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Childhood Obesity on the Rise Childhood obesity is dramatically increasing at a steady pace throughout our nation. The epidemic is quite evident in more industrialized nations. It occurs quite frequently when families are living inactive lives and are consumed by high calorie and low nutritious foods. "In just two decades, the prevalence of overweight doubled for U.S. children ages 6 to 11- and tripled for American teenagers. Now 1/3 of all U.S. children are at great risk of becoming overweight or already are overweight. In all 25 million children and adolescents are overweight or close to becoming overweightĒ (The Annual National Health and Nutrition Examinator Survey by the Centers for Disease control and Prevention). Childhood obesity in the future can lead to accelerated risks for diabetes, high blood pressure and high cholesterol. This disease has become a serious problem in our society and without correcting the problem the number of overweight children will continue to rise. Obesity is caused by a number of factors some genetic but mostly environmental factors. Diet is a major problem. Itís the mere fact that kids are consuming too many calories and not being able to burn those calories by the lack of exercise. Prader-willi syndrome and Bardet-Biedl syndrome are two genetic disorders that have in fact caused children to become predisposed to obesity. But these disorders are in fact rare. The childhood obesity epidemic is something that can be solved if our nation puts forth the time and effort to do it. What groups are most likely to become obese? Some people may think that there arenít certain groups that are more susceptible but there are! Children from minorities or lower income are more inclined to being at risk for obesity. Parents usually have to work long hours to provide for their family so they lack time to spend with their children. They donít make exercise or health a priority. Not making health a priority is a major concern, there are many risk factors that go along with a life of inactivity and overconsumption. The risk factors of child obesity are pretty vast in the long run. Not only can obesity cause health problems such as type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, high blood pressure, liver disease, asthma, sleep disorders, eating disorders and skin infections it can also lead to psychological problems. When a child goes through a traumatic experience in his/her such as being bullying for being overweight or having a severe sense of low-esteem it causes depression. This depression can be quite severe and the child could feel socially isolated from the rest of the world. How can you prevent this from happening to your child? Itís quite simple actually become a role model to your child. Set family and individual goals within reasonable limits. Donít try and rush the process. A healthy weight loss for a child would be between 1 pound per week or 1 pound per month. Make small changes such as all eating dinner as a family, taking a walk after dinner, going to the park, buying a basketball or soccer ball to play outside. When you go to the grocery store buy whole grains, lean protein (chicken, turkey and fish), low-fat foods, fruits and tons of vegetables. Skip the potatoes, white bread, sugary processed foods such as cookies and crackers. They are "empty calories" which means they usually spike up your glucose levels and make you crash which makes glucose levels drop causing you to crave other foods. Then make individual goals for your child such as switch their afternoon snack to an apple with peanut butter instead of potato chips or have them join a recreation team such as soccer or baseball. You want your child to develop a new lifestyle. Slowly but surely if they up their physical activity and lower their calorie intake they will lose weight! Although if you as a parent are becoming increasingly concerned for your childís health and diet doesnít seem to work go to a doctor. Your doctor will be able to assess your child's health and if you should be concerned. Most doctors calculate a child's BMI (body mass index). This will allow the doctor to compare your child with his/her peers and see where your child falls. If your child is severely obese some doctors may suggest weight loss surgery. Weight loss surgery is not always reliable though. It does not guarantee that your child will lose the excess weight or gain it all back after itís lost. Also it does not completely solve the problem a diet and exercise are still needed! The best way to prevent or cure childhood obesity is to change bad habits and add good ones. The answer is to reduce calories and increase exercising itís actually quite simple in the end itís hard just to get started. But you can prevent it!!!
 
Resources: citations APA
WEBSITES: (1998-2006).Childhood obesity. February 21, 2008, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research website: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/childhood-obesity/DS00698 Torgan, Carol(2002). Childhood Obesity on the Rise. February 21, 2008, website: httpLwww.nih.gov/new/wordonhealth/jun2002/childhoodobesity.htm (1998-2006). Childhood obesity:make weight loss a family affair. February 21, 2008, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research website: http://www,mayoclinic.com/health/childhood-obesity/FL00058
 Related Sites
Teen Weight-loss: Safe Steps to a healthy weight http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/teen-weight-loss/wt00012 Fitness for Kids: Getting your children off the couch http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/fitness/FL00030 Childhood Obesity http://obesity1.tempdomainname.com/subs/childhood/
 
Annotated Bibliography 1: Parental Smoking and child obesity
Radiger von Kries, et al. "Parental Smoking and childhood obesity-is maternal smoking in pregnancy the critical exposure?." International Journal of Epidemiology, v. 37 issue 1, 2008. A study was taken in 2005 in Bavaria Germany trying to determine if there was a correlation between childhood obesity and maternal and/or paternal smoking. The study examined a total of 5899 children, 3067 boys and 2832 girls. The mean age of the children was 5.8 years old. The study was conducted outside of a school entrance at 6 different schools. They went to 3 rural and 3 urban regions. The children were given a routine health examination and their parents were asked to fill out a questionnaire. This questionnaire asked questions based off smoking habits, where they smoked, if they smoked during/before/after pregnancy.The results stated that 64% of the children did not have a parent that smoked. But the children that had at least one parent who smoked seemed to have a higher risk for becoming obese. Although the study suggested that parental smoking and childhood obesity are not confined to maternal smoking in pregnancy. This new hypothesis of the correlation between parents and smoking is a brand new concept. With further research this might be a critical point in the childhood obesity epidemic. What if we could eliminate smoking as a whole. Think of all of the children damaged by cigarettes as it is. If these studies could become more advanced and find solid evidence this study could be huge. This article has a lot to do with what I am studying. We still do not fully know how much nature/nurture effects how we turn out. Especially dealing with obesity, is it because we canít control our urges and love food to much? Or is it because we were pre-destined to becoming obese? With these studies we can determine what really is behind this growing epidemic.
 Annotated Bibliography 2: Childhood obesity & Diabetes
Weintrob."Childhood obesity complicateing the differential diagnosis of maturity-on set diabetes of the young and type 2 diabetes." Pediatric Diabetes,,2008,p. 60-64 The current obesity epidemic has caused type 2 diabetes to increase dramatically in the past 30 years. A study of a 13.5 year old boy was done after he went to the clinic for headaches and high glucose levels. His father was obese and his mother has been diagnosed with diabetes at 24. Although his mother was diagnosed with diabetes she had an average BMI. The boy had been obese since he was 6 years old. When his BMI was assessed he had a BMI of 29.8 which was above the 97th percentile for his age. He was later diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. His treatment was diet and exercise and within three months his BMI dropped to 27 and his blood pressure had lowered as well. As further research had been conducted on the boy doctors found that he did not actually have type 2 diabetes. The boy was found to have a third type of diabetes-MODY 3. This occurs in youth during maturity and it effects insulin secretion. An estimated 1-5% of the U.S. diagnosed with diabetes has this type. MODY 3 results in a mutation in any of the seven genes we possess causing a different sub-type of diabetes. What happens is that the patient with MODY has a beta-cell dysfunction with a decreased endogenous insulin secretion. Therefore it somewhat seems to mock type 2 diabetes. Although rare this is an incredible discovery-an answer to some cases of childhood obesity. With further research on this issue scientists maybe able to find a cure for this disease. Before this I had never even heard of a third type of diabetes. It makes sense though that some children are just born overweight and no one quite knew why. This might be the answer. If doctors and scientists could find medicine or ways to prevent this in children this could be a huge discovery! Childhood obesity is being studied in great depth nowadays because of the continuous rise. We want answers and we need resolutions. I feel like with all the research done there has to be ways to stop and decrease this epidemic. Not only with children with adults too. We have to find the root causes of why this is happening and this research study has gone to the root of the matter. With more research like this we will be able to make further steps in reaching our goal of preventing obesity throughout our nation.
 

Annotated Bibliography 3: Obesity throughout our Nation
Singh,Gopal K. Kogan, Michael D. van Dyck, Peter C.(2008). A Multilevel Anaysis of State and Regional Disparities in Childhood and Adolescent Obesity in the United States. Journal of Commynity Health Volume: 33, issue: 2, April 2008.pp 90-102. This article was based upon a survey study done in all 50 states to determine the causes of obesity throughout our nation. The research was done by the National Center for Health Statistics. The researchers went to all 50 states and conducted a survey study on 46,707 children and adolescents between the ages of 10-17. They wanted to calculate the prevalence of obesity throughout the United States. The national center for health statistics looked at a variety of factors that could've cause obesity. Such as the region or state the child was born, gender, physical activity level, amount of TV watched, socioeconomic status, and race. They gathered all of this information through surveys. In these surveys they also examined the parental health, stress, coping methods, and family activities. Their findings were quite remarkable. They found that the south especially Kentucky, West Virginia, Tennessee and North Carolina were twice as high as Utah. Utah had the lowest prevalence of obesity with only 8.5 %. The western region of the U.S seemed to be remarkably lower. Wyoming and Utah were the lowest. Race did in fact come into play in the predisposition of obesity. Blacks and Hispanics were significantly higher than non-Hispanic or white counterparts. Kids were affected by their lack of exercise. Children and adolescents that committed no time to exercise in comparison to children who did 5 days times per week were 63% more likely to become obese. The lack of exercise is sometimes due to factors such as video games and television. Television surprisingly was a big factor. Children/Adolescents who watched 3 hrs/day in comparison to ones that only watched 1 hr/day had a 59% chance of becoming obese! The researchers were not able to conclude any results dealing with gender but they have found that race, location, and inactivity plays a major role in the obesity epidemic. This article plays a huge role in the topic I am studying. It defines and gives percentages to the problems of obesity. It clearly states that socio-economic and certain states across our nation have a serious problem that needs to be changed. Itís funny because I think that people donít really think that socio-economic factors or region really affects the outcome of a child's health but it does. Maybe itís because it has become a cycle in certain states and health/well-being are not emphasized enough. Or maybe itís genetic that people tend to marry people from the same social-economic status and region that their genes play a role and itís just a consistent unhealthy pattern. But with this information and further research we as a nation should try and figure out how to prevent this. How to change the roles we have fallen into because if we donít the percentages will just continue to rise and it will become a more serious epidemic.


 
 CHILDHOOD OBESITY
Athens, OH

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