*Dutch Hill Rockshelter Preliminary Report of Findings
*An Examination of Late Prehistoric McFate Trail Locations
*Testing at Indian Camp Run No. 2
*Upland Bedrock Mortars and the Significance of Acorn as a Dietary Supplement in Marginal Landscapes
*Shenks Ferry Material Culture in the Ohio River Valley
*An Exploration of the McFate Taskscape: A Case for Compromise
*A Mystery at the Russell City Earthwork, Elk County, PA
*Indian Camp Run Miscellany
*Paleoindian Research in Western Pennsylvania

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Paleoindian Research in Western Pennsylvania
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Terrace at Indian Camp Run


Indian Camp Run No. 1 (36FO65) is a shallow stratified multi-component archaeological site located along the Allegheny River in Forest County, Pennsylvania. Ongoing excavations at the site have produced a number of suspected Terminal Pleistocene age tools found within buried stratigraphic contexts. One whole fluted point is included in the sample and has tentatively been identified as a Barnes point, a type which dates to approximately 10,600 rcy B.P. Some of the other tools recovered may relate to later Paleoindian complexes. This paper examines the proposed Paleoindian assemblage recovered from the site and reviews environmental conditions in the area during the Late Pleistocene /Early Holocene transition.


Indian Camp Run No. 1 (36FO65) is an archaeological site located along the east bank of the Allegheny River in Forest County, Pennsylvania, approximately three miles below the mouth of the Tionesta Creek (Fig. 1, Fig. 2). The significance of the location was first discovered in July, 1998, by the senior author while hiking along the Allegheny River. Minor erosion caused by stream runoff had exposed a number of artifacts washing from the edges of the terrace around the mouth of Indian Camp Run. The wide variety of artifacts and the sizeable stain of black midden deposited on the terrace suggested that the site was intensively utilized by prehistoric inhabitants. The majority of the artifacts observed at that time were attributed to the Mead Island tradition that occupied the central Allegheny Valley ca. A.D. 900-1300. Since little is known about the Mead Island tradition and possible relationships with other Woodland groups, an excavation was begun in 1999 and is still ongoing. As lower levels of occupation were encountered, it became clear that the site contained a Paleoindian component, which is the focus of this report.


Indian Camp Run No. 1 (36FO65) is situated on a low wooded terrace (primary T2) that directly fronts the Allegheny River immediately to the west of Indian Camp Run (Fig. 2). The site is located at UTM Zone 17, Northing: 4591780; Easting: 625580 on the 7.5' USGS Tionesta quadrangle. The site is estimated to be only four to five meters above the present river channel. Nonetheless, the alluvial terrace is stable and has been in place since the end of the Pleistocene. This region of the central Allegheny River basin of northwestern Pennsylvania is unglaciated and is included in the Pittsburgh Low Plateau section of the Appalachian Plateaus province (Berg 1980). According to Shepps et al. (1959) and White et al. (1969), the furthest advance of the pre-Illinoian age ice reached within seven miles of Indian Camp Run. Later Wisconsinan age glaciers failed to advance as close.

Indian Camp Run itself is a dynamic third order drainage that originates in the hills directly south of the site some 1.4 miles above the confluence with the Allegheny River (Fig. 2). The drainage is bounded on the south and west by the Hemlock Creek drainage and on the east by the Little Tionesta Creek. From the headwaters located near the 1600 foot elevation, Indian Camp Run drops some 560 feet in the course of 1.4 miles. The lower end of Indian Camp Run flows through what may best be described as a small gorge before opening into the terrace near the mouth of the run. The channel of the run while passing through this gorge is deeply cut and braided. Little floodplain development occurs in this area due to the rapid rate of runoff water which regularly scours the channel; eroding and continually changing the floodplain. Near the mouth of Indian Camp Run, located at the 1040 foot elevation contour, two channels enter the Allegheny River.

The primary channel of Indian Camp Run flows directly into the Allegheny River in a northward direction while a smaller back-channel flows behind the site, in effect surrounding it on all sides before passing into the Allegheny River a short distance to the west. The smaller back channel usually dries in the summer.

A second site known as Indian Camp Run No. 2 (36FO66) is located just east of the main site on the smaller adjacent terrace. Limited testing has been conducted here due to modern camping activity in the warmer months of the year. Testing at 36FO66 has produced evidence of Archaic, Early, Middle and Late Woodland occupations.


With the permission of the landowner, the Kane Hardwood Corporation, Division of Collins Pine Company, Inc., excavations at the site began in June, 1999. The terrace which houses the site is relatively small in size and only measures some 482 square meters. To date, 125 one-meter square units (Fig. 3) have been excavated by the authors, with the majority of these reaching depths of over 1 meter. Figure 4 shows a photo of the site during the 2004 field season. The excavation has not proceeded without problems. Vandals attack the site nearly every weekend during the summer months, although most acts are minor in scope. Unit walls are common targets as they are often dug into and hearth features, if left exposed, will be haphazardly dug and fire cracked rock removed. Oftentimes actors will remove the corner datum pins and use them as digging implements. One of the worst acts of vandalism occurred during the summer of 2006, when individuals actually brought shovels to the site in a premeditated act destroying excavations that were in progress.


Prior to actual testing, a grid system was devised that would serve to control the provenience of all test blocks established on site. This grid system was designed to cover the entire terrace. Using a lensatic compass, a base line was established that ran across the southern end of the site. This base line, oriented east to west, extended from the back channel of Indian Camp run to the main stem of the run. Near the center of this line another base line oriented north to south was placed creating a perpendicular “T”-like configuration. This north-south transect would extend from the farthest southern extant of the site to the northern riverside edge of the second terrace. Using the baseline, a 3 meter orthogonal grid was established over the site for the purpose of mapping topographic features and surface features such as large rocks, trees, etc. The terrace was found to measures some 482 sq. meters in size, although some of these areas are eroded and others strewn with talus from the hillside south of the site reducing somewhat the actual habitable portion of the site. The habitable site area is thought to measure approximately 200 sq. meters in size.

A 1 meter orthogonal grid for excavation purposes was then laid out across the site. At the location of the intercept of the original east to west and the north to south baselines the initial site datum was located. This unit was labeled N100 E100 with the site datum being located in the southwest corner of the unit. The values of the grid would increase in 1 meter increments in any cardinal direction. The 1 x 1 meter size unit was selected for excavation, instead of larger 3 x 3 meter units used for horizontal mapping of site topography and surface features, because the smaller size of the unit was more manageable giving the amount of work that could be completed in any giving day. This was necessary as excavations were followed by days when the site would be unoccupied and open to vandalism. To date, 125 1 x 1 meter units have been excavated at the site. Eventually larger test blocks were also incorporated into the excavation strategy. These blocks have ranged in size from 4 square meters to the largest containing 26 square meters. These larger units were assigned test area numbers from 1 through 13.

Attempts to keep elevational datums strung on pins above the ground surface proved futile, as vandals often cut the strings and pulled pins. Since the test area is generally flat, elevation measurements were plotted from a level base line at ground surface downward below ground surface (bgs) to the point of measurement. This method, as used by Kuntz et al. (2003), records the most direct measurement available from surface to artifact or feature. When soil profiles were drawn, elevational baselines were always located at a point above the ground surface and leveled. Measurements were then taken downward to visible soil horizons and to any other interesting feature in the profile. Several soil profile maps were prepared from various locations around the site, including profiles of north to south and east to west facing stratigraphy.

Due to conditions found on site, each unit was excavated in arbitrary 10 cm levels using trowels. A possible plowzone was witnessed from portions of the site which likely represented a small garden associated with a nearby historic structure. Since this plowzone was not found in all areas of the excavated site, the decision was made to bag all artifacts by levels regardless of possible mixing of the soils. Level 1 would contain all artifacts found between 0-10 cm below ground surface (bgs), level 2 would contain all artifacts found between 10-20 cm below ground surface (bgs), etc. An artifact that was found at 84 cm below ground surface would be from the ninth 10 cm level. Hoes were employed to remove the sod layer. All excavated soil was dry screened through 1/4 inch mesh hardware cloth. Artifacts were bagged and the bags labeled on site as to their provenience. Each level was assigned an arbitrary field collection (FC) number, as was any sample obtained from a feature. Important artifacts such as projectile points, rim sherds, and other diagnostics were point provenienced by measuring northings and eastings to their exact location from the southwest point of each meter unit.

As noted above elevational measurements were taken by establishing a level baseline at ground surface then measuring downward. These significant artifacts were bagged separately and assigned separate field collection numbers like those found within this report.

When features were encountered, they were mapped with their provenience in the grid system indicated. Boundaries of features were extremely difficult to discern in the Stratum 1 or A horizon level of the site which in places been disturbed by plowing. Indicators such as oxidized soils, quantities of calcined bone, charcoal, and fire cracked rock often served to distinguish features from the surrounding living floors. Once a feature was defined, it was cross-sectioned and mapped in profile and photographed before removal of the second half.

Unit level forms were used to map the one meter squares along with a series of test area maps for larger blocks. Using this method, all of the features were mapped and the provenienced artifacts recorded. A number of cameras were used to record excavation floors, wall profiles, features in plan and profile and significant in situ artifact finds. These included two 35 mm and one digital camera. The digital camera became the preferred camera over the years as photos could stored in digital form.

A number of wood charcoal, soil, and rock samples were recovered. Excavated soil from the Level 1 midden was often sifted through window screen size mesh in order to examine for smaller objects. Unfortunately it was not possible to water screen on site; so many of the soil samples were transported back to the lab for water screening. Carbonized botanicals, bone, and other small objects were recovered for future analysis. During the course of the excavation some 140 wood charcoal, soil and botanical samples were collected for 14C dating and analytical purposes. These were dried placed in aluminum foil envelopes for curation.

Over the course of several summer field seasons, the excavation proceeded from the higher Woodland period levels in the Stratum 1 (A horizon) into the lower compacted alluvial soils. During this time, an occasional non-diagnostic tool was recovered that strongly suggested that a Paleoindian occupation, but no definitively Paleoindian tools (i.e. fluted points) were recovered. Finally, in the Spring of 2004, while excavating a block of test units located near the northern, riverside edge of the site, a fluted projectile point was documented in the shallow western units. The point was recovered below Archaic period points including Brewerton, and a MacCorkle-like bifurcate in Stratum 3 (AC horizon) just above a thick mantle of creek gravel that underlies the western edge of the site. Units to the immediate east dip to significantly greater depths within the same AC horizon. This find established that this locus had been visited by Paleoindians. The fluted point and the handful of other Paleoindian tools recovered to date, demonstrate that Indian Camp Run is one of only a handful of loci currently known in Pennsylvania where Paleoindian tools that have been recovered in a sealed stratigraphic context. Although data examination is not yet complete, a decision was made to publish a preliminary report on the Paleoindian component at this time. Additional information about the Paleoindian component, including the analysis of a number of micro-tools will be published in the future as that information becomes available. The senior author has previously presented preliminary papers on the Paleoindian component at Indian Camp Run No. 1 (Myers 2005, 2007)

Sedimentary Investigations and Stratigraphy

A number of soil profiles have been mapped from various locations around the site during the past several years. The stratigraphic sequence across the site is generally consistent, with the exception that the thickness of the soil horizons varies from place to place around the terrace. Typically the thicker soil deposits are found closer to the riverside edge of the terrace, while the shallower deposits are found closer to the base of the hillslope to the south of the site.

Typical soil profile

The soil deposits on the terrace consist of a highly compacted shallow alluvium with no more than 70 cm of vertical accretion deposits mantling coarse grained lateral accretion deposits of probable late Wisconsinan age (Vento 2006) These alluvial soils were termed inceptisols by Dr. Frank Vento of Clarion University (personal communication, 2005) when he visited the site in 2005. Inceptisols are described as a soil order characterized by having one or more horizons in which mineral materials other than carbonates or amorphous silica have been altered or removed but have not accumulated to a significant degree (Bates and Jackson 1984:256). The soils are predominantly sandy loams and loam sands (Vento 2006).

The mapped stratigraphic profiles shown in Figures 5 and 6 illustrate the soil horizons visible along the east wall of Unit N111 E105. Three cultural bearing stratum have been identified at the site and include the A, C, and AC horizons.

The uppermost stratum consisted of an A horizon and was described as Stratum 1 (Field designation F3). This A horizon soil is described as a black (10YR2/1) sandy loam (Vento 2006). The A horizon included humic organic soils Oi, Oe, and Oa, capping a sandy loam plow zone or Ap horizon. The presence of a plow zone is suspected due to the mixing of soils found near the interface of the A and C horizons. The plow zone was not consistent across the entire terrace and likely represents only a small garden associated with a mid to late nineteenth century structure that once occupied the site. The A horizon soil typically reaches a depth of some 30 cm below the ground surface across the extent of the site and contains diagnostics representing 2500-3000 years of time depth. Early Woodland Meadowood projectile points have been found just below the A horizon in the subsoil.

The soil package underlying the A horizon is a C horizon that extends another 30 cm in depth approaching 60 cm below ground surface. This horizon has been designated as Stratum 2 (Field designation F4) and is described as a brown to yellowish brown (10YR5/6 to 6/6) loam sand (Vento 2006). The C horizon soil was deposited during periods of high flow velocity that may have caused intensive flood scouring of the site surface (F. Vento, personal communication, 2006). Some temporally diagnostic artifacts found in this horizon appear to have been moved somewhat vertically and horizontally as a result of flood scouring, frost heaving, tree falls, and probable later Woodland Indian pit digging and other activities (Vento 2006). These soils contain the majority of the diagnostic Archaic tools found on site.

Below the uppermost C horizon is Stratum 3 (Field designation F5), and AC horizon soil. Stratum 3 is the terminal Wisconsinan age soil from which the Paleoindian tools were recovered. The AC horizon deposit exhibited a slight increase in chroma and is more compact and sticky in nature than the superincumbent horizon soils. This soil package is a strong brown (7.5 YR4/6) loam sand to sandy loam dense AC horizon. It is clearly higher in organics than the overlying stratum and documents a short episode of stability (Vento 2006). The AC horizon extends from approximately 46 cm below ground surface to 60 to 76 cm in some locales across the site. In one area the Stratum 3 soil was documented to 90-100 cm in depth.. Stratum 3 is the lowest cultural bearing soil horizon at the site. The majority of the diagnostic Paleoindian and occasional Early Archaic tools were recovered from the AC horizon soil. It is important to note that Frank Vento (pers. Comm.. 2007) observed that the sediments in which the Paleoindian tools were recovered were find grained. This fact indicates that there was no over bank flooding and scouring which would have deflated the occupation surfaces, redepositing larger tools and removing smaller artifacts such as flaking debitage.

Below the AC horizon occurs a thick layer of creek gravel (C2). This horizon is designated as Stratum 4 (Field designation F6). These gravels continue down from approximately 60 cm to 106 cm below ground surface in the E105 profile. Excavation was continued below this level in certain areas to determine whether the creek gravels were culturally sterile. Just below the gravel and sand horizon a layer of sand (C3) designated as Stratum 5 (Field designation F7) was encountered. This C3 horizon continued extended from ca. 1.06 m to ca. 1.20 m below ground level. Below this horizon was another layer of creek gravel (C4), Stratum 6 (Field designation F8). The stratum 6 gravel or lowest C horizon extended to an unknown depth. These three later distinctive C horizons are clearly lateral accretion deposits associated with either migration of the Allegheny River channel or that of Indian Camp Run (Vento 2006).

Post-Paleoindian Components

Before examining the evidence from the Paleoindian occupation, a brief review of the post-Paleoindian components is in order. All time periods from Paleoindian to modern Historic are represented at the site. In spite of numerous episodes of vandalism on the site from campers and other individuals, 259 features have been identified and excavated. The vast majority (n=201) of these features were post molds, some associated with discernable house or structure patterns. The other 58 features were mostly hearths, with a few trash and storage pits also being identified.

One hundred forty samples including ninety-two carbon, thirty-three soil, and an assortment of botanical and bone samples were recovered from these features. Some of these samples will be submitted for 14 C assaying, while others will be curated for future analysis. To date, two carbon samples have been radiocarbon dated by Beta Analytic Laboratories. Wood charcoal samples recovered from Feature 37, a hearth associated with a Mead Island Corded Collar ceramic vessel, is dated by an assay of 990 + 70 rcy B.P (A.D. 960 +/- 70 in uncalibrated calendar years) (Beta 168785). A second wood charcoal sample was recovered with a shell-tempered Chautauqua Cordmarked ceramic vessel found in Feature 22, a hearth. This sample is dated by an uncalibrated age of 500 + 50 rcy B.P. (A.D. 1450 + 50 in uncalibrated calendar years) (Beta 148394).

Somewhat unusual in the assemblage from the Indian Camp Run No. 1 site is the remarkable preservation of many of the ceramic sherds. A number of latex casts were taken of the sherd surfaces to determine percentages of final “S” or “Z” cordage twist direction. The ceramics recovered from the site produced strong percentages (78%) of final “Z” twist cordage impressions from the predominant Mead Island component. The results of the study were published by Johnson and Myers (2004) and represent the first published frequency regarding final cord twist direction for a Mead Island tradition sample of ceramics.

Indian Camp Run No. 1 site was an important base camp for many groups over the millennia. To date some twenty-seven components have been identified, ranging in age from Paleoindian to recent Historic, with every cultural period represented in between. One or more Native American contact period components replete with over one hundred European trade items have been identified. This Historic assemblage is thought to date from the late 17th century to the late 18th century. The most intensive occupation of the site was by Mead Island tradition groups who repeatedly occupied the site during the years A.D. 900-1300 in uncalibrated radiocarbon years. A large assemblage of ceramics, projectiles, and stone tools has been ascribed to this group, while another significant later Late Woodland component is characterized by shell-tempered Chautauqua Cordmarked pottery. This group appears to correspond to Johnson’s (1999) French Creek phase, ca. A.D. 1275/1300 to 1400 in uncalibrated radiocarbon years.

A Middle Woodland occupation seems to be represented by the presence of a Chesser Notched projectile point. Interestingly, a Middle Woodland Raccoon Notched projectile point was recovered from testing on the adjacent terrace at nearby Indian Camp Run No. 2 (36FO66). A series of significant Early Woodland occupations of Indian Camp Run No. 1 were identified. These utilizations are documented by the recovery of Adena, Meadowood, Forest Notched, and Cresap-like projectile points - all representative of the Early Woodland period.

Similarly, a significant Terminal Archaic occupation has also been noted. This component is characterized by Susquehanna Broadspear-like projectiles, all manufactured from exotic lithics such as Vanport (Flint Ridge) and Upper Mercer cherts from Ohio. A large blade was also recovered that was manufactured from lithic material identified (J. Holland, pers. comm., 2005) as South Mountain rhyolite imported from Adams County, Pennsylvania. A number of steatite fragments have also been found in association with the Susquehanna Broadspears. Genesee projectiles have also been recovered from the Terminal Archaic period.

A smaller number of earlier Archaic diagnostic artifacts have been recovered as well. Late Archaic period projectile points include Steubenville, Lamoka, Brewerton, and Otter Creek forms. Middle Archaic points include Stanly-Neville like forms. Early Archaic period forms include a bifurcate and Lost Lake, Charleston, and St. Charles specimens. Stringtown and Plano-like forms have also been recovered.

The Paleoindian Component

Unfortunately, no features, shell, or bone has been encountered in the putative Paleoindian stratum F5 horizon at Indian Camp Run No. 1. Small fragments of carbonized material were found in approximate association with a fluted knife (FC-426), but the nature and origin of the carbon is unknown and may not provide a reliable date. No hearths associated with proposed Paleoindian age tools have been identified. Therefore, we have relied on the diagnostic stone tools and site stratigraphy to identify the cultural affiliation of this component. Because of the fact that the terminal Pleistocene age soils exhibit to a degree, mixing of the artifacts, some of the tools presented in this report could relate to the Late Paleoindian component or even to later Early Archaic occupations. While there are clearly a number of classic Paleoindian tool forms in the site sample some others are admittedly questionable as Paleoindian tools or otherwise undiagnostic of the time period. They have been included into this report because of their close association in the ground with bonifide Paleoindian tools.

To date, 37 tools have been identified that may be associated with the Paleoindian occupation of Indian Camp Run No. 1. Most of these artifacts were found in a tightly circumscribed area of test units located on the north central edge of the terrace (Fig. 3). Twenty-nine of the thirty-one tools were found in Stratum 3 (AC horizon deposit), while the other two items were found in higher levels and are considered Paleoindian based solely on the morphology of the artifact.

The tool types include projectile points/knives (pp/ks), possible late stage preforms, scrapers, drills and perforators, a possible gouge, an assortment of distal, proximal, and medial biface fragments, and a sundry of utilized flakes with various functions. Many of the tools appear to have been broken while in use; others appear to have been reworked and may have been used by later groups. At least two of the recovered tools may relate to the Late Paleoindian period. All 31 putative Paleoindian tools will be described and illustrated, as follows. All of these tools were recovered in Stratum 3 (F5) unless otherwise stated.

Fluted Projectile Point/Knife (FC-410)

To date, one fluted projectile point (Fig. 7) has been recovered and has been typed as a Barnes point (Roosa 1965). This specimen was recovered in the northeast corner of Unit N115 W101 at N115.83 cm by W101.93 cm in Level 5, Stratum 3 (AC horizon) at a depth of 42 cm below ground surface (bgs). The specimen was recovered while the floor of the unit was being toweled. Although dislodged during toweling, a cast of the base of the original in situ location was present and recorded.

The fluted point is lanceolate in outline with convex blade edges. The point appears to have been resharpened at least once. It measures 55.51 mm in length, but the tip of the point is missing. This length compares nicely with the mean of 61.2 mm for Barnes points, as described by Deller and Ellis (1992), especially considering that the point would have been longer if it was complete. The widest portion of the point is near the upper middle portion of the blade and measures 23.41 mm. This falls within the range suggested by Deller and Ellis (1992) of 15 to 25 mm with a mean of 21.5 mm. The length to width ratio is 1:2.24. The thickness of the pp/k is 9.85 mm which is somewhat greater than the typical Barnes (Deller and Ellis 1992), however it must be noted that the point does not appear to have been properly thinned during manufacture. The width to thickness ratio is 1:2.55.

Slight constricting occurs near the base giving the projectile its “fishtail” like appearance. One ear is present while the other is missing. The base is concave with a “squared off” appearance. The basal cavity is 3.65 mm deep which is near the mean of 3.9 for the Barnes form (Deller and Ellis 1984). The basal width is 19.91 mm which falls within the range of 14-20 mm for the Barnes type (Deller and Ellis 1984).

Two long flutes were removed from the obverse face of the projectile with the left flute measuring 25.39 mm and the right flute measuring 29.65 mm. A single short broad flake was removed at the base which traveled only 6 mm. Thinning of the base in this manner is diagnostic of the Barnes finishing technique (Roosa 1965). The reverse face is unfluted. The pp/k is made from Onondaga chert which is in a state of decay known as tripoly (J. Holland, pers. comm., 2005.). The Indian Camp Run No. 1 fluted point (FC-410) was found in nearly direct association with a second biface (FC-409) that appears to have been being fashioned into a nose end scraper, as described later in this report.

FC-410 Barnes fluted point moments after discovery

Rejected Point/Knife (FC-414)

This tool (Fig. 8) was found in Unit N114 W100 at a location of N 114.41 cm, W 100.84 cm at 49 cm bgs in Stratum 3. The specimen measures 38.61 mm in length. It is lanceolate in outline with a slightly fishtailed base that exhibits some grinding; otherwise the base is unmodified. A portion of the tip has been flaked off and the artifact appears to have been used as a knife following this damage. The tool exhibits diagonal outré passé flaking on the obverse face of the specimen. No thinning flakes have been removed on the reverse face. The maximum thickness is 6.69 mm and is found on the upper portion of the specimen near where the tool was broken during manufacture. The tool was manufactured from a white/tan Gull River (Huronian) chert.

Fluted Knife (FC-426)

This example (Fig. 8) was recovered in unit N113 E101 at a location of N 113.90 cm, E 101.99 cm at 84 cm bgs in Stratum 3. This specimen is lanceolate in form and measures 43.00 mm in length. Lateral flaking is present around the edges. The widest portion of the knife is near the midpoint of the blade and measures 23.92 mm. A flute has been struck along the ventral face that measures 24.85 mm in length. The reverse face is unfluted. The proximal end of the knife is narrow measuring 17.00 mm in width and is unfinished and includes a platform. Maximum thickness is 8.19 mm. The tools was likely affixed to a bone handle and used as a knife. It was made from gray Clarence Onondaga chert.

Ovate Knife (FC-419)

This example (Fig. 8) was found in Unit N113 E100 at a location of N 113.53 cm E 100.81cm at 74 cm bgs in Stratum 3. The specimen is oval in outline and measures 38.15 mm in length. Lateral flaking is present around the edges. Maximum width is 24 mm at just below the mid-section of the specimen. The maximum thickness is 7.11 mm. The material is a gray chert, possibly Moorehouse Onondaga, and exhibits a limey cortex on the reverse side. The base was likely not finished due to an impurity in the chert in the basal area. The tool appears to have been used as a knife.

Biface/Knife (FC-417)

This artifact (Fig. 8) appears to have been used as a knife and is unfluted. This specimen was recovered in unit N113 E100 at N 113.39 cm E 100.85 cm at 74 cm bgs. The example measures 42.25 mm in length. The specimen exhibits a square stem with a thick wide convex base that has been heavily ground. The blade edges are triangular in shape; one edge is straight while the other is somewhat excurvate. The maximum width of the specimen is at the shoulder and measures 26.24 mm. The width of the base is 25.72 mm. The stem measures 23.75 mm in length. The maximum thickness measures 8.25 mm near the base. The tool was fashioned from a dark black and gray banded lithic material with limey inclusions similar to Upper Mercer chert.

Biface/Knife (FC-416)

This biface or possible preform (Fig. 8) was discovered at a depth comparable to that displayed by the Barnes fluted point (FC-410) and in the same general area, only around 60 cm away. It was found in Unit N116 W101 at a location of N 116.68 cm W 101.84 cm at 51 cm bgs in Stratum 3. The specimen is generally lanceolate in outline with slightly excurvate edges near the upper portion of the specimen and straight edges near the base. The tool measures 46.24 mm in length. One edge exhibits a slight shoulder. One small thinning flake has been removed. The artifact appears to be unfinished. Lateral flaking is present along the blade edges. The base is straight to slightly concave and measures 22.75 in width. Maximum thickness is 7.41 mm near the middle of the specimen. The specimen appears to be made from a non-local black banded chert which may be Upper Mercer chert.

Various knife and biface forms

Flake Tool with Notch (FC-452)

One flake tool exhibiting a notch (Fig. 9) was located in Test Area III in Stratum 3, 70-80 cm bgs. This tool may also have been used as a perforator as a slight spur was chipped on the proximal end of the flake. This tool measures 36.60 mm in length, 27.51 mm in width at the widest point, and is 6.5 mm thick. The notch is 4.70 mm in depth. This tool was manufactured from a gray pebble chert that may be Moorehouse Onondaga chert.

Flake Knife/Scraper (FC-186)

This flake knife/scraper (Fig. 9) was found in Unit N108 E100 in Stratum 3, 60-70 cm bgs. The tool is relatively large, with a length of 51.15 mm, and a maximum width of 31 mm. Maximum thickness is 6.30 mm. The tool exhibits marginal edge retouch along three edges and exhibits a graving spur. It is made from mottled gray Clarence Onondaga chert.

Utilized Flake (FC-185)

This tool (Fig. 9) was found in Unit N108 E100 in Stratum 3, 50-60 cm bgs. The tool is somewhat trianguloid in outline and was manufactured on a thin flake with a maximum thickness of 2.50 mm. The tool measures 32.13 in length and has a maximum width is 25.09 mm. The tool was manufactured from a lithic material reminiscent of Clarence Onondaga.

Flake Endscraper (FC-474)

This specimen (Fig. 9) was recovered in Unit N112 E103 in Stratum 3. The tool was manufactured on a flake and measures 35.00 mm in length, 28.00 mm in maximum width, and 5.12 mm in maximum thickness. The rounded distal end has been retouched as well as heat treated. The base exhibits a slight concavity and has also been retouched along the basal edges. The tool may have been used as an endscraper. The lithic material is an Onondaga chert that appears to be the Clarence variety.

Flake Knife (FC-451a)

This unifacial cutting tool with a convex edge (Fig. 9) was found in while screening stockpiled soils from Test Area #6 in Stratum 3. It was fashioned from a flake and measures 31.08 mm in length. A backed surface used for holding the tool is present opposite the cutting end. The tool appears to be made from glacial Clarence Onondaga gray chert.

Various flake tools including notch

Multiple Piercer-Graver (FC-523)

This tool (Fig. 10) was found in test unit N117 W101 in Stratum 3, 50-60 cm bgs. The tool, manufactured on a flake, exhibits two piercing projections that were both formed by unifacial retouch. A purposefully formed medial ridge runs to the tip of both piercers. A back was formed on the opposite margin of the piercers that aids in holding the tool between the thumb and forefinger. The length of the tool across its widest margin measures some 32.10 mm. The width measured from backed edge to the longest projection is 25.58 mm. The length of the two piercers is approximately 4 mm with a width at the base of between 5 to 7 mm. One piercer exhibits evidence of heat treating. The tool was manufactured from a gray chert of indeterminate origin.

Flake Knife/Graver (FC-457)

This artifact (Fig. 10) was found in Test Area V in Stratum 3, 60-70 cm bgs. The specimen was fashioned from a flake and has a worked uniface cutting edge on one margin and a single retouched beak on the opposite edge. The tool measures 27.8 mm in length and 24.21 mm in width. The tool was manufactured from Clarence Onondaga gray chert.

Drill Distal Section (FC-429)

This artifact (Fig. 10) represents the tip or distal section of a drill. The specimen was found in Test Area VII in Level 6. The artifact measures 29.25 mm in length, with a maximum thickness of 6.25 mm. It was manufactured from a dark black blue chert, possibly Upper Mercer chert. There is a stain on the tip of the tool that may be blood residue.

Nosed End Scraper (FC-409)

This possible nosed end scraper (Fig. 10) was recovered in nearly direct association with the Barnes fluted point (FC-410). It was found in the north-central portion of Unit N115 W101 in Stratum 3, 40-50 cm bgs. The tool, which was being formed on a biface, measures 50.41 mm in length, and 23.78 mm in maximum width. The tip measures 7.89 mm and the base 16.71 mm in width. Maximum thickness is 14.42 mm and occurs near the mid-section. The lithic material is the brown/yellow Gull River (Huronian) chert. The tool is unfinished and exhibits a brown iron stained cortex.

Piercers, gravers, drills

Fluted Biface Midsection (FC-126)

This specimen (Fig. 11) was found in Unit N110 E100 in Stratum 1, 10-20 cm bgs. While this tool was found in the upper stratum of the site some 20 cm below ground surface, it is still considered to be a classic Paleoindian tool form. It is the midsection of a large fluted biface. Flutes were struck from both faces of the tool. Lateral flaking appears along the margins. The piece exhibits a maximum thickness of 8.5 mm. The distal margin exhibits battering suggesting use as a wedge (pièce esquillée) . A lobe that was formed along the right proximal margin which was perhaps the ear of a finished point, appears to have been fashioned into a drill or perforator. The tool is manufacture from Clarence-like Onondaga chert.

Snapped Cutter (FC-176)

This tool (Fig. 11) appears to have functioned as a saw, scraper, or cutting tool for bone or wood and was fashioned from a biface fragment. There are also multiple spurs, including one each at the distal and proximal ends, which indicate that the tools likely served as a graver as well. Small gravers (coronet) indicative of snapping appear on the opposite or non-scraping edge. The saw or scraping edge has been ground smooth from use. This tool was found in Unit N109 W100 in Stratum 3, 60-70 cm bgs. The tool measures 37.34 mm along its long axis, 24.67mm in maximum width and, 7.91 mm in maximum thickness. The lithic material is similar to mottled gray Clarence Onondaga chert.

Wedge (FC-413)

One possible wedge (Fig. 11) (pièce esquillée) was recovered. This tool was found in unit N115 E101 at a location of N115.2 cm, E101.42 cm in Stratum 3, 48 cm bgs. The tool is rectangular in shape and was formed from a fluted biface that broke from reverse hinge fracture. The ventral face exhibits a deep flute down the middle of the sample. Lateral flaking is visible on both sides of the flute. The edges are alternately beveled. Light battering on the margins suggests the tool was used as a wedge (pièce esquillée) . The specimen measures 27.79 mm in length, 28.32 mm in width, and 7.95 mm in maximum thickness. It is manufactured from a gray blue chert similar to Clarence Onondaga.

Snapped cutter, wedge, and fluted biface midsection

Biface Distal Sections (FC-423 and FC-428)

Two large alternately beveled biface distal sections were recovered (Fig. 12). FC-428 was found in Unit N113 W100 in Stratum 3, 50-60 cm bgs. At the break, the biface was 29.35 mm in width and the maximum thickness is 8.09 mm. FC-423 was found in Test Area II in Stratum 3, 60-70 cm bgs. This biface was smaller than FC-428, measuring 24.8 mm in width at the break. Maximum thickness was 6.9 mm near the break. FC-423 was manufactured from Onondaga gray chert, possibly Clarence, while FC-428 appears to be Clarence Onondaga gray chert.

Biface Midsection (FC-451)

This tool (Fig. 12) was found in Test Area VI in Stratum 3, 60-70 cm bgs and represents the midsection of a biface. It exhibits a shallow flake removal scar which runs along the long axis of the midsection. This remnant flake scar may be indicative of an attempt at fluting the tool which likely broke during this process. Collateral flaking is present along the lateral margins of the tool which measures 5.90 mm in thickness. The material appears to be glacial Clarence Onondaga gray chert.

Fluted Biface Midsection (FC-489)

This specimen (Fig. 12) was found in Unit N110 E105 in Stratum 3, 40-50 cm bgs. The tool is a biface midsection that exhibits collateral flaking on the lateral margins. A small flute measuring a minimum of 10.7 mm in length and 8.3 mm in width was struck from the obverse face of the tool and terminates in a hinge fracture. The reverse face appears thinned by the removal of a number of flakes. Attempts at fluting the tool appear to have forced both the proximal and distal ends to separate from the remaining midsection. Maximum thickness is 5.85 mm. The lithic material is an Onondaga chert that appears to be of the Clarence variety.

Fluted Basal Section (FC-228)

This artifact (Fig. 12) was recovered in unit N108 E102 in Stratum I, 10-20 cm bgs well above the AC soil horizon; therefore, it is not clear if this is Paleoindian in origin. The specimen measures 16.74 mm in height. It exhibits two thinning flake removals on the obverse face. An attempt at a third flake placed directly over the two may have broken the projectile during manufacture. The blade exhibits lateral flaking on the marginal edges. The base is concave with two ears and a possible fluting nipple located in the center of the base. The base expands to a maximum width of 21.62 mm with basal indentation of 2.4mm in depth. The lithic material is Gull River (Huronian) chert.

Basal Section Early Stage Biface (FC-100)

This possible Paleoindian preform (Fig. 12) was found in Unit N110 W101 in Level 4. The tool was broken before completion of the finished product but not likely due to fluting. The piece still exhibits some of the cortex on the reverse side. The obverse side exhibits collateral flaking along the margins. A basal thinning flake was removed that ran for 17.4 mm near the center of the tool. The base appears to exhibit the remnant of a possible fluting nipple near the center. The base is 27.60mm in width and the tool is 8.3 mm in maximum thickness. The tool appears to be manufactured from Gull River (Huronian) chert.

Reject Fluted Base (FC-427)

One fluted base (Fig. 12) was recovered which could be called a reject, broken while attempting to flute the preform. The base represents one of the deepest artifacts found on the site. The specimen was recovered in Unit N113 E102 at a location of N 113.80 cm E 102.1 cm in Stratum 3, 87 cm below ground. The specimen measures 23.8 mm in length across the fragment. The maximum width is 26.56 mm when measured at the distal end while and 22.79 mm at the proximal end. A flute was struck on one face that measures 18.85 mm in length and 11.14 mm in width. The base is straight and is unfinished. Maximum thickness is 6.81 mm near the distal (broken) edge. The material is mottled Clarence Onondaga gray chert.

Biface distal, medial, and basal sections

Biface Knife (FC-477)

This tool (Fig. 13) was found in Unit N111 E105 in Stratum 3, 60-70 cm bgs. It measures 39.58 mm in length and 8.41 mm in maximum thickness. One blade edge, the cutting edge is moderately excurvate, while the other is slightly excurvate. The tool is beveled to some degree from resharpening. The medial ridge running down the center of the tool offers a place to secure the tool most likely by hand. This tool is somewhat similar to the “sway backed” knife type found at the Plenge site Kraft 1973:85) The lithic material is an Onondaga chert that appears to be the Clarence variety.

Biface/Drill-Willow Leaf Blade (FC-169)

Another artifact of possible Paleoindian origin is a biface (Fig. 13) fashioned from a flake with a narrow distal end suggesting use as a piercer rather than a knife-like cutting tool. This tool was found in unit N110 W100 in Stratum 3, 50-60 cm bgs. The tools measures 36.81 mm in length and 17.12 mm in width near the mid point. The base is broken. Maximum thickness is 6.30 mm. A flake has been removed from one face to presumably aid in handling or hafting of the tool. The tool was manufactured from a light gray/blue chert, possibly Upper Mercer.

Biface Blade (FC-421)

This specimen (Fig. 13) was recovered in Unit N113 E100 at a location of N 113.12 cm E100.21 cm at 74 cm bgs in Stratum 3. Characteristics of the knife-like artifact include a long linear and narrow appearance being more than twice as long as wide. The tool is plano convex cross section with a steep medial ridge on the dorsal face. Collateral flaking is present on this surface. The bulb of percussion is found near the narrow distal end. The ventral surface has been retouched along both margins. The length is 39.8 mm and the width is 18.91 mm near the mid-section. The proximal end is straight and measures 14.8 mm in width. Maximum thickness is 6.3 mm near its mid-point. The specimen was manufactured from what appears to be Clarence Onondaga gray chert.

Various biface forms including Willow Leaf knife

Exhausted Lanceolate Point (FC-644)

This point (Fig. 14) was found in Test Area 11 West (2mX2m square) at N111.85 E100.77 at an elevation of 58 cm bgs in Level 6, Stratum 3. The tool is lanceolate in shape measuring 33.45 mm in maximum length. The base measures 16.85 mm in width. Two slight shoulders separate the haft region from the blade where a maximum width of 19.58 mm occurs. The maximum thickness is 7.15 mm near the lower center portion of the tool. There is a slight concavity to the base suggesting that the tool may have at one time exhibited ears. A series of thinning flakes have been removed from the base. The lithic material is an unknown banded gray chert.

Recycled Lanceolate Point (FC-425)

This point (Fig. 14) was found in Unit N114 E101 at N114.47 E101.78 at an elevation of 82 cm bgs in Stratum 3 (AC Horizon) in Level 9. The maximum length of the tool is 33.80 mm. The maximum width occurs at the shoulder of 20.09 mm. The base measures 18.00 mm in width. The tool exhibits a thinning flake removal (probably not a true flute) that extends for 19.40 mm along the center of the obverse face of the specimen. The reverse face is unthinned. The projectile is steeply beveled from resharpening and has been reworked from most likely a lanceolate form into a stemmed form. The blade is triangular in outline while the stem is straight on one margin to slightly incurvate on the other. The stem was likely added to aid in hafting the tool which was likely used as a knife. Several small narrow thinning flakes have been removed from the slight basal ears. The lithic material appears to be a gray Moorehouse chert.

Flake Knife (FC-501)

This artifact (Fig. [12] 14) was found in Test Area 9 west in Stratum 3, near the top of level 7. The knife measures 47.10 mm in length and is 20.51 mm in maximum width. One blade edge is excurvate while the other is mostly straight. One blade edge is steeply beveled. Lateral flaking is present on the margins. The tool was manufactured from a thick flake and is plano convex in cross section. Maximum thickness is 6.65 mm. The lithic material is Clarence Onondaga chert.

Endscraper/Sidescraper (FC-518)

This multipurpose tool (Fig. 14) was found in Unit N117 W102 in Level 5. The tool measures 32.51 mm in length. Maximum width is 19.89 mm. Maximum thickness is 9.30 mm near the proximal end. The tool was made on a thick prismatic flake or block of chert. The distal end tapers appears to have been used as an endscraper or gouge like tool while one margin has been retouched and was possibly used as an endscraper. The tool is manufactured from Upper Mercer chert.

Miniature Lanceolate Point or Biface (FC-493)

This point (Fig. 14) was found in Unit N113 E104 at N113.85 cm by E104.11 cm at 52 cm bgs in Level 6, Stratum 3. This miniature biface measures 29.90 mm in length and reaches a maximum width of 15.48 mm near the midsection. The maximum thickness is 5.87mm also found at the midsection. The basal width is 14.05 mm. The lithic material appears to be gray, mottled, Clarence Onondaga chert.

Flake Knife (FC-516)

This particular specimen (Fig. 14) was found in Unit N118 W102 in Stratum 3 (AC Horizon) in Level 7. This piece appears to have been used as a knife. The tool was manufactured on a flake and exhibits a narrow end that was likely used for hafting. Both edges of the tool exhibit flaking along the margins. The material appears to be a black chert, possibly Upper Mercer chert.

Various biface and knife forms, miniature lanceolate and end scraper/side scraper

Lanceolate Parallel Flaked Plano Projectile Point/Knife (FC-487)

This tool (Fig. 15) was found in the northeast corner of Unit N110 E104 in Stratum 3 at 58 cm bgs. At this elevation in this particular unit, the tool was located only a few centimeters above Stratum 4, the old creek bed soils. The tool is lanceolate in outline and measures 53.15 mm in length. The maximum width is 28.12 mm near its mid point. The base is straight and measures 18.48 mm in width. There is slight bilateral edge indentation approximately 5 mm above the base. Maximum thickness is 6 mm. Parallel flaking is present along both margins and forms a medial ridge that runs along the center of the tool. The tool has been sharpened by lateral edge retouch along the margins. The base is unfluted, but has been thinned by striking flakes from the basal lateral margin inward (unifacial retouch) on both faces of the blade instead of moving a flute upward from the base. It is made of dark gray chert that appears to be Moorehouse Onondaga.

Stringtown Stemmed Projectiles (FC-476 and FC-533)

Specimen FC-476 (Fig. 15) was found in Stratum 3 in a 1 x 2 m unit designated as N111 E103 and N111 E104, in level 6. The tool has a distinctive square stem with spurs occurring at opposite ends of the base, which is characteristic of the Stringtown type. This tool appears to have been used as a knife rather than a spearpoint. The tool is incomplete; the tip is missing and the remaining portion of the tool measures 30.45 mm in length. The base measures 12.50 mm in length and is 19.50 mm in width when measured at the spurs. A small portion of one spur is missing. The stem area located above both spurs is only 19.15 mm in width. Width at the shoulders is 22.63 mm. Maximum thickness is 7.30 mm. The tool has been heat treated but the lithic material is unknown.

Specimen FC-533 (Fig. 15) is a basal section of what appears to be a Stringtown Stemmed point. This tool was found in Unit N118 W101 in Stratum 3, 40-50 cm bgs and is characterized by spurs both basal edges. The base measures 21.95 mm in width while the stem extends some 19.3 cm in length. One shoulder is visible just above the haft and at the point where the projectile was broken. The projectile measures 20.36 mm in width at the break. Lateral flaking is present on both margins of the stem. This tool may have been fashioned from an earlier lanceolate projectile. Lithic material is likely Clarence gray Onondaga chert.

Possible Plainville projectile and Stringtown Stemmed forms


Before discussing the implications of the Paleoindian component at Indian Camp Run No. 1, it is worth reviewing what the environment may have been like during this time, as conditions were very different than those observed today.

Late Pleistocene/Initial Holocene Climate

Much of northwestern Pennsylvania was affected either directly or indirectly by glaciation during the Pleistocene. Four major periods of glaciation are identified in northwestern Pennsylvania (Shepps, et al., 1959; White, et al., 1969). From oldest to youngest these glaciations include two Pre-Illinoian, Illinoian and Late Wisconsinan (Woodfordian) periods (Crowl and Sevon 1999).

During Late Wisconsinan times, the large Laurentide and smaller Cordilleran glaciers covered much of the northern United States and nearly all of Canada for many thousands of years. At their climax, the two ice sheets resembled the modern ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica, with the estimated thickness reaching 3,000-4,000 meters (Porter 1988:2). At around 21,000 to 20,000 years ago, the Late Wisconsinan ice margin in the lower Great Lakes region advanced out of the Erie-Ontario basin and reached its maximum extent in the south (Porter 1988:2). Ice along the southern margin separated into lobes (Mickelson et al. 1983). Ice flow into northwestern Pennsylvania was via the Erie lobe (Crowl and Sevon 1999). During the glacial maximum, the climate was much cooler than today. According to Porter (1988) analysis from sites outside the glacial limit suggest that average surface air temperatures declined non-uniformly across the continent, with maximum lowering reaching 10 degrees Celsius (18 degree Fahrenheit) or more, with an average estimated temperature depression of about 5-7 degrees Celsius (9-12.6 degrees Fahrenheit). In areas bordering the ice sheet, in periglacial zones, temperature changes were especially pronounced (Porter 1988).

In western Pennsylvania, the region south of the glacial advance, including the terrace at Indian Camp Run, was located in this periglacial zone. According to Delano (1983) the region south of the glacier was situated in a periglacial zone that extended southward through the Appalachian Mountains into Virginia. The climates were affected deep into North Carolina (Pewe 1983). Higher elevations throughout the region were characterized by sparsely vegetated surfaces and subject to severe freeze thaw conditions which would continually transport and mix soils via solifluction or by more massive gelifluction flows. Prehistoric colluvial debris flows (remnants of this period of deglaciation) are numerous in the non-glaciated portion of northwestern Pennsylvania, due to increased rates of mechanical weathering and subsequent slope movement (Pomeroy 1983).

Following the glacial maximum ca. 19,000 years B.P., terminal glacial period included the Mackinaw Interstade which represents a series of recessional stadia that culminate in the partial withdrawal of ice from the Ontario-Erie basin ca. 13,850 B.C. This was followed by a short readvance of the Port Huron Stade, ca. 13,000 B.P. This was followed by a major recession into the Erie and Ontario basins of the Laurentian ice sheet ca. 12,750 B.P. This retreat corresponds to the onset of milder conditions of the BØlling and AllerØod events ca. 12,500-13,000 B.P.

Recent research suggests that the most prominent of the climate changes occurred around 13,000 B.P. (onset of the BØlling event), and were followed by a subsequent drop in temperature at around 12,000 B.P. (onset of the Younger Dryas event) (Marchitto and Wei 1995). These events were followed by a sharp rise in temperatures at around 11,500 B.P. near the beginning of the Holocene. During this long period of Late Pleistocene deglaciation a tremendous amount of water was released into proglacial lakes resulting in considerable change to the topography of the broader region.

Lantz (1984) has suggested that the glaciated region of northwestern Pennsylvania at the end of the Pleistocene was a mosaic of kettle lakes, shallow post glacial lakes, and large shallow swamps. At some time after 12,800 B.C., the Glaciated Allegheny Plateau of western Pennsylvania was ice free following the retreat of the Lavery ice (Dreimanis 1977, Drost et al. 1960, White et al. 1969). This was likely in response to the rise in temperatures that occurred prior to, and during, the BØlling event.

Interestingly, the arrival of the regions first Paleoindian inhabitants seems to occur around the time of the Younger Dryas stadial which saw temperatures drop to near full glacial conditions. This event began some time around 10,990 B.C. and lasted some 1150 to 1300 years before abating around 9690 B.C. (Fiedel 1992). The causes of the Younger Dryas stadial are not fully understood. This event was likely caused due to the long warming trend during the last glacial period. As the Laurentide ice sheet melted, a vast fresh water lake (Lake Agassiz) formed in the area of today’s Great Lakes (Broecker 2006). After 9,250 B.C. the ice margin had retreated so far north that it’s meltwater no longer drained southward through the Mississippi-Ohio system (Baker 1983:118). Since meltwater was no longer flowing southward into the Gulf of Mexico, another outlet was required. By 11,000 B.C. Lake Agassiz likely drained through the Great Lake and Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean. Research suggests that a flood of fresh, cold water poured into the northern Atlantic (Broecker 2006) and disrupted the thermohaline ocean circulation, which in turn caused the Younger-Dryas cooling episode. There are a number of possible scenarios regarding the path of the fresh water flow into the Atlantic, although most agree that Glacial Lake Agassiz broke free and supplied the fresh water. No scenario is completely convincing (Dincauze 2000:161).

So it would seem that people began populating the Indian Camp Run region during a sharp cold snap. However some researchers have suggested that the Younger Dryas event may have had little effect on people entering the upper Allegheny River valley. Webb, III et al. (2003) have suggested that a possible warming trend occurred in western New York at the time of the Younger Dryas. They state that an “abrupt warming by 4 to 10 degrees Celsius occurred either before the beginning of or during the Younger Dryas period.” Pollen maps examined by Shuman et al. (2002) suggest that warming occurred in the Midwest during the Younger Dryas. The warming in the Midwest combined with a cooling on the east coast requires an area of transition in between. Western New York State is in this area (Webb, III et al. 2003:15). Similarly northwestern Pennsylvania may likely have been included in this area of transition.

During the following Boreal stage (ca. 8000-10,000 14 rcy ago), the first stage of the postglacial era, the region was likely dry and warm as temperatures rose and environmental conditions also improved. Both the topography and the environment began to more closely resemble that of the present day. As conditions improved, the peri-glacial zone, which included a park and tundra environment, was later replaced with conifers and a few deciduous species as the Late Pleistocene came to a close. Both the floral species, and the faunal species that had once been described as mega fauna, would gradually be replaced by species more typical of modern times.

An examination of the pollen records from Divers Lake, Genesee County, the most complete pollen diagram currently available for northwestern New York State, by Miller and Futyma (2003) suggests the following: An open boreal forest occurred following the retreat of glacial ice. High percentages of Picea (Spruce) occurred prior to 11,900 + 100 14 rcy B.P., although significant amounts of Pinus (Pine) and Quercus (Oak) pollen were also found to be present. Pollen of other conifers such as Juniperus (Juniper) were present. Smaller amounts of mixed deciduous species were also present at that time. A decline in Picea (Spruce) followed with a dramatic increase in Pinus (Pine) and Quercus (Oak), Betula (Birch), Castenea (Chestnut) and other deciduous species after 10,230 + 120 14 rcy B.P. Acer (Maple) began to become established at this time. Although the percentages vary, the forests in and around Diver’s Lake following the retreat of glacial ice and the park and tundra conditions, appear to have always included a mixture of evergreen and deciduous species that have changed over time as the climate has continued to fluctuate. The forest composition was likely somewhat similar in the Allegheny River valley of northwestern Pennsylvania.

While no faunal remains have been recovered from the Paleoindian deposits at the Indian Camp Run No. 1 site, faunal assemblages found elsewhere in the eastern United States suggest a wide range of food sources were available and a rapid change in species occurred during the Pleistocene/Holocene transition. Carbone (1974) has noted that within a time span of approximately 2000 years, the character of the environment and subsequently the fauna changed completely. This assessment based on studies at the New Paris Sinkhole No. 4 and at Hosterman’s Pit (Guilday 1967). At New Paris, late glacial fauna with a distinctive boreal character persisted until 11,300 + 1000 rcy B.P., while at Hosterman’s pit, located 65 miles northeast of New Paris, a completely modern faunal assemblage was found in place by ca. 9,240 + 1000 years rcy B.P.

Exactly what the Paleoindian inhabitants at Indian Camp Run would have been hunting for and subsiding on is uncertain, but a near modern faunal assemblage was likely in place at the time of their occupation. By the onset of the Holocene, the mega fauna of the Pleistocene were no longer present. Plants, animal, bird, and fish species would generally resemble present day species, with the exception that more species would have been present than could be found today.

Other Paleoindian Sites in the Area

Indian Camp Run No. 1 is not the first Paleoindian site to be reported in Forest County. Two other sites producing Paleoindian diagnostics have been chronicled (Mayer-Oakes 1955). At the Squire Farm site (36FO3), three fluted points were documented by E.S. Carpenter in 1941 (Mayer-Oakes 1955:46). Two specimens from the Wheeler site (36FO9) are also recorded (Mayer-Oakes 1955:47). One appears to be a rejected fluted point reworked into a scraper while the other is similar to the Late Paleo Agate Basin variety. These tools were found in disturbed plow zone context. Two other fluted points were reported from Forest County by Fogelman and Lantz (2006:115), both of which were identified as the Eastern Clovis/Gainey type and were apparently surface finds. The three fluted points reported by Mayer-Oakes (1955) from 36FO3 were not included in Fogelman and Lantz’s (2006) study, as their provenience apparently could not be verified.

In nearby Venango County, Fogelman and Lantz (2006:217) documented three fluted points, two of which are the Eastern Clovis/Gainey type and the third is a Crowfield type. They also noted five sites in Venango County that reportedly displayed evidence for Paleoindian presence (Fogelman and Lantz 2006:217). Two of the three sites (36VE229 and 36VE240) produced two of the fluted points documented in Fogelman and Lantz’s (2006) study.

Paleoindian Life at Indian Camp Run No. 1

The Paleoindian component at Indian Camp Run No. 1 conforms to Lantz’s (1984:211) lowland waterside campsite type and is considered by the authors to be the typical Paleoindian site found throughout the unglaciated portion of the Allegheny River Valley. A similar conclusion was detailed by Lantz (1984) for the Glaciated Allegheny Plateau. The typical site would likely be a small campsite located along the river’s edge, often at a stream confluence, and where a small number of tools associated with the killing, butchering, and processing of game animals were discarded. The Paleoindian inhabitants likely constructed some type of shelter at these semi-permanent locations, although evidence of such a shelter would be difficult to detect. Of Lantz’s Paleoindian site types, the lowland waterside camp was the most common type with 17 of the 25 sites found on the glaciated section of the Appalachian Plateau conforming to this type (Lantz 1984:211). Of the several Paleoindian sites located in the unglaciated portion of the Appalachian Plateau along the Mahoning Creek drainage in southern Jefferson County, the majority conform to the low waterside camp (R. Young, personal Communication, 2004).

While terminal Pleistocene sites found on the banks of the major rivers tend to be covered by deep alluvial deposits, the situation at Indian Camp Run is somewhat different. The Paleoindian component is not as deeply buried as those found on other active floodplains, where artifacts can be covered by deep alluvial deposits. By comparison to sites such as Shawnee-Minisink, where the Paleoindian artifact bearing strata reached depths of ten feet (3.05 meters) (Dent 1991:122), the Paleoindian artifacts found at Indian Camp Run No. 1 were recovered from deposits with a maximum depth of around 1 meter or less below the ground surface. The Paleoindian tools have been consistently found at locations just above gravels and sands that strongly resemble an ancient creek bed. The gravels of this creek bed are thought to represent the old stream channel of Indian Camp Run which has proven to be culturally sterile.

One limitation of this shallow stratigraphy is that one cannot easily identify any narrow soil deposit or estimate exact depths where Paleoindian tools may be recovered. The oldest (terminal Pleistocene) soils do however show an increase in chroma when exposed and are more densely compacted than the soils above. This reddish zone (AC zone) is ca. 14 cm in thickness which poses certain difficulties regarding the relationships and ages of the tools recovered within. The depths of the Paleoindian tools range from 42 cm bgs (the Barnes fluted point) to 87 cm bgs (the deepest fluted tool documented). This range covers portions of the arbitrary 10 cm excavation levels 5 through 9. Certain areas of the site are quite shallow while others are deep. The closer the excavation gets to the base of the hill slope, the shallower the stratigraphy becomes. Similarly, the closer one tests near the edge of the terrace towards the rivers edge, the deeper the soils.

Regardless of the locations of the test units on the terrace, either in the deeper or shallower areas, the Paleo tools are generally overlain by later tool forms in general succession. The Barnes fluted point was found along with the biface awl/drill at 42 cm BGS. Both of these tools were found below the depth of an Early Archaic period MacCorkle-like bifurcated projectile point found in Level 4, which was found below Brewerton-like projectile points (also found in level 4) and well below all Woodland age items. Some suspected Paleoindian tools and other early tools were found at depths above younger tool forms. One explanation (F. Vento, personal communication, 2006) is that this mixing of artifacts does occur on sites where heavy flooding and frost heaving overturn soils resulting in the displacement of artifacts, especially when the soils are sandy, silty and loamy in nature such as the C horizon soils found on site. Bioturbation also likely accounts for the mixing of some tools found on site.

The significance of the site and it’s attraction to prehistoric inhabitants may be linked to the site’s location. The site’s nearly level terrace at the river’s edge, adjacent to a clean water supply provided by Indian Camp Run, offered an ideal camp spot. The river itself held a wide variety of aquatic resources.

Indian Camp Run enters the Allegheny River directly across from the upper end of Holman’s Flats, a large stretch of bottom lands that extends some 2.5 miles along the north bank of the river (Fig. 2). Holman’s Flats undoubtedly offered abundant supplies of floral and faunal resources. If conditions were unfavorable for a river crossing to Holman’s Flats, the terrace at Indian Camp Run would have been a logical place for mobile bands to camp until conditions improved.

Just upriver from Indian Camp Run and below the confluence of the Tionesta Creek, the Allegheny River passes through a constricted corridor where a number of islands have formed clogging the river channel (Fig. 2). Steep cliffs occur on both sides of the river and very little floodplain/terrace development exists in this area, making traversing of the valley floor difficult by foot. Foot travelers, both man and beast, would have been forced to ascend into the uplands above the river or hop from island to island to continue along the river. This portion of the Allegheny River Valley was known in historic times to have posed potential problems for travelers. The Venango-Conewango trail which led from present day Franklin to Warren passed near the site. General William Irvine traveled the path while exploring the Donation Lands and describes the journey as follows: “From Oil Creek to Cuskakushing (Tionesta), an old Indian town, is about seventeen miles, the whole of the way is barren, high mountains, not fit for cultivation; the mountain presses so close to the River that it is almost impassable, and by no means impracticable [practicable] when the river is high, then travelers either on foot or horseback are obliged to ascend the mountain and proceed along the summit” (Wallace 1987:175).

For game species crossing the constricted river, hopping from island to island (when possible), arrival on Holeman’s Flats might be their first opportunity for a well needed rest and grazing. This could have also presented a hunting opportunity to the Paleoindians. In a somewhat similar situation as the Vail site in Maine, Indian Camp Run No. 1 could have functioned as an observation post to track the movements of game species. According to Gramly and Funk (1990:12), there is evidence that Paleoindians of the Northeast were adept at choosing strategic places to intercept animals and establish camps. The Vail encampment, with its nearby kill and butchering sites occupied the Magalloway River valley narrows, where projecting rocky hills create an S bend. Migrating animals would have been concentrated in this stretch of the valley making them easy marks for hunters lying in ambush. Similarly, Paleoindian hunters camping at Indian Camp Run may have observed game animals resting and grazing on Holeman’s Flats and planed an ambush.

The Paleoindian Tool Kit at Indian Camp Run No. 1

The various Paleoindian tools recovered at Indian Camp Run No. 1 suggest that activities related to the hunting and butchering of game, and the processing of meats, hides, and bone were all being conducted. The tool forms include biface-knives, flake knives and tools, drills, scrapers, perforators, a possible notch, and a possible gouge. Several of the tools appear to have been broken during use . It is interesting to note that little debitage indicative of core preparation and blank reduction was found associated with the Paleoindian tools in the AC Terminal Pleistocene deposits. The majority of the debitage seems to be indicative of biface thinning and tool resharpening instead. According to Deller and Ellis (1992), this suggests that the primary stages of lithic reduction were not initiated on site but rather at locations close to the chert sources. At least three and perhaps four late stage bifaces found on the site may represent preforms for fluted points. These were likely chipped at another location , perhaps near a lithic source. Sites with a high proportion of tools to debitage are, according to Carr and Adovasio (2002:35), the most common type of Paleoindian site in the East.

The artifacts found in the Paleoindian assemblage were manufactured from high grade western New York chert, Upper Mercer chert, and pebble cherts available as glacial outwash along the Allegheny, River. Specific lithic types identified in the site sample include Onondaga Clarence chert, Gull River (Huronian) chert, Upper Mercer chert, and possibly Onondaga Seneca and Moorhouse chert. The high grade western New York cherts were likely quarried at an unknown location in western New York and brought into the Allegheny Valley as early stage bifaces or blanks. The Upper Mercer chert was also probably quarried, with the nearest source being found in the Pennsylvania system, Pottsville Group (Holland 2003) in Mercer County, Pennsylvania. Paleoindian tools found in the region are typically manufactured from Upper Mercer chert, which Lantz (1984:212) has called the “most preferred” lithic source by Paleoindians in the region.

The glacial pebble cherts originated in Ontario and western New York and were deposited by the glaciers into western Pennsylvania (Holland 2003) and washed down the Allegheny River all the way into the Ohio River. Lithic sources are not readily found in the vicinity of the site. The closest known pebble chert source known by the senior author is found along the Allegheny River in the vicinity of Warren, Pennsylvania, some 30 miles to the north. It is possible that pebble chert sources did at one time exist in the vicinity of the site. As Meltzer (2002:160) has suggested, “Many gravel bars that might have been accessible in terminal Pleistocene times and used as cobble sources are now deeply buried and thus invisible to geologists and archaeologists alike.” Typically, what glacial cobbles can be found in the region are small and of poor quality. Lantz (1984: 212) has noted that “glacial and water tumbled Onondaga pebbles do not easily lend themselves to large blade production”.

The use of localized lithic material should not be considered uncommon in Paleoindian assemblages. George (1976), in examining the interior upland Russo Farm site assemblage in Allegheny County, noted that many of the tools were manufactured from “local” glacial pebble cherts. Not every Paleoindian group represents the pioneer population of a region denoted by their use of exotic cherts procured along their migration path. Some groups were likely local inhabitants that lived in a particular region their entire lives and knew where to gather local lithic supplies.

A photo of the whole fluted point (FC-410) from Indian Camp Run No. 1 was viewed along with the metrical statistics by Dr. Christopher Ellis (personal communication, 2005) of the University of Western Ontario in London who stated that if “the projectile had been found in Ontario, I would not hesitate to call it a Barnes.” Barnes projectile points are diagnostic of the Parkhill Complex in the Great Lakes region and are thought to date to around 10,800 to 10,500 B.P. in uncalibrated radiocarbon years (Ellis and Deller 2000:253). There are no associated radiocarbon dates for the Barnes type. The age has been estimated based on a relative chronology for the fluctuations of glacial Lake Algonquin beaches over time. Barnes projectiles are found sporadically throughout the Great Lakes region and were originally typed by Roosa (1965) in central Michigan (Wright and Roosa 1966). The Indian Camp Run No. 1 site is regionally close to the other Parkhill Complex sites found throughout Michigan and southern Ontario. Key sites associated with the Parkhill Complex include Parkhill, Fisher, and Thedford II in Ontario, and Barnes and Leavitt in Michigan.

Cumberland-Barnes projectiles are not commonly found in Pennsylvania. According to Carr and Adovasio (2002:20) the Cumberland-Barnes-like projectiles made up some 16% of the sample viewed in their recent study. Diagnostic attributes of the Barnes projectile include the distinctive “fishtailed” appearance, delicate ears and moderate expansion of the lateral edges for the base, and the presence of a squared off basal concavity described by (Deller and Ellis 1992) and also called “U” shaped by Storck (1983:Plate 5IIa-b). The removal of two long flutes/thinning flakes and the attempt by the placement of a third removal placed over the long flutes was an attempt at the Barnes finishing technique as described by Roosa (1965:98). Barnes projectiles are considered similar to the Cumberland type (hence the term Cumberland-Barnes - see Gramly and Funk 1990), including the size range, and are included in the Cumberland Cluster described by Justice (1987). Roosa (1965:98) however, suggested that the Barnes finishing technique was not characteristic of the Cumberland type in the samples that he viewed

Other tools found at the site are similar to those recovered from various Paleo assemblages in the Northeast and Great Lakes regions. For example, the willow leaf shaped biface (FC-169) is a tool found commonly on Crowfield age sites (Deller and Ellis 1992:127) and nearly identical specimens have recently been reported from the Fisher site in Ontario (Storck 1997:74), a large possibly single component Parkhill Phase site. Tools of similar form to the willow leaf biface have been described by Dragoo (1990) as “twist drills” and have been recovered at Bull Brook (Byers 1954) and from Wells Creek (Dragoo 1973). Another tool, a possible piece esquillee (FC-413) is not typically considered diagnostic of the Parkhill Complex and was not found on sites such as Parkhill, Barnes, Dixon and McLeod (Deller and Ellis 1992). However, like the willow leaf biface (FC-169), these tools were reported from the Fisher site by Storck (1997). One tool was identified as a notch (FC-452), which according to Gramly (1992), are well known in eastern fluted point assemblages. The so called unfinished bifacial awl/drill or nosed endscraper (FC-409) that was found in direct association with the Barnes fluted point (FC-410), also has correlates in the Northeast. A nearly identical example of this tool form also manufactured on a biface is pictured from the Potts site in Oswego County New York (Gramly and Lothrop 1984:149, Fig. 4 S). At the Plenge site in New Jersey these types of tools are described as heavy drills or perforators and those too were manufactured on a biface Kraft (1973). These tools would appear to have a similar function as the beaked scrapers found at the Fisher site (Storck 1997:77) and the narrow/wide end scrapers recovered from Thedford II (Deller and Ellis 1992: 64). In the latter two cases the tools appear to have been formed on flakes rather than bifaces.

Many of the tools appear to have been broken while in use.. Two fluted basal biface sections (FC-427, FC-228) are included in the site sample. Both of these specimens were likely used as knives and broken during the preparation of a hide or other similar function. Similarly, three biface mid-sections (FC-451, FC-489, and FC-126) all exhibit fluting and/or thinning by flake removal on at least one face of the specimen. One of the three biface mid-sections (FC-126) once broken appears to have been reused as a drill on one heat treated end, while the other end exhibits moderate battering indicating it could have been used as a pièce esquillée. Two large alternately beveled biface distal sections (FC-423 and FC-428) are also included in the sample. While these may be later Early Archaic tool forms, no definite conclusion can be reached without viewing the medial and basal sections. They could have easily been fluted lanceolates points as well. These too were likely lost to use fracture.

Several tools appear to have been used as knives. Some eight tools (FC-410, FC-487, FC-501, FC-417, FC-426, FC-414, FC-419, and FC-416) seem to fit this category including one fluted (FC-410) and one basally thinned (FC-487). Six of these are bifaces while (FC-186) and (FC-501) were fashioned on large flakes. FC-426, although smaller in size, is highly reminiscent of the St. Louis fluted knife form described by Perino (1985:334) and Gramly (1992:48). FC-417 iexhibits a straight sided stem a may relate to the possible Late Paleoindian Stringtown component.

There are a number of less diagnostic tools that include utilized flakes,and a drill tip (see FC-451a, FC-429, and FC-185 that could be attributable to multiple time periods but have been included here because of the depths in which they were found, and their nearby association with other diagnostic Paleoindian tools. One tool, a pièce esquillée or wedge (FC-413), appears to have been notched on one end which has suggested a possible later affiliation. The tool appears to be too wide to have been an Early Archaic projectile and it was clearly manufactured on a lanceolate form which was deeply fluted down the ventral face. The piece also exhibits a reverse hinge fracture. It appears that this piece was a fluted biface mid-section used as a wedge and possibly later picked up and re-used by later occupants of the site who may have attempted to notch the tool. FC-457 was a multi- function tool and exhibits a graving spur on one edge and was used as a cutting tool on another edge. These are very common Paleoindian tool forms.

The tool described as a snapped cutter (FC-176) is similar to tools commonly found at Paleoindian sites in the Northeast. They are the most abundant tool form found at the Potts site (Gramly and Lothrop 1984:133) and Vail site (Gramly 1982:41) and likely occurred in the Debert site assemblage (Gramly 1982:41). Snapped tools have also been reported from Parkhill (Ellis and Deller 2000:129) and Thedford II (Deller and Ellis 1992:69)..

One multiple piercer/graver (FC-523) has been recovered from the site and is similar to the coronet graver form described by Gramly (1992:22). This tool is also similar to the description of the graver documented by Moeller (1980:60-62) from the Templeton site on which deliberately flaked projections were created by unifacial retouch. According to Gramly (1992:32) these types of tools are found in every Paleoindian phase and coronet gravers, while rare, are found in Clovis assemblages (Gramly 1992:22). Similar piercers/gravers were found at the Parkhill site (Ellis and Deller 2000:133) and double spurred gravers have also been reported from the Fisher site (Storck 1997).

No classic trianguloid Paleoindian endscrapers were found in the site sample. Although found at sites such as Parkhill (Ellis and Dellar 2000), Thedford II (Dellar and Ellis 1992), and Fisher (Storck 1997), they were virtually absent from the assemblage recovered at the Phil Stratton site, a Cumberland/Barnes encampment located along the Red River in Logan County, Kentucky (Gramly 2005).

Two other projectile points appear to be Late Paleo in age (FC-487 and FC-476). One so called knife form (FC-487) appears to be a finished Paleoindian tool with the exception of fluting. The base has been thinned by striking flakes from the lower margin inward (unifacial retouch) on both the obverse and reverse faces of the tool. There is slight bilateral edge indentation approximately 5mm above the base. This projectile point strongly resembles the Plainville Plano type described by Jackson (1998, 2004), which was said to be similar to Midland and Plainview types. This point may also conform to Prufer and Baby’s (1963:20) description of Plano Complex projectiles. They stated that the lanceolate types “range in configuration from very narrow, thin, and long to relatively short, wide and thick. As a rule, though not always, they taper to a narrow base which may be convex, straight, or slightly concavo-convex or sinuous”. The Indian Camp Run No. 1 specimen may be similar to Prufer and Baby’s (1963:20) description of the “short and wide variety”, but it should be noted that the specimen looks nothing like a long slender tapered Agate Basin or Angostura types.

Two projectiles sharing affinities with Stringtown Stemmed projectiles have been recovered (FC-476 and FC-533). The tool described as FC-476, while fragmentary, is virtually identical to those shown from the Stringtown site (Prufer and Baby 1963:42, Fig. 26), including bilateral spurs on the base. The second specimen FC-533 is the base of a possible Stringtown Stemmed form. According to Prufer and Baby (1963:43), “as scattered specimens they would not be considered part of any known Palaeo-Indian complex. From the context at Stringtown, as well as from their similarity to square-stemmed points here and at other sites where they invariably turn up in what appear to be indisputable Plano associations, it seems clear that these peculiar artifacts are within the range of the square-stemmed projectile points defined as Palaeo-Indian”. Considering the depth at which this projectile was found, Level 6, 50-60 cm bgs at Indian Camp Run No. 1, a possible Late Paleoindian association should be considered. Lantz (1984:218) has noted that Stringtown Stemmed projectiles are numerous in Beaver County, Pennsylvania.

In an attempt to temporally place the Indian Camp Run No. 1 assemblage, an examination of proposed Paleoindian chronologies in the eastern United States and Great Lakes region was conducted. A Paleoindian chronology cannot be discussed without examining the data from the Meadowcroft Rockshelter (36WH297) in southwestern Pennsylvania, which is located approximately 110 air miles southwest of Indian Camp Run. Individuals occupying Meadowcroft Rockshelter were the earliest known inhabitants in the Ohio River Valley and some of the earliest known inhabitants in the Americas, being termed Pre-Clovis. Thirty-nine of the radiometric assays run from the Meadowcroft sample postdate 12,800 B.P. If the deepest dates associated with cultural material are averaged, then humans were present in the Ohio drainage by ca. 15,950 B.P. (Adovasio 1993:207). It is even possible that Early Man was in the Ohio River valley as early as 17,650 B.C. (Adovasio and Carlisle 1986:7), although the date has a large range of error, some 2,400 years. There are a growing handful of sites in the eastern United States that are thought to be pre-Clovis in age, including Cactus Hill (McAvoy 1997:179) located along the Nottoway River in Sussex County, Virginia, and the Topper site, excavated by Albert C. Goodyear, located along the Savannah River in Allendale County, South Carolina (Anonymous 2006)

In the Great Lakes region, a suggested Paleoindian chronology has been proposed by Deller (1989), Deller and Ellis (1986), and Stork (1988) for the various fluted point traditions found there. This chronology has been largely formed based on geochronological estimates where various Paleoindian tool forms have been dated in relation to the age of fluctuating lake shore levels. If actual 14C dates could be run the chronology mentioned below would tighten to a degree such as the dates associated with the Parkhill related Michaud-Neponset phase detailed below. The authors favor a Great Lakes regional chronology as numerous components found at Indian Camp Run exhibit a Great Lakes Paleoindian regional flavor. The chronology begins in the north, in areas completely covered by glaciation. Clovis like projectile points are said to be rarely found in such areas. According to Carty and Speiss (1992), Clovis projectile points have been found at the Shoop site (Witthoft 1952) in Pennsylvania and the small Dam site in Maine (Speiss and Wilson 1987:47-52). Clovis projectiles have also been recovered at the Lamb Site in Genesee County, New York (Gramly 1999). Recent excavations at the Shawnee-Minisink site, located on the Delaware River near Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, have produced what researchers describe as “one of the most intact Clovis assemblages in the East” (Gingerich 2004). Gramly and Funk (1990:21) have suggested that the fluted Clovis points diagnostic of the western Plano complex are slightly earlier than the eastern counterparts.

With that in mind, the proposed chronology in the Eastern Great Lakes region typically begins with Gainey (now Shoop-Debert/Gainey) projectile points which have also been termed Eastern Clovis, ca. 11,000-10,650 rcy B.P. This horizon is followed by the Parkhill Complex (ca. 10,550 rcy B.P.) with the diagnostic Cumberland-Barnes point. The Parkhill Complex is synonymous with the Middle Paleo period as defined by Gardner and Verry (1979) and Anderson (1990) who have defined the period based on the presence of fishtailed/waisted bases including Cumberland, Suwanee, and Simpson types in the Southeast. Recently, Spiess et al. (1998:235) defined a new phase for the New England-Maritimes region. The so called Michaud-Neponset phase is closely related to, although slightly later than, the Parkhill phase of the eastern Great Lakes region, and also exhibits strong ties with the Mid-Atlantic region. Dates associated with the Michaud-Neponset tend to fall between 10,070 to 10,310 (2 standard error range) rcy B.P. (Speiss et al. (1998:238). The 6LF21 (Templeton) site (Moeller 1980) has been placed into the Michaud-Neponset phase as well and has produced a similar radiocarbon age of 10,190 +/- 300 rcy B.P. (Moeller 1980:31). The Paleoindian chronology continues with Crowfield (ca. 10,550-10,350 rcy B.P.) and the still later Holcombe Beach (ca. 10,350 rcy B.P.), and Hi-Lo points (ca. 9,500 rcy B.P.).

The proposed even later non-fluted Late Paleo or Plano period is somewhat problematic, with disagreements occurring over whether to call diagnostic types of this time period Paleo or Archaic (Peterson et al. 2002:127). The un-fluted point of the Late Paleoindian period is dated from around 10,000 to 8000 rcy B.P. and possibly extended to ca. 7000 to 6000 rcy B.P. This temporal assessment was based on cross-dating with better known unfluted Plano point types found in the Great Plains (Peterson et al. 2002:123). Types such as the lanceolate parallel flaked Plano types and perhaps Stringtown Stemmed projectiles could possibly fit into this time period. Recent research in Ontario suggests that Plainville points may fit best morphologically and temporally between Crowfield and Holcombe or perhaps Holcombe and Hi-Lo (Jackson 2002). Suggested dates for the Plainville point are 10,000 to 9,800 rcy B.P.(see Jackson 2002: Table 2.2).


The preliminary evidence from Indian Camp Run No.1 suggests that during Paleoindian times, the site served as small dual camp/habitation site and a butchering/processing station. The site was first visited by some of the region’s earliest inhabitants, near the time of the Terminal Pleistocene/Early Holocene transition. Based on the stratigraphic evidence as examined by Dr. Frank Vento of Clarion University, and the tools found therein, the site is currently the oldest known site found on the shores of the Allegheny River.

The site represents the rarest of site types in the East: that is one where buried Paleoindian tools have been recovered from terminal Pleistocene deposits. In fact, Indian Camp Run No. 1 is one of a small but ever growing number of sites found throughout northeastern North America where buried Paleoindian deposits have been recovered. Unfortunately due to flooding and frost heaving on the multi-component site, some of the Paleoindian artifacts are mixed with later aged tools which does not provide a clear window on the past as do some buried single component Paleoindian sites.

Still, some important diagnostic Paleoindian tools have been recovered at Indian Camp Run No. 1 to date. The sample includes one whole fluted point typed as a Barnes like PP/K, which is diagnostic of the Parkhill Complex and likely dates to around 10,600 rcy B.P.. In addition, three other projectile points may be related to some Late Paleoindian complexes including Plano.

Hopefully this paper will serve to provide other researchers with a basic reference guide to Paleoindian tradition tool kits found in the Central Allegheny River basin. It is hoped that future excavations at Indian Camp Run No. 1 and other sites will provide additional data regarding these enigmatic individuals that occupied western Pennsylvania some 10,000 years ago.


The authors wish to thank to following organizations and individuals for help with this project. First and foremost, the authors wish to thank Blaine Puller, Land Manager of the Kane Hardwood Division of Collins Pine Corporation for permission to conduct long term excavations on the site. We also wish to thank Dr. Christopher Ellis who examined the metrical attributes and photographs of the assemblage and provide his opinion regarding the Barnes-like projectile; Dr. Stanley Lantz for his comments regarding the tool types found at the site; Dr. Frank Vento for his site visit and examination of the soil profile; Jack Holland for his analysis of the chert types and tool forms, and Robert E. Young for his conversations regarding all things Paleo and his digital reconstruction of the fluted projectile in Figure 7. The authors also wish to thank Bill Tippins for his editorial skills in producing this paper and Dr. William C. Johnson and Dr. Mark McConaughy for their editorial comments which greatly enhanced the paper.


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