; far or near: every body is to be seen as it actually is with right discernment as: 'This is not mine. This is not my self. This is not what I am.'

"Any feeling whatsoever...

"Any perception whatsoever...

"Any fabrications whatsoever...

"Any consciousness whatsoever that is past, future, or present; internal or external; blatant or subtle; common or sublime; far or near: every consciousness is to be seen as it actually is with right discernment as: 'This is not mine. This is not my self. This is not what I am.'

"Seeing thus, the well-instructed disciple of the noble ones grows disenchanted with the body, disenchanted with feeling, disenchanted with perception, disenchanted with fabrications, disenchanted with consciousness. Disenchanted, he becomes dispassionate. Through dispassion, he is fully released. With full release, there is the knowledge, 'Fully released.' He discerns that 'Birth is ended, the holy life fulfilled, the task done. There is nothing further for this world.'"

That is what the Blessed One said. Gratified, the group of five monks delighted at his words. And while this explanation was being given, the hearts of the group of five monks, through not clinging (not being sustained), were fully released from fermentation/effluents.

SN 22.59

What is the difference between an arahant and a Buddha? [The Buddha:] "So what difference, what distinction, what distinguishing factor is there between one rightly self-awakened and a monk discernment-released?"

[A group of monks:] "For us, lord, the teachings have the Blessed One as their root, their guide, & their arbitrator. It would be good if the Blessed One himself would explicate the meaning of this statement. Having heard it from the Blessed One, the monks will remember it."

"In that case, monks, listen & pay close attention. I will speak."

"As you say, lord," the monks responded.

The Blessed One said, "The Tathagata the worthy one, the rightly self-awakened one is the one who gives rise to the path (previously) unarisen, who engenders the path (previously) unengendered, who points out the path (previously) not pointed out. He knows the path, is expert in the path, is adept at the path. And his disciples now keep following the path and afterwards become endowed with the path.

"This is the difference, this the distinction, this the distinguishing between one rightly self-awakened and a monk discernment-released."

SN 22.58

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Forty-five years of teaching His teachings, always practical, include lessons in basic good manners, "And how is a monk one with a sense of social gatherings? There is the case where a monk knows his social gathering: 'This is a social gathering of noble warriors; this, a social gathering of priests; this, a social gathering of householders; this, a social gathering of contemplatives; here one should approach them in this way, stand in this way, act in this way, sit in this way, speak in this way, stay silent in this way.' If he didn't know his social gathering 'This is a social gathering of noble warriors; this, a social gathering of priests; this, a social gathering of householders; this, a social gathering of contemplatives; here one should approach them in this way, stand in this way, act in this way, sit in this way, speak in this way, stay silent in this way' he wouldn't be said to be one with a sense of social gatherings. So it's because he does know his social gathering 'This is a social gathering of noble warriors; this, a social gathering of priests; this, a social gathering of householders; this, a social gathering of contemplatives; here one should approach them in this way, stand in this way, act in this way, sit in this way, speak in this way, stay silent in this way' that he is said to be one with a sense of social gatherings. This is one with a sense of Dhamma, a sense of meaning, a sense of himself, a sense of moderation, a sense of time, & a sense of social gatherings."

AN 7.64

...lessons in how to treat one's parents, Support for one's parents, assistance to one's wife and children, consistency in one's work: This is the highest protection.

Sn 2.4

Mother & father, compassionate to their family, are called Brahma, first teachers, those worthy of gifts from their children. So the wise should pay them homage, honor with food & drink clothing & bedding anointing & bathing & washing their feet. Performing these services to their parents, the wise are praised right here and after death rejoice in heaven.

Iti 106

...lessons on the value of generosity, "And what is the treasure of generosity? There is the case of a disciple of the noble ones, his awareness cleansed of the stain of stinginess, living at home, freely generous, openhanded, delighting in being magnanimous, responsive to requests, delighting in the distribution of alms. This is called the treasure of generosity."

AN 7.6

...on the value of virtue, "And what is the treasure of virtue? There is the case where a disciple of the noble ones abstains from taking life, abstains from stealing, abstains from illicit sexual conduct, abstains from lying, abstains from taking intoxicants that cause heedlessness. This, monks, is called the treasure of virtue."

AN 7.6

...on the fruits of virtuous conduct, With mind rightly directed, speaking right speech, doing right deeds with the body: a person here of much learning, a doer of merit here in this life so short, at the break-up of the body, discerning, reappears in heaven.

Iti 71

...on the drawbacks of all sensual pleasures even heavenly ones "There is the case where a person, being subject himself to aging, realizing the drawbacks of what is subject to aging, seeks the unaging, unsurpassed rest from the yoke: Unbinding. Being subject himself to illness, realizing the drawbacks of what is subject to illness, he seeks the unailing, unsurpassed rest from the yoke: Unbinding. Being subject himself to death, realizing the drawbacks of what is subject to death, he seeks the undying, unsurpassed rest from the yoke: Unbinding. Being subject himself to defilement, realizing the drawbacks of what is subject to defilement, he seeks the undefiled, unsurpassed rest from the yoke: Unbinding."

AN 4.252

...on the value of renunciation, "Having seen the drawback of sensual pleasures, I pursued that theme; having understood the reward of renunciation, I familiarized myself with it. My heart leaped up at renunciation, grew confident, steadfast, & firm, seeing it as peace. Then, quite withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful qualities, I entered & remained in the first jhana: rapture & pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought & evaluation."

AN 9.41

... and on the four Noble Truths. "Bhikkhus, it is through not realizing, through not penetrating the Four Noble Truths that this long course of birth and death has been passed through and undergone by me as well as by you. What are these four? They are the noble truth of Dukkha; the noble truth of the origin of Dukkha; the noble truth of the cessation of Dukkha; and the noble truth of the way to the cessation of Dukkha. But now, bhikkhus, that these have been realized and penetrated, cut off is the craving for existence, destroyed is that which leads to renewed becoming, and there is no fresh becoming."

DN 16

In short, the Buddha teaches how to realize true and lasting happiness: Nibbana "There is that dimension where there is neither earth, nor water, nor fire, nor wind; neither dimension of the infinitude of space, nor dimension of the infinitude of consciousness, nor dimension of nothingness, nor dimension of neither perception nor non-perception; neither this world, nor the next world, nor sun, nor moon. And there, I say, there is neither coming, nor going, nor stasis; neither passing away nor arising: without stance, without foundation, without support (mental object). This, just this, is the end of stress (dukkha)."

Ud 8.1

"Both formerly & now, it is only stress (dukkha) that I describe, and the cessation of stress."

SN 22.86

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The Buddha is one-of-a-kind As he was sitting there, [Moggallana the Guardsman] said to Ven. Ananda: "Master Ananda, is there any one monk endowed in each & every way with the qualities with which Master Gotama worthy & rightly self-awakened was endowed?"

"No, brahman, there isn't any one monk endowed in each & every way with the qualities with which the Blessed One worthy & rightly self-awakened was endowed. For the Blessed One was the arouser of the unarisen path, the begetter of the unbegotten path, the expounder of the unexpounded path, the knower of the path, the expert with regard to the path, adept at the path. And now his disciples follow the path and become endowed with it after him."

MN 108

...and his reputation spreads "A monk called Gotama, it seems, a son of the Sakyans who went forth from a Sakyan clan, has been wandering in the Kosalan country with a large Sangha of bhikkhus and has come to Sala. Now a good report of Master Gotama has been spread to this effect: 'That Blessed One is such since he is arahant and Fully Enlightened, perfect in true knowledge and conduct, sublime, knower of worlds, incomparable teacher of men to be tamed, teacher of gods and humans, enlightened, blessed. He describes this world with its gods, its Maras, and its (Brahma) Divinities, this generation with its monks and brahmans, with its kings and its people, which he has himself realized through direct knowledge. He teaches a Dhamma that is good in the beginning, good in the middle and good in the end with (the right) meaning and phrasing, he affirms a holy life that is utterly perfect and pure.' Now it is good to see such arahants."

MN 41

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He travels widely, teaching people from every caste and from all walks of life, "I recall having approached many hundred assemblies of nobles... many hundred assemblies of brahmans... many hundred assemblies of householders... many hundred assemblies of recluses..."

MN 12

...including lay-followers, At one time the Lord was staying near Savatthi in the Jeta Grove at Anathapindika's monastery. Now the lay-follower Dhammika with 500 other lay-followers approached the Lord. Having drawn near and having saluted the Lord respectfully he sat down at one side. Sitting there the lay-follower Dhammika addressed the Lord...

Sn 2.14

Dighajanu [LongShin; he also went by the name of TigerPaw] the Koliyan went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down to the Blessed One, sat to one side. As he was sitting there he said to the Blessed One, "We are lay people enjoying sensuality; living crowded with spouses & children; using Kasi fabrics & sandalwood; wearing garlands, scents, & creams; handling gold & silver. May the Blessed One teach the Dhamma for those like us, for our happiness & well-being in this life, for our happiness & well-being in lives to come."

[The Blessed One said:] "There are these four qualities, TigerPaw, that lead to a lay person's happiness and well-being in this life. Which four? Being consummate in initiative, being consummate in vigilance, admirable friendship, and maintaining one's livelihood in tune.

"And what does it mean to be consummate in initiative? There is the case where a lay person, by whatever occupation he makes his living whether by farming or trading or cattle tending or archery or as a king's man or by any other craft is clever and untiring at it, endowed with discrimination in its techniques, enough to arrange and carry it out. This is called being consummate in initiative.

"And what does it mean to be consummate in vigilance? There is the case when a lay person has righteous wealth righteously gained, coming from his initiative, his striving, his making an effort, gathered by the strength of his arm, earned by his sweat he manages to protect it through vigilance [with the thought], 'How shall neither kings nor thieves make off with this property of mine, nor fire burn it, nor water sweep it away, nor hateful heirs make off with it?' This is called being consummate in vigilance.

"And what is meant by admirable friendship? There is the case where a lay person, in whatever town or village he may dwell, spends time with householders or householders' sons, young or old, who are advanced in virtue. He talks with them, engages them in discussions. He emulates consummate conviction in those who are consummate in conviction, consummate virtue in those who are consummate in virtue, consummate generosity in those who are consummate in generosity, and consummate discernment in those who are consummate in discernment. This is called admirable friendship.

"And what does it mean to maintain one's livelihood in tune? There is the case where a lay person, knowing the income and outflow of his wealth, maintains a livelihood in tune, neither a spendthrift nor a penny-pincher, [thinking], 'Thus will my income exceed my outflow, and my outflow will not exceed my income.' Just as when a weigher or his apprentice, when holding the scales, knows, 'It has tipped down so much or has tipped up so much,' in the same way, the lay person, knowing the income and outflow of his wealth, maintains a livelihood in tune, neither a spendthrift nor a penny-pincher, [thinking], 'Thus will my income exceed my outflow, and my outflow will not exceed my income.' If a lay person has a small income but maintains a grand livelihood, it will be rumored of him, 'This clansman devours his wealth like a fruit-tree eater [Commentary: one who shakes more fruit off a tree than he can possibly eat].' If a lay person has a large income but maintains a miserable livelihood, it will be rumored of him, 'This clansman will die of starvation.' But when a lay person, knowing the income and outflow of his wealth, maintains a livelihood in tune, neither a spendthrift nor a penny-pincher, [thinking], 'Thus will my income exceed my outflow, and my outflow will not exceed my income,' this is call maintaining one's livelihood in tune.

"These are the four drains on one's store of wealth: debauchery in sex; debauchery in drink; debauchery in gambling; and evil friendship, evil companionship, evil camaraderie. Just as if there were a great reservoir with four inlets and four drains, and a man were to close the inlets and open the drains, and the sky were not to pour down proper showers, the depletion of that great reservoir could be expected, not its increase. In the same way, these are the four drains on one's store of wealth: debauchery in sex; debauchery in drink; debauchery in gambling; and evil friendship, evil companionship, evil camaraderie.

These are the four inlets to one's store of wealth: no debauchery in sex; no debauchery in drink; no debauchery in gambling; and admirable friendship, admirable companionship, admirable camaraderie. Just as if there were a great reservoir with four inlets and four drains, and a man were to open the inlets and close the drains, and the sky were to pour down proper showers, the increase of that great reservoir could be expected, not its depletion. In the same way, these are the four inlets to one's store of wealth: no debauchery in sex; no debauchery in drink; no debauchery in gambling; and admirable friendship, admirable companionship, admirable camaraderie.

"These, TigerPaw, are the four qualities that lead to a lay person's happiness and well-being in this life.

"There are these four qualities that lead to a lay person's happiness and well-being in lives to come. Which four? Being consummate in conviction, being consummate in virtue, being consummate in generosity, being consummate in discernment.

"And what does it mean to be consummate in conviction? There is the case where a disciple of the noble ones has conviction, is convinced of the Tathagata's Awakening: 'Indeed, the Blessed One is worthy and rightly self-awakened, consummate in knowledge and conduct, well-gone, an expert with regard to the world, unexcelled as a trainer for those people fit to be tamed, the Teacher of divine and human beings, awakened, blessed.' This is called being consummate in conviction.

"And what does it mean to be consummate in virtue? There is the case where a disciple of the noble ones abstains from taking life, abstains from stealing, abstains from illicit sexual conduct, abstains from lying, abstains from taking intoxicants that cause heedlessness. This is called being consummate in virtue.

"And what does it mean to be consummate in generosity? There is the case of a disciple of the noble ones, his awareness cleansed of the stain of miserliness, living at home, freely generous, openhanded, delighting in being magnanimous, responsive to requests, delighting in the distribution of alms. This is called being consummate in generosity.

"And what does it mean to be consummate in discernment? There is the case where a disciple of the noble ones is discerning, endowed with discernment of arising and passing away noble, penetrating, leading to the right ending of stress. This is called being consummate in discernment.

"These, TigerPaw, are the four qualities that lead to a lay person's happiness and well-being in lives to come."

AN 8.54

...monks, I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling among the Sakyans at Kapilavatthu in the Great Wood, together with a large Sangha of approximately 500 bhikkhus, all of them arahants...

DN 20

...lepers, Then the Blessed One, having encompassed the awareness of the entire assembly with his awareness, asked himself, "Now who here is capable of understanding the Dhamma?" He saw Suppabuddha the leper sitting in the assembly, and on seeing him the thought occurred to him, "This person here is capable of understanding the Dhamma." So, aiming at Suppabuddha the leper, he gave a step-by-step talk, i.e., a talk on generosity, on virtue, on heaven; he declared the drawbacks, degradation, & corruption of sensual passions, and the rewards of renunciation. Then when he saw that Suppabuddha the leper's mind was ready, malleable, free from hindrances, elated, & bright, he then gave the Dhamma-talk peculiar to Awakened Ones, i.e., stress, origination, cessation, & path. And just as a clean cloth, free of stains, would properly absorb a dye, in the same way, as Suppabuddha the leper was sitting in that very seat, the dustless, stainless Dhamma eye arose within him, "Whatever is subject to origination is all subject to cessation."

Ud 5.3

...kings, Then King Pasenadi Kosala approached the Blessed One in the middle of the day and, on arrival, having bowed down, sat to one side. As he was sitting there, the Blessed One said to him: "Well now, great king, where are you coming from in the middle of the day?"

"Just now, lord, I was engaged in the sort of royal affairs typical of head-anointed noble-warrior kings intoxicated with the intoxication of sovereignty, obsessed by greed for sensual pleasures, who have attained stable control in their country, and who rule having conquered a great sphere of territory on earth."

"What do you think, great king? Suppose a man, trustworthy and reliable, were to come to you from the east and on arrival would say: 'If it please your majesty, you should know that I come from the east. There I saw a great mountain, as high as the clouds, coming this way, crushing all living beings [in its path]. Do whatever you think should be done.' Then a second man were to come to you from the west... Then a third man were to come to you from the north... Then a fourth man were to come to you from the south and on arrival would say: 'If it please your majesty, you should know that I come from the south. There I saw a great mountain, as high as the clouds, coming this way, crushing all living beings. Do whatever you think should be done.' If, your majesty, such a great peril should arise, such a terrible destruction of human life the human state being so hard to obtain what should be done?"

"If, lord, such a great peril should arise, such a terrible destruction of human life the human state being so hard to obtain what else should be done but Dhamma-conduct, right conduct, skillful deeds, meritorious deeds?"

"I inform you, great king, I announce to you, great king: aging and death are rolling in on you. When aging and death are rolling in on you, great king, what should be done?"

"As aging and death are rolling in on me, lord, what else should be done but Dhamma-conduct, right conduct, skillful deeds, meritorious deeds?

...

"So it is, great king! So it is, great king! As aging and death are rolling in on you, what else should be done but Dhamma-conduct, right conduct, skillful deeds, meritorious deeds?"

SN 3.25

...outcastes, In a lowly family I was born, poor, with next to no food. My work was degrading: I gathered the spoiled, the withered flowers from shrines and threw them away. People found me disgusting, despised me, disparaged me. Lowering my heart, I showed reverence to many.

Then I saw the One Self-awakened, arrayed with a squadron of monks, the Great Hero, entering the city, supreme, of the Magadhans. Throwing down my carrying pole, I approached him to do reverence. He the supreme man stood still out of sympathy just for me. After paying homage to the feet of the teacher, I stood to one side & requested the Going Forth from him, supreme among all living beings. The compassionate Teacher, sympathetic to all the world, said: "Come, monk." That was my formal Acceptance.

Alone, I stayed in the wilds, untiring, I followed the Teacher's words, just as he, the Conqueror, had taught me.

In the first watch of the night, I recollected previous lives; in the middle watch, purified the divine eye; in the last, burst the mass of darkness.

Then, as night was ending & the sun returning, Indra & Brahma came to pay homage to me, hands palm-to-palm at their hearts: "Homage to you, O thoroughbred of men, Homage to you, O man supreme, whose fermentations are ended. You, dear sir, are worthy of offerings."

Thag 12.2

...seekers from other spiritual traditions, Then Punna, a son of the Koliyans and an ox-duty ascetic, and also Seniya a naked dog duty ascetic, went to the Blessed One, and Punna the ox duty ascetic paid homage to the Blessed One and sat down at one side, while Seniya the naked dog-duty ascetic exchanged greetings with the Blessed One, and when the courteous and amiable talk was finished, he too sat down at one side curled up like a dog. When Punna the ox-duty ascetic sat down, he asked the Blessed One: "Venerable sir, this naked dog-duty ascetic Seniya does what is hard to do: he eats his food when it is thrown on the ground. That dog duty has long been taken up and practiced by him. What will be his destination? What will be his future course?"

"Enough, Punna, let that be. Do not ask me that."

A second time... A third time Punna the ox-duty ascetic asked the Blessed One: "Venerable sir, this naked dog-duty ascetic Seniya does what is hard to do: he eats his food when it is thrown on the ground. That dog duty has long been taken up and practiced by him. What will be his destination? What will be his future course?"

"Well, Punna, since I certainly cannot persuade you when I say 'Enough, Punna, let that be. Do not ask me that,' I shall therefore answer you.

"Here, Punna, someone develops the dog duty fully and unstintingly, he develops the dog-habit fully and unstintingly, he develops the dog mind fully and unstintingly, he develops dog behavior fully and unstintingly. Having done that, on the dissolution of the body, after death, he reappears in the company of dogs. But if his view is such as this: 'By this virtue or duty or asceticism or religious life I shall become a (great) god or some (lesser) god,' that is wrong view in his case. Now there are two destinations for one with wrong view, I say: hell or the animal womb. So, Punna, if his dog duty is perfected, it will lead him to the company of dogs; if it is not, it will lead him to hell."

MN 57

...and heavenly beings "...many hundred assemblies of gods of the heaven of the Four Great Kings... many hundred assemblies of gods of the heaven of the Thirty-three... many hundred assemblies of Mara's retinue... many hundred assemblies of Brahmas. And formerly I had sat with them there and talked with them and held conversations with them..."

MN 12

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The Buddha teaches his family, including his son Rahula, "Renouncing the five pleasures of sense that entrance and delight the mind, and in faith departing from home, become one who makes an end of suffering!

"Associate with good friends and choose a remote lodging, secluded, with little noise. Be moderate in eating. Robes, alms-food, remedies and a dwelling, do not have craving for these things; do not be one who returns to the world. Practice restraint according to the Discipline, and control the five sense-faculties.

"Practice mindfulness of the body and continually develop dispassion (towards it). Avoid the sign of the beautiful connected with passion; by meditating on the foul cultivate a mind that is concentrated and collected.

"Meditate on the Signless and get rid of the tendency to conceit. By thoroughly understanding and destroying conceit you will live in the (highest) peace."

In this manner the Lord repeatedly exhorted the Venerable Rahula.

Snp II.11

...his stepmother, Mahapajapati Gotami, I have heard that at one time the Blessed One was staying at Vesali, in the Peaked Roof Hall in the Great Forest.

Then Mahapajapati Gotami went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, stood to one side. As she was standing there she said to him: "It would be good, venerable sir, if the Blessed One would teach me the Dhamma in brief such that, having heard the Dhamma from the Blessed One, I might dwell alone, secluded, heedful, ardent, & resolute."

"Gotami, the qualities of which you may know, 'These qualities lead to passion, not to dispassion; to being fettered, not to being unfettered; to accumulating, not to shedding; to self-aggrandizement, not to modesty; to discontent, not to contentment; to entanglement, not to seclusion; to laziness, not to aroused persistence; to being burdensome, not to being unburdensome': You may definitely hold, 'This is not the Dhamma, this is not the Vinaya, this is not the Teacher's instruction.'

"As for the qualities of which you may know, 'These qualities lead to dispassion, not to passion; to being unfettered, not to being fettered; to shedding, not to accumulating; to modesty, not to self-aggrandizement; to contentment, not to discontent; to seclusion, not to entanglement; to aroused persistence, not to laziness; to being unburdensome, not to being burdensome': You may definitely hold, 'This is the Dhamma, this is the Vinaya, this is the Teacher's instruction.'"

That is what the Blessed One said. Gratified, Mahapajapati Gotami delighted at his words.

AN 8.53

... and he guides his brother, Nanda, to arahantship I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying near Savatthi, in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's monastery. Now at that time Ven. Nanda the Blessed One's brother, son of his maternal aunt told a large number of monks, "I don't enjoy leading the holy life, my friends. I can't endure the holy life. Giving up the training, I will return to the common life."

Then a certain monk went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As he was sitting there, he told the Blessed One: "Lord, Ven. Nanda the Blessed One's brother, son of his maternal aunt has told a large number of monks, 'I don't enjoy leading the holy life, my friends. I can't endure the holy life. Giving up the training, I will return to the common life.'"

Then the Blessed One told a certain monk, "Come, monk. In my name, call Nanda, saying, 'The Teacher calls you, my friend.'"

"As you say, lord," the monk answered and, having gone to Ven. Nanda, on arrival he said, "The Teacher calls you, my friend."

"As you say, my friend," Ven. Nanda replied. Then he went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As he was sitting there, the Blessed One said to him, "Is it true, Nanda, that you have told a large number of monks, 'I don't enjoy leading the holy life, my friends. I can't endure the holy life. Giving up the training, I will return to the common life.'?"

"Yes, lord."

"But why, Nanda, don't you enjoy leading the holy life?"

"Lord, as I was leaving home, a Sakyan girl the envy of the countryside glanced up at me, with her hair half-combed, and said, 'Hurry back, master.' Recollecting that, I don't enjoy leading the holy life. I can't endure the holy life. Giving up the training, I will return to the common life."

Then, taking Ven. Nanda by the arm as a strong man might flex his extended arm or extend his flexed arm the Blessed One disappeared from Jeta's Grove and reappeared among the devas of the Tavatimsa Heaven. Now at that time about 500 dove-footed nymphs had come to wait upon Sakka, the ruler of the devas. And the Blessed One said to Ven. Nanda, "Nanda, do you see those 500 dove-footed nymphs?"

"Yes, lord."

"What do you think, Nanda: Which is lovelier, better looking, more charming the Sakyan girl, the envy of the countryside, or these 500 dove-footed nymphs?"

"Lord, compared to these 500 dove-footed nymphs, the Sakyan girl, the envy of the countryside, is like a cauterized monkey with its ears and nose cut off. She doesn't count. She's not even a small fraction. There's no comparison. The 500 dove-footed nymphs are lovelier, better looking, more charming."

"Then take joy, Nanda. Take joy! I am your guarantee for getting 500 dove-footed nymphs."

"If the Blessed One is my guarantee for getting 500 dove-footed nymphs, I will enjoy leading the holy life under the Blessed One."

Then, taking Ven. Nanda by the arm as a strong man might flex his extended arm or extend his flexed arm the Blessed One disappeared from among the devas of the Tavatimsa Heaven and reappeared in Jeta's Grove. The monks heard, "They say that Ven. Nanda the Blessed One's brother, son of his maternal aunt is leading the holy life for the sake of nymphs. They say that the Blessed One is his guarantee for getting 500 dove-footed nymphs."

Then the monks who were friends of Ven. Nanda went around addressing him as they would a hired hand and a dealer: "Our friend Nanda, they say, is a hired hand. Our friend Nanda, they say, is a dealer. He's leading the holy life for the sake of nymphs. The Blessed One is his guarantee for getting 500 dove-footed nymphs."

Then Ven. Nanda humiliated, ashamed, and disgusted that the monks who were his friends were addressing him as they would a hired hand and a dealer went to dwell alone, secluded, heedful, ardent, and resolute. He in no long time entered and remained in the supreme goal of the holy life for which clansmen rightly go forth from home into homelessness, knowing and realizing it for himself in the here and now. He knew: "Birth is ended, the holy life fulfilled, the task done. There is nothing further for the sake of this world." And thus Ven. Nanda became another one of the arahants.

Ud 3.2

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The Buddha's last days Ananda notices that the Buddha is growing old Now on that occasion the Blessed One, on emerging from seclusion in the late afternoon, sat warming his back in the western sun. Then Ven. Ananda went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down to the Blessed One, massaged the Blessed One's limbs with his hand and said, "It's amazing, lord. It's astounding, how the Blessed One's complexion is no longer so clear & bright; his limbs are flabby & wrinkled; his back, bent forward; there's a discernible change in his faculties the faculty of the eye, the faculty of the ear, the faculty of the nose, the faculty of the tongue, the faculty of the body."

"That's the way it is, Ananda. When young, one is subject to aging; when healthy, subject to illness; when alive, subject to death. The complexion is no longer so clear & bright; the limbs are flabby & wrinkled; the back, bent forward; there's a discernible change in the faculties the faculty of the eye, the faculty of the ear, the faculty of the nose, the faculty of the tongue, the faculty of the body."

SN 48.41

To what refuge should the Buddha's followers turn after his death? "Now I am frail, Ananda, old, aged, far gone in years. This is my eightieth year, and my life is spent. Even as an old cart, Ananda, is held together with much difficulty, so the body of the Tathagata is kept going only with supports. It is, Ananda, only when the Tathagata, disregarding external objects, with the cessation of certain feelings, attains to and abides in the signless concentration of mind, that his body is more comfortable.

"Therefore, Ananda, be islands unto yourselves, refuges unto yourselves, seeking no external refuge; with the Dhamma as your island, the Dhamma as your refuge, seeking no other refuge.

"And how, Ananda, is a bhikkhu an island unto himself, a refuge unto himself, seeking no external refuge; with the Dhamma as his island, the Dhamma as his refuge, seeking no other refuge?

"When he dwells contemplating the body in the body, earnestly, clearly comprehending, and mindfully, after having overcome desire and sorrow in regard to the world; when he dwells contemplating feelings in feelings, the mind in the mind, and mental objects in mental objects, earnestly, clearly comprehending, and mindfully, after having overcome desire and sorrow in regard to the world, then, truly, he is an island unto himself, a refuge unto himself, seeking no external refuge; having the Dhamma as his island, the Dhamma as his refuge, seeking no other refuge."

DN 16

He renounces his will to live on "Today, Ananda, at the Capala shrine, Mara, the Evil One, approached me, saying: 'Now, O Lord, bhikkhus and bhikkhunis, laymen and laywomen, have come to be true disciples of the Blessed One wise, well disciplined, apt and learned, preservers of the Dhamma, living according to the Dhamma, abiding in the appropriate conduct, and having learned the Master's word, are able to expound it, preach it, proclaim it, establish it, reveal it, explain it in detail, and make it clear; and when adverse opinions arise, they are now able to refute them thoroughly and well, and to preach this convincing and liberating Dhamma.

"'And now, O Lord, this holy life taught by the Blessed One has become successful, prosperous, far-renowned, popular and widespread, and it is well proclaimed among gods and men. Therefore, O Lord, let the Blessed One come to his final passing away! Let the Happy One utterly pass away! The time has come for the Parinibbana of the Lord.'

"And then, Ananda, I answered Mara, the Evil One, saying: 'Do not trouble yourself, Evil One. Before long the Parinibbana of the Tathagata will come about. Three months hence the Tathagata will utterly pass away.'

"And in this way, Ananda, today at the Capala shrine the Tathagata has renounced his will to live on."

At these words the Venerable Ananda spoke to the Blessed One, saying: "May the Blessed One remain, O Lord! May the Happy One remain, O Lord, throughout the world-period, for the welfare and happiness of the multitude, out of compassion for the world, for the benefit, well being, and happiness of gods and men!"

And the Blessed One answered, saying: "Enough, Ananda. Do not entreat the Tathagata, for the time is past, Ananda, for such an entreaty."

DN 16

His last admonition to the monks "Now, O bhikkhus, I say to you that these teachings of which I have direct knowledge and which I have made known to you these you should thoroughly learn, cultivate, develop, and frequently practice, that the life of purity may be established and may long endure, for the welfare and happiness of the multitude, out of compassion for the world, for the benefit, well being, and happiness of gods and men.

"And what, bhikkhus, are these teachings? They are the four foundations of mindfulness, the four right efforts, the four constituents of psychic power, the five faculties, the five powers, the seven factors of enlightenment, and the Noble Eightfold Path. These, bhikkhus, are the teachings of which I have direct knowledge, which I have made known to you, and which you should thoroughly learn, cultivate, develop, and frequently practice, that the life of purity may be established and may long endure, for the welfare and happiness of the multitude, out of compassion for the world, for the benefit, well being, and happiness of gods and men."

Then the Blessed One said to the bhikkhus: "So, bhikkhus, I exhort you: All compounded things are subject to vanish. Strive with earnestness. The time of the Tathagata's Parinibbana is near. Three months hence the Tathagata will utterly pass away."

DN 16

His last meal And soon after the Blessed One had eaten the meal provided by Cunda the metalworker, a dire sickness fell upon him, even dysentery, and he suffered sharp and deadly pains. But the Blessed One endured them mindfully, clearly comprehending and unperturbed.

Then the Blessed One spoke to the Venerable Ananda, saying: "Come, Ananda, let us go to Kusinara" And the Venerable Ananda answered: "So be it, Lord."

DN 16

He retires to his death-bed Then the Blessed One with a large community of monks went to the far shore of the Hiraavati River and headed for Upavattana, the Mallans' sal-grove near Kusinara. On arrival, he said to Ven. Ananda, "Ananda, please prepare a bed for me between the twin sal-trees, with its head to the north. I am tired, and will lie down."

Responding, "As you say, lord," Ven. Ananda prepared a bed between the twin sal-trees, with its head to the north. Then the Blessed One lay down on his right side in the lion's sleeping posture, with one foot on top of the other, mindful & alert.

Now at that time the twin sal-trees were in full bloom, even though it was not the time for flowering. They showered, strewed, & sprinkled on the Tathagata's body in homage to him. Heavenly coral-tree blossoms fell from the sky, showering, strewing, & sprinkling the Tathagata's body in homage to him. Heavenly sandalwood powder fell from the sky, showering, strewing, & sprinkling the Tathagata's body in homage to him. Heavenly music was playing in the sky, in homage to the Tathagata. Heavenly songs were sung in the sky, in homage to the Tathagata.

DN 16

The Buddha recommends four pilgrimage sites "Ananda, there are these four places that merit being seen by a clansman with conviction, that merit his feelings of urgency & dismay (samvega). Which four? 'Here the Tathagata was born' is a place that merits being seen by a clansman with conviction, that merits his feelings of urgency & dismay. 'Here the Tathagata awakened to the unexcelled right self-awakening'... 'Here the Tathagata set rolling the unexcelled wheel of Dhamma'... 'Here the Tathagata was totally unbound in the remainderless property of Unbinding' is a place that merits being seen by a clansman with conviction, that merits his feelings of urgency & dismay. These are the four places that merit being seen by a clansman with conviction, that merit his feelings of urgency & dismay. They will come out of conviction, Ananda monks, nuns, male lay followers, & female lay followers to the spots where 'Here the Tathagata was born,' 'Here the Tathagata awakened to the unexcelled right self-awakening,' 'Here the Tathagata set rolling the unexcelled wheel of Dhamma,' 'Here the Tathagata was totally unbound in the remainderless property of Unbinding.' And anyone who dies while making a pilgrimage to these memorials with a bright, confident mind will on the break-up of the body, after death reappear in a good destination, the heavenly world."

DN 16

Thousands lament the imminent passing of the Buddha Now at that time the Kusinara Mallans had met for some business in their assembly hall. Ven. Ananda went to the assembly hall and on arrival announced to them, "Tonight, Vasitthas, in the last watch of the night, the total Unbinding of the Tathagata will occur. Come out, Vasitthas! Come out, Vasitthas! Don't later regret that 'The Tathagata's total Unbinding occurred within the borders of our very own town, but we didn't get to see him in his final hour!'" When they heard Ven. Ananda, the Mallans together with their sons, daughters, & wives were shocked, saddened, their minds overflowing with sorrow. Some of them wept, tearing at their hair; they wept, uplifting their arms. As if their feet were cut out from under them, they fell down and rolled back & forth, crying, "All too soon, the Blessed One will be totally unbound! All too soon, the One Well-gone will be totally unbound! All too soon, the One with Eyes will disappear from the world!"

Then the Mallans together with their sons, daughters, & wives shocked, saddened, their minds overflowing with sorrow went to Ven. Ananda at Upavattana, the Mallans' sal-grove near Kusinara.

DN 16

As long as the noble Eightfold Path is practiced, there will be arahants "In any doctrine & discipline where the noble eightfold path is not found, no contemplative of the first... second... third... fourth order [stream-winner, once-returner, non-returner, or arahant] is found. But in any doctrine & discipline where the noble eightfold path is found, contemplatives of the first... second... third... fourth order are found. The noble eightfold path is found in this doctrine & discipline, and right here there are contemplatives of the first... second... third... fourth order. Other teachings are empty of knowledgeable contemplatives. And if the monks dwell rightly, this world will not be empty of arahants."

DN 16

The Buddha's parting words [Date: 1 BE]

Then the Blessed One addressed the monks, "Now, then, monks, I exhort you: All fabrications are subject to decay. Bring about completion by being heedful." Those were the Tathagata's last words.

Then the Blessed One entered the first jhana. Emerging from that he entered the second jhana. Emerging from that, he entered the third... the fourth jhana... the dimension of the infinitude of space... the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness... the dimension of nothingness... the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception. Emerging from that, he entered the cessation of perception & feeling.

...

Then the Blessed One, emerging from the cessation of perception & feeling, entered the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception. Emerging from that, he entered the dimension of nothingness... the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness... the dimension of the infinitude of space... the fourth jhana... the third... the second... the first jhana. Emerging from the first jhana he entered the second... the third... the fourth jhana. Emerging from the fourth jhana, he immediately was totally Unbound.

DN 16

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Postscript: Many names for the Buddha Here are a few of the many epithets that appear in the suttas in reference to the Buddha. The indicated sutta passages contain examples.

All-seeing: Iti 112 Awakened one(buddho): AN 11.12 Best of those who can be tamed: Iti 112 Blessed one(bhagava): AN 11.12 Brahma: MN 18 Bull among men: Sn 3.11 Bull among seers: Sn 3.11 Bull of the Sakyan clan: Sn 3.11 Caravan leader: Iti 84 Conqueror of beasts: Sn 3.11 Consummate in knowledge & conduct (vijja-carana-sampanno): AN 11.12 Dhamma: MN 18 Dispeller of darkness: Iti 38 Elucidator of meaning: MN 18 Endowed with all the foremost marks: Snp III.1 Expert with regard to the world (lokavidu): AN 11.12 The Eye: MN 18 First in the world: Iti 84 Foremost jewel: Sn 3.11 Foremost of all people: Sn 3.11 Foremost of charioteers: Thag 6.9 Foremost of those who can cross: Iti 112 Foremost sage: Sn 3.11 Giver of the deathless: MN 18 Great One (naga): Ud 5.6 Great seer: Sn 4.14 Kinsman of the sun: Sn 4.14 Knowledge: MN 18 Lord of the Dhamma: MN 18 Peerless bull: SN 1.38 Rightly self-awakened (samma-sambuddho): AN 11.12 Shower of the way: MN 107 Supreme among those who can be released: Iti 112 Tathagata (the one "Thus-gone" or "Thus-come"): Iti 112 Teacher of divine & human beings (sattha deva-manussanam): Iti 112 Thoroughly mature: Iti 112 Ultimate leader: Thag 6.9 Unconquered conqueror: Iti 112 Unexcelled trainer for those people fit to be tamed (anuttaro purisa-damma-sarathi): AN 11.12 Unsurpassed doctor and surgeon: Iti 100 Victor in battle: MN 26 Well-gone one (sugato): AN 11.12 Wielder of power: Iti 112 Worthy one (arahant): AN 11.12

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- See also: Refuge: An Introduction to the Buddha, Dhamma, and Sangha by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.


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The Awakened One

The Wing to Awakening

An Anthology from the Pali Canon

Translated and Explained by

Thanissaro Bhikkhu (Geoffrey DeGraff)

H. The Noble Eightfold Path (101-114)

The noble eightfold path is the most standard description of the Buddhist way of practice. The Buddha taught it to his first disciples and to his last [240], as well as to the majority of those in between. It is called noble because when all of its factors come together in a fully developed form, they stand on the threshold to stream-entry, the first of the noble or transcendent attainments.

The image of "path" used for the factors of this set has two major implications, which we have already encountered in II/D. First, the image implies that these factors are means to an end, not an end in themselves; second, they lead to, rather than cause, the goal. In the context of this set, this image has two levels of meaning: On the beginning level, the path is a series of qualities that one must consciously develop, step by step, in order to bring oneself nearer to the goal. On the ultimate or "noble" level, it is a convergence of those qualities, fully developed, within the mind at the point of non-fashioning, leading inexorably to the Deathless. On the beginning level, one must work at following the path, but on the noble level the path becomes a vehicle that delivers one to the goal.

The eight factors of the noble eightfold path fall under the "aggregates" of discernment, virtue, and concentration (paa-khandha, sila-khandha, samadhi-khandha): right view and right resolve fall under the discernment aggregate; right speech, right action, and right livelihood under the virtue aggregate; and right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration under the concentration aggregate. Passage 105 states that although the factors of the noble path fall under the three aggregates, the three aggregates do not fall under the factors of the noble path. What this means is that not every instance of discernment, virtue, or concentration within the mind would count as a factor of the noble path. To begin with, there are such things as wrong virtue, wrong concentration, and wrong discernment [see, for example, 152]. Secondly, even right virtue, concentration, and discernment count as noble only when they are brought to a point of advanced development. This point is reflected in 106, which distinguishes mundane and noble levels for each factor of the path. Even though the mundane factors counteract blatant cases of wrong view, wrong resolve, etc., they still are conjoined with subtle levels of mental effluents and can lead to further becoming. Nevertheless, one must first nurture the mundane levels of the eight factors before they can develop into their noble counterparts.

On the mundane level, the first five factors of the path correspond to the faculty of conviction. Right view on this level means believing in the principle of kamma and trusting that those who have practiced properly truly understand the workings of kamma in this life and the next. In the Buddha's words, this level of right view holds that "There is what is given, what is offered, what is sacrificed. There are fruits & results of good & bad actions. There is this world & the next world. There is mother & father. There are spontaneously reborn beings; there are priests & contemplatives who, faring rightly & practicing rightly, proclaim this world & the next after having directly known & realized it for themselves." What this passage means is that there is merit in generosity; the moral qualities of good and bad are inherent parts of the cosmos, and not simply social conventions; there is life after death; one has a true moral debt to one's parents; and there are people who have lived the renunciate's life properly in such a way that they have gained true and direct knowledge of these matters. These beliefs are the minimum prerequisites for following the path to skillfulness, as they necessarily underlie any solid conviction in the principle of kamma. Mundane levels of right resolve then build on right view, as one resolves to act in ways that will not create bad kamma; mundane right speech, right action, and right livelihood result naturally as one follows through with one's resolve. Right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration, on this level, correspond to the faculties of persistence, mindfulness, and concentration. Right concentration, in turn, provides a basis for insight into the four noble truths, which counts both as the faculty of discernment and the noble level of right view.

Once right view reaches the noble level, it brings the remaining factors of the path up to the noble level as well. One of the striking features of this level of the path is that it consists primarily of discernment and concentration [see the "qualities that are to be developed" in 111], with the boundaries between the two increasingly blurred. The noble level of right resolve, part of the discernment aggregate, consists of directed thought, evaluation, and mental singleness, all of which are factors of jhana. The noble level of right speech, right action, and right livelihood differ from the mundane levels of those factors in that the emphasis here is on the state of mind of the person abstaining from wrong speech, action, and livelihood. Although 106 does not define the noble levels of right effort, mindfulness, and concentration, it seems safe to assume that they are equivalent to the fifth factor of noble right concentration [150], to be discussed under III/E and III/F, in which all three of these factors converge with right view and right resolve in a state of full development. In fact, their mutual reinforcement is what makes these factors all "right." This point is confirmed by 111, which states that when the noble eightfold path goes to the culmination of its development, tranquillity and insight act in concert. This point also explains the statement at the beginning of 106 to the effect that the path consists primarily of right concentration, with the remaining factors as its supports and requisite conditions: These supports and conditions not only lead to right concentration, but when they all become noble, all eight factors coalesce in the mind in a state of solid oneness. Whereas on the mundane level the path factors, though interconnected, were separate, on the noble level they form a single, unified path.

When the noble eightfold path is attained, the mind reaches the level of stream-entry, the first of the four levels of Awakening [107]. Thus the noble eightfold path represents the culmination of all seven sets in the Wings to Awakening [111]. To attain each of the next two levels of Awakening -- once-returning and non-returning -- the eight noble path factors must converge again in the mind. However, to attain the highest level -- Arahantship -- the eight noble factors must converge together with two more: right knowledge and right release. Right knowledge is nowhere defined per se in the Canon, but 195 would seem to indicate the following relationship between it and right view: Right view is realization of the four noble truths and the duties appropriate to each, while right knowledge is the realization that the duties have been brought to fulfillment. The conjunction of right knowledge and right release reflects, on a higher level, the conjunction of discernment and concentration on the noble level of the eightfold path. Passage 76 indicates that release here can be considered as analogous to concentration, albeit totally unshakable. Right knowledge would include awareness of the unshakability of the release [195], while the release would remain unshaken even in the face of that knowledge.

At this point, even the path can be abandoned, for one has reached the goal [113]. Abandoning, here, does not mean that one reverts to wrongs views, wrong action, etc.; rather, one no longer needs to use right view, etc., as a means to a further attainment. As M.107 and S.XXII.122 state, the Awakened one continues practicing meditation and exercising right view as pleasant dwellings for the mind, conducive to mindfulness and alertness, and leads a moral life both for its inherent pleasure and for the sake of the example it offers to those still on the path.

The noble eightfold path, like the seven factors of Awakening, is explicitly explained both as a causal loop and as a holographic formula. We have already described the causal loop above, in showing how the development of the mundane and noble path factors follows the pattern of the five faculties [see also 101]. Passage 106 presents a holographic pattern, in which the development of each factor needs three main supporting factors: right view, which acts as the leader so as to know what the right and wrong versions of the factors are; right effort, which makes the effort to abandon the wrong version and develop the right; and right mindfulness, which keeps the task of right effort in mind. Thus three factors that we have identified as essential to the development of skillfulness -- discernment, mindfulness, and effort [I/A] -- are involved at each step along the path. As a result of that involvement, they grow stronger to the point where they can help turn mundane right concentration -- the fourth factor essential to the development of skillfulness -- into noble right concentration. In this sense, they play a role analogous to that of heedfulness in the five faculties and appropriate attention in the seven factors of Awakening. In fact, they seem to be a complete working out of the elements implicit in those two qualities.

A quick review of the seven sets will show that all of them develop both in a linear and in a holographic way. Even the "holographic" sets -- the frames of reference, right exertions, and bases of power -- contain implicit versions of causal loops, in that all three must follow the three stages of frames-of-reference meditation. Even the linear causal-loop sets -- the five faculties and strengths, the seven factors of Awakening, and the noble eightfold path -- contain implicit holographic formulae, in that the dynamic of their development is inherent in specific qualities or clusters of qualities: heedfulness in the case of the faculties and strengths, appropriate attention in the case of the factors of Awakening, and the cluster of right view, right mindfulness, and right effort in the case of the noble eightfold path. This combination of linear and holographic patterns grows more complex as we remember that each of the first two stages of frames-of-reference meditation can form linear causal loops within themselves [II/B], while two of the factors in the three-part cluster that develops the eightfold path -- right mindfulness and right effort -- are equivalent to the holographic sets of the frames of reference and the right exertions.

This formal convergence of two causal patterns in the development of the path reflects not only the dual principle of this/that conditionality, but also a very practical point in the task of developing the skills of the mind. The holographic pattern reflects the fact that all the skillful qualities needed for the path are already there in the mind and continually interact along the path. All that is needed is for them to be ferreted out and nourished, their coordination fine-tuned, and they can deliver the mind to the goal. The causal loop pattern reflects the fact that the process must take place over time, as specific qualities are stressed at specific junctures and strengthened by being put to use, and as different skillful qualities need to alternate in helping one another, step by step, along the way. An analogy can be made with learning how to walk: A child who can't yet walk already has all the muscles needed to walk, but she must locate them and exercise them in a coordinated way, so that the right and left leg can help and receive help from each other, in order to move from the first tentative step to the point where walking seems natural and can be done with grace.

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Passages from the Pali Canon

101. Monks, ignorance is the leader in the attainment of unskillful qualities, followed by lack of conscience & lack of concern. In a unknowledgeable person, immersed in ignorance, wrong view arises. In one of wrong view, wrong resolve arises. In one of wrong resolve, wrong speech...In one of wrong speech, wrong action...In one of wrong action, wrong livelihood...In one of wrong livelihood, wrong effort...In one of wrong effort, wrong mindfulness...In one of wrong mindfulness, wrong concentration arises.

Clear knowing is the leader in the attainment of skillful qualities, followed by conscience & concern. In a knowledgeable person, immersed in clear knowing, right view arises. In one of right view, right resolve arises. In one of right resolve, right speech...In one of right speech, right action... In one of right action, right livelihood...In one of right livelihood, right effort...In one of right effort, right mindfulness...In one of right mindfulness, right concentration arises.

-- S.XLV.1

102. Analysis of the Path. Monks, what is the noble eightfold path? Right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration.

And what is right view? Knowledge with regard to stress, knowledge with regard to the origination of stress, knowledge with regard to the cessation of stress, knowledge with regard to the way of practice leading to the cessation of stress: This is called right view. [184-240]

And what is right resolve? Being resolved on renunciation, on freedom from ill will, on harmlessness: This is called right resolve.

And what is right speech? Abstaining from lying, from divisive speech, from abusive speech, & from idle chatter: This is called right speech.

And what is right action? Abstaining from taking life, from stealing, & from sexual intercourse: This is called right action.

And what is right livelihood? There is the case where a disciple of the noble ones, having abandoned dishonest livelihood, keeps his life going with right livelihood. This is called right livelihood.

And what is right effort? There is the case where a monk generates desire, endeavors, arouses persistence, upholds & exerts his intent for the sake of the non-arising of evil, unskillful qualities that have not yet arisen...for the sake of the abandoning of evil, unskillful qualities that have arisen...for the sake of the arising of skillful qualities that have not yet arisen...(and) for the maintenance, non-confusion, increase, plenitude, development, & culmination of skillful qualities that have arisen. This is called right effort. [49]

And what is right mindfulness? There is the case where a monk remains focused on the body in & of itself -- ardent, alert, & mindful -- putting aside greed & distress with reference to the world. He remains focused on feelings in & of themselves...the mind in & of itself...mental qualities in & of themselves -- ardent, alert, & mindful -- putting aside greed & distress with reference to the world. This is called right mindfulness. [30]

And what is right concentration? There is the case where a monk -- quite withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful [mental] qualities -- enters & remains in the first jhana: rapture & pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought & evaluation. With the stilling of directed thought & evaluation, he enters & remains in the second jhana: rapture & pleasure born of composure, unification of awareness free from directed thought & evaluation -- internal assurance. With the fading of rapture he remains in equanimity, mindful & alert, and physically sensitive of pleasure. He enters & remains in the third jhana, of which the Noble Ones declare, 'Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasurable abiding.' With the abandoning of pleasure & pain -- as with the earlier disappearance of elation & distress -- he enters & remains in the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity & mindfulness, neither pleasure nor pain. This is called right concentration. [150]

-- S.XLV.8

103. More on Right Action & Right Speech. Having thus gone forth, following the training & way of life of the monks, abandoning the taking of life, he abstains from the taking of life. He dwells with his rod laid down, his knife laid down, scrupulous, merciful, compassionate for the welfare of all living beings. Abandoning the taking of what is not given, he abstains from taking what is not given. He takes only what is given, accepts only what is given, lives not by stealth but by means of a self that has become pure. Abandoning uncelibacy, he lives a celibate life, aloof, refraining from the sexual act that is the villager's way.

Abandoning false speech, he abstains from false speech. He speaks the truth, holds to the truth, is firm, reliable, no deceiver of the world. Abandoning divisive speech he abstains from divisive speech. What he has heard here he does not tell there to break those people apart from these people here. What he has heard there he does not tell here to break these people apart from those people there. Thus reconciling those who have broken apart or cementing those who are united, he loves concord, delights in concord, enjoys concord, speaks things that create concord. Abandoning abusive speech, he abstains from abusive speech. He speaks words that are soothing to the ear, that are affectionate, that go to the heart, that are polite, appealing & pleasing to people at large. Abandoning idle chatter, he abstains from idle chatter. He speaks in season, speaks what is factual, what is in accordance with the goal, the Dhamma, & the Vinaya. He speaks words worth treasuring, seasonable, reasonable, circumscribed, connected with the goal.

-- A.X.99

104. More on Right Action & Right Speech for Lay People. Abandoning sensual misconduct, he abstains from sensual misconduct. He does not get sexually involved with those who are protected by their mothers, their fathers, their brothers, their sisters, their relatives, or their Dhamma; those with husbands, those who entail punishments, or even those crowned with flowers by another man.

Abandoning false speech, he abstains from false speech. When he has been called to a town meeting, a group meeting, a gathering of his relatives, his guild, or of the royalty [i.e., a royal court proceeding], if he is asked as a witness, 'Come & tell, good man, what you know': If he doesn't know, he says, 'I don't know.' If he does know, he says, 'I know.' If he hasn't seen, he says, 'I haven't seen.' If he has seen, he says, 'I have seen.' Thus he doesn't consciously tell a lie for his own sake, for the sake of another, or for the sake of any reward. [This paragraph is missing in the PTS translation.]

-- A.X.176

105. Visakha: Is the noble eightfold path compounded or uncompounded?

Sister Dhammadinna: The noble eightfold path is compounded.

Visakha: And are the three aggregates [of virtue, concentration, & discernment] included under the noble eightfold path, or is the noble eightfold path included under the three aggregates?

Sister Dhammadinna: The three aggregates are not included under the noble eightfold path, but the noble eightfold path is included under the three aggregates. Right speech, right action, & right livelihood come under the aggregate of virtue. Right effort, right mindfulness, & right concentration come under the aggregate of concentration. Right view & right resolve come under the aggregate of discernment.

-- M.44

106. And what, monks, is noble right concentration with its supports & requisite conditions? Any singleness of mind equipped with these seven factors -- right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, & right mindfulness -- is called noble right concentration with its supports & requisite conditions.

[1] Of those, right view is the forerunner. And how is right view the forerunner? One discerns wrong view as wrong view, and right view as right view. This is one's right view. And what is wrong view? 'There is nothing given, nothing offered, nothing sacrificed. There is no fruit or result of good or bad actions. There is no this world, no next world, no mother, no father, no spontaneously reborn beings; no priests or contemplatives who, faring rightly & practicing rightly, proclaim this world & the next after having directly known & realized it for themselves.' This is wrong view.

And what is right view? Right view, I tell you, is of two sorts: There is right view with effluents, siding with merit, resulting in acquisitions; and there is noble right view, without effluents, transcendent, a factor of the path.

And what is the right view that has effluents, sides with merit, & results in acquisitions? 'There is what is given, what is offered, what is sacrificed. There are fruits & results of good & bad actions. There is this world & the next world. There is mother & father. There are spontaneously reborn beings; there are priests & contemplatives who, faring rightly & practicing rightly, proclaim this world & the next after having directly known & realized it for themselves.' This is the right view that has effluents, sides with merit, & results in acquisitions.

And what is the right view that is without effluents, transcendent, a factor of the path? The discernment, the faculty of discernment, the strength of discernment, analysis of qualities as a factor of Awakening, the path factor of right view in one developing the noble path whose mind is noble, whose mind is free from effluents, who is fully possessed of the noble path. This is the right view that is without effluents, transcendent, a factor of the path.

One tries to abandon wrong view & to enter into right view: This is one's right effort. One is mindful to abandon wrong view & to enter & remain in right view: This is one's right mindfulness. Thus these three qualities -- right view, right effort, & right mindfulness -- run & circle around right view.

[2] Of those, right view is the forerunner. And how is right view the forerunner? One discerns wrong resolve as wrong resolve, and right resolve as right resolve. And what is wrong resolve? Being resolved on sensuality, on ill will, on harmfulness. This is wrong resolve.

And what is right resolve? Right resolve, I tell you, is of two sorts: There is right resolve with effluents, siding with merit, resulting in the acquisitions; and there is noble right resolve, without effluents, transcendent, a factor of the path.

And what is the right resolve that has effluents, sides with merit, & results in acquisitions? Being resolved on renunciation, on freedom from ill will, on harmlessness. This is the right resolve that has effluents, sides with merit, & results in acquisitions.

And what is the right resolve that is without effluents, transcendent, a factor of the path? The thinking, directed thinking, resolve, mental absorption, mental fixity, focused awareness, & verbal fabrications in one developing the noble path whose mind is noble, whose mind is without effluents, who is fully possessed of the noble path. This is the right resolve that is without effluents, transcendent, a factor of the path.

One tries to abandon wrong resolve & to enter into right resolve: This is one's right effort. One is mindful to abandon wrong resolve & to enter & remain in right resolve: This is one's right mindfulness. Thus these three qualities -- right view, right effort, & right mindfulness -- run & circle around right resolve.

[3] Of those, right view is the forerunner. And how is right view the forerunner? One discerns wrong speech as wrong speech, and right speech as right speech. And what is wrong speech? Lying, divisive tale-bearing, abusive speech, & idle chatter. This is wrong speech.

And what is right speech? Right speech, I tell you, is of two sorts: There is right speech with effluents, siding with merit, resulting in the acquisitions; and there is noble right speech, without effluents, transcendent, a factor of the path.

And what is the right speech that has effluents, sides with merit, & results in acquisitions? Abstaining from lying, from divisive tale-bearing, from abusive speech, & from idle chatter. This is the right speech that has effluents, sides with merit, & results in acquisitions.

And what is the right speech that is without effluents, transcendent, a factor of the path? The abstaining, desisting, abstinence, avoidance of the four forms of verbal misconduct in one developing the noble path whose mind is noble, whose mind is without effluents, who is fully possessed of the noble path. This is the right speech that is without effluents, transcendent, a factor of the path.

One tries to abandon wrong speech & to enter into right speech: This is one's right effort. One is mindful to abandon wrong speech & to enter & remain in right speech: This is one's right mindfulness. Thus these three qualities -- right view, right effort, & right mindfulness -- run & circle around right speech.

[4] Of those, right view is the forerunner. And how is right view the forerunner? One discerns wrong action as wrong action, and right action as right action. And what is wrong action? Killing, taking what is not given, illicit sex. This is wrong action.

And what is right action? Right action, I tell you, is of two sorts: There is right action with effluents, siding with merit, resulting in the acquisitions; and there is noble right action, without effluents, transcendent, a factor of the path.

And what is the right action that has effluents, sides with merit, & results in acquisitions? Abstaining from killing, from taking what is not given, & from illicit sex. This is the right action that has effluents, sides with merit, & results in acquisitions.

And what is the right action that is without effluents, transcendent, a factor of the path? The abstaining, desisting, abstinence, avoidance of the three forms of bodily misconduct in one developing the noble path whose mind is noble, whose mind is without effluents, who is fully possessed of the noble path. This is the right action that is without effluents, transcendent, a factor of the path.

One tries to abandon wrong action & to enter into right action: This is one's right effort. One is mindful to abandon wrong action & to enter & remain in right action: This is one's right mindfulness. Thus these three qualities -- right view, right effort, & right mindfulness -- run & circle around right action.

[5] Of those, right view is the forerunner. And how is right view the forerunner? One discerns wrong livelihood as wrong livelihood, and right livelihood as right livelihood. And what is wrong livelihood? Scheming, persuading, hinting, belittling, & pursuing gain with gain. This is wrong livelihood.

And what is right livelihood? Right livelihood, I tell you, is of two sorts: There is right livelihood with effluents, siding with merit, resulting in the acquisitions; and there is noble right livelihood, without effluents, transcendent, a factor of the path.

And what is the right livelihood that has effluents, sides with merit, & results in acquisitions? There is the case where a disciple of the noble ones abandons wrong livelihood and maintains his life with right livelihood. This is the right livelihood that has effluents, sides with merit, & results in acquisitions.

And what is the right livelihood that is without effluents, transcendent, a factor of the path? The abstaining, desisting, abstinence, avoidance of wrong livelihood in one developing the noble path whose mind is noble, whose mind