*Dutch Hill Rockshelter Preliminary Report of Findings
*An Examination of Late Prehistoric McFate Trail Locations
*Testing at Indian Camp Run No. 2
*Upland Bedrock Mortars and the Significance of Acorn as a Dietary Supplement in Marginal Landscapes
*Shenks Ferry Material Culture in the Ohio River Valley
*An Exploration of the McFate Taskscape: A Case for Compromise
*A Mystery at the Russell City Earthwork, Elk County, PA
*Indian Camp Run Miscellany
*Paleoindian Research in Western Pennsylvania

October 2014
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Indian Camp Run Miscellany
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The Allegheny River near Indian Camp Run. Site is located near the right central portion of the photograph

The Indian Camp Run site is located on a small terrace that fronts the Allegheny River a few miles below the village of Tionesta in Forest County, PA.

This photo is of the terrace at Indian Camp run taken from the hill just southwest of the site area.

The site was initially discovered by the author while hiking along the Allegheny River in 1998. At that time a number of artifacts were found eroding out from the banks of the river. Also of note was the fact that the terrace itself was found to be covered in dark black midden soil in many places attesting to the significance of the location. Some of the original artifacts witnessed that day appeared to relate the Mead Island tradition that occupied portions of the central Allegheny River between circa. A.D. 970 to 1300 (Lantz 2004). Due to the fact that little is currently known about the Mead Island occupation of the Allegheny River an excavation was planned for the following summer.

Testing was first initiated at the site on June 1, 1999 and continued until September of 2010. To date some twenty-seven individual components have been identified (others exist) suggesting an occupation that spans more than 10,000 years in time. Every time period from Paleo-Indian to recent Historic is represented in the sample of artifacts recovered from the site.

Interpretations of this important campsite are currently in the early stages of development. This paper entitled "Indian Camp Run Miscellany" is a work in progress that will ultimately evolve into a simple prehistory of the Allegheny region of northwestern Pennsylvania. Until the research can be completed the author has provided for interested researchers a preliminary prehistory supported by an assortment of photographs that details the results of the ten year investigation.

Additional photos will be added as they become available. These photos can provide archaeologists with a visual reference guide to the types of cermaics, projectiles, stone tools, site features, and other items that could be potentially located while conducting archaeological investigations in the central Allegheny River sub-basin. The researchers at this website encourage interested members of the public to contact us regarding the conclusions posted on this site. If we are wrong on any subject we will tell you. Archaeology is far from an exact science and new finds change existing ideas and theories on a frequent basis.

This particular webpage will examine certain components that have been identified to date in chronological order from the most recent to earliest. Not all of the recognizable components recovered will appear on this website at the present time as many require additional research before being posted on-line. The culture history presented below should be considered only a brief overview of the various time periods and artifact assemblages discussed for each.

The prehistory of Indian Camp Run begins below:

Time Periods-Proto Historic (A.D. 1580-1635)/Contact Era (circa A.D. 1635-1770)

Just when the earliest trade good arrived at Indian Camp Run is the subject of some speculation. Based on the characteristics inherent in the sample a relative age of between A.D. 1690-1750 has been suggested. Some of the items however may in fact be earlier in time dating from the middle 1600's. Several Kaolin Pipe fragments were analyzed by Dr. Stanley Lantz (ret) of the Carnegie Museum of Natural History who suggested they had a late 17th century origin. Other items such as the small "sand" beads appear to date closer to the French and Indian War era and later.

From a communique with Steven Warfel of the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission in Harrisburg, PA who viewed photographs of some of the trade items, the following information was culled.

Mr. Warfel writes:

"The "hair pipe" is nearly identical to ones found at the early 18th century Conestoga Indian Town site (36La52) in Lancaster County. Most of ours measure 4.5-4.75 inches long [see Figure 38 in Barry Kent's book, Susquehanna's Indians (1984), item at top] Likewise, the illustrated glass bead types, including the so-called "sand beads," are prevalent at Conestoga Indian Town. Barry Kent dates the Conestoga Town site, excavated by the Museum Commission, to the period 1690-1740".

During the mid 18th century the area of the Allegheny River between Hunter Station and East Hickory was home to various Native American groups that had been displaced by war and European expansion. The Six Nations, by the Treaty of Stanwix, sold their Susquehanna lands to the English which meant that groups inhabiting the Susquehanna valley would be forced to leave, including those living at Wyalusing and Shamokin. The Moravian missionary David Zeisberger would follow and was able to convince the church fathers that the future of the missionary effort lay in the Ohio country where the main body of the heathen Delaware had been pushed following Pontiac's War (Weslanger 1972: 284).

In 1767 Zeisberger established a small mission near the mouth of the Tionesta Creek in the midst of a number of mixed Munsie and Mingo villages known as Goshgoshing. Kent (1981) has identified the occupants as being Munsie Delaware and Fox Indians. These refugee villages were settled a few years before Zeisberger arrived in 1765. The Goshgoshing name was derived from Gosch-gosch hog with the locative signifying place of hogs. In all there were three Goschgoshing villages, one 2 miles above and the other 4 miles below the central village the mouth of the Tionesta Creek (Donehoo 1928:66).

Zeisberger was not well received by the many of the Indians when he first reached the Allegheny River. He was in conflict with the shaman Wangoman who continually attempted to control the populous do to their belief that he possessed witchcraft and that their lives were in his power (Wallace 1991:40). He was also not popular with the Seneca chiefs who objected to his presence on their lands (Weslager 1972:284).

Another problem encountered by Zeisberger was the poor growing conditions found throughout the Allegheny Valley in the vicinity of his mission. The land was poor and the Indians had difficulty raising corn and subsequently depended on hunting and fishing to feed their families (Weslanger 1972: 284)

. According to (Loskiel 1794) April 7, 1769 was the date in which the station at the mouth of the Tionesta was abandoned. Along with the Christian Indians Zeisberger moved 6 miles upriver to a mission in which he named Lawunahhannek or middle stream place (Donehoo 1928: 66). Lawunahhannek was located near two other villages known both as Hickory Town. Lawunahhannek would exist for only a year and was eventually abandoned. Zeisberger would eventually move his group to a place he named Friedensstadt on the Beaver Creek (Weslager 1972: 285).

The nearest of the refugee villages to Indian Camp Run was Lower Goshgoshing village. Lower Goshgoshing was situated at an area known as Holeman's flats was located across the river from Indian Camp Run. The exact location is unknown. It is possible that inhabitants from that village could be a source for some of the trade items found at Indian Camp Run

. The name Indian Camp Run according to a local informant was said to be derived not from the village located across the river but from a camp located somewhere in the headwaters of the run. Whether this information is true or folklore remains to be seen. Located a few miles down river from Indian Camp run in Venango County, PA was a village described by Kent (1981) as ?ussunnadohtaw (First Letter Missing) Old Town. The dates and the identity of the occupants are unknown.

The French were likely responsible for introducing the first trade items into the region as they had early outposts at the mouth of French Creek (present day Franklin) and at Buckaloons (Irvine). The British also had constructed an outpost at the Buckaloons which for a number of years was an important Seneca village as well as a refugee center for Delaware, Shawnee and other displaced groups (Lantz 1975).

A number of groups living in the region could have been resposible for bringing trade goods to Indian Camp Run. As we will see below we have recovered a variety of beads including small 'sand' bead types along with French and English gun flints, musket balls, and a 'hair pipe', among a sundry of other items. The answer as to who brought the trade goods to Indian Camp Run is not likely very straightforward.

Approximately one hundred items have been recovered that can be positively identified to the so called Proto-Historic/Contact (pre Colonial circa A.D. 1580-1770) period, although some of the items such as the T.D. pipe could have had long histories of use.

Examples of European glass trade beads

Glass Beads: A total of 56 blue, white and black glass beads were recovered during excavation. Artifacts of this nature have their origins in Europe and were traded largely with the various Iroquoian groups including the Seneca who laid claim to the Allegheny River. Where the beads were manufactured is unknown however some possibilities include, the Netherlands, France and possibly Italy. European manufactured beads were often produced by one country and then sold to another so the possibility exists that while the beads may have been manufactured in the Netherlands for example they may have reached the Iroquois via the French.

The Beads were classified according to Kidd and Kidd's (1970) method of classification where each type is assigned a specific roman numeral and letter depending on size, shape, style and method of manufacture. Tubular beads of the IA, IIA and IIIA varieties Kidd and Kidd (1970) were identified in the Indian Camp Run assemblage. According to Kidd and Kidd (1970) tube beads were drawn beginning when a gather of molten glass was placed on the end of a blowpipe. A pocket of air was then blown into in the center of the molten glass. Another rod was placed at the opposite end and upon which both ends were drawn apart to form a long tube. They were then cut into various sizes and are usually very small. They were in effect mass produced.

The IIA variety white beads were the most common seemed to closely match the IIA11 through IIA15 varieties of small and very small monochrome, opaque and translucent sand beads. Due to the age of the beads it was not always possible to determine the exact color such as the difference between white and oyster white, hence the need to place a range on the beads i.e. IIA12-15. It must be noted that no exact match of Kidds bead descriptions could be found on their chart regarding the very small sand beads. They clearly do not describe circular shaped white sand beads that are as small as the smallest white beads found at Indian Camp Run. They mention circular beads that are small in size that range in diameter from 2-4 mm, but no very small circular white beads. The Indian Camp Run sand beads range in size from 0.82 mm to 1.88mm. The larger of the white beads in the Indian Camp Run sample conforming to the small variety ranged in size from 2.43mm to 2.59mm. Sand beads seem at home in a later chronological placement of circa. 1750.

One small tubular monochrome blue bead possibly an opaque variety was recovered. This type may be a IIA37 or IIA41. This bead was found within a few cm of lead .56 caliber musket ball. The bead is of small size, circular in shape 3mm in diameter. Another variety recovered was one type IIIA "Straw" or tubular polychrome bead. It appeared to be a IIIA11 variety which is described as navy blue in color. This bead type exhibited a gray layer and a blue core and was ground on both ends. It measured 3.15 mm in width and was 8.11 mm in length. It was found in association with a small white IIA12 variety bead.

Brass clasp found in association with "straw" bead.

One small tubular monochrome black bead was recovered that seemed to match Kidd and Kidd's (1970) IA2 variety. This bead was small in size and translucent to light producing a somewhat dark red or root beer like color when held up to a light. It was found in the same context as a .45 caliber musket ball.

Catlinite bead (hairpipe)

Hairpipe: Two fragments of a catlinite hairpipe were recovered during the 2002 field season. Hairpipes are long tubes placed in one?s hair for ornamental purposes. Catlinite is not native to the eastern United States and is found in quarries in Minnesota and South Dakota (Kinsey and Custer 1982 PA Arch Vol. 52 No. 4-3). The hairpipe measures slightly more than 4 inches in length (109mm) and is rectangular in shape measuring 5.59 mm in width and 7.05 mm in height. The drilled orifice measures 2.25 mm in diameter. According to Turnbaugh (1979) items produced by Native Americans such as catlinite became fashionable during the 18th century as the period was marked by a revival of native made goods.

French and English gunflints and musket balls

Gunflints: Eight gunflints manufactured from lithic material originating in Europe were recovered. Six are described below. These gunflints are prismatic in shape and vary in color from amber to a lighter grayish color. The amber colored flints are smaller in size measuring: 1). 20.76 by 18.55 by 6.32 mm in thickness; 2). 17.59mm by 19 mm by 6.01 mm in thickness; 3). 19.69 mm by 17.18 mm by 5.65 mm in thickness. The gray gunflints measure as follows: 1). 26.59 mm by 24.03 mm by 7.3 mm in thickness; 2). 25.88 mm by 23.29 mm by 8.59 mm in thickness; 3). 20.09mm by 17.89mm by 5.59mm in thickness. Lantz (1980) has noted that typically the amber colored flints are thought to be of French manufacture while the grey flints are British in origin.

Musket Balls: Ten lead musket balls have been recovered. The majority measure to nearly .45 caliber (.4375) in diameter while others are larger, one measuring approximately .57 caliber (.5625) and another (.6125) or potentially a .62 caliber gun. Three lead balls are ?mushroomed? indicating it has been fired. Typically a deer or other animal when shot was brought back to camp and skinned resulting in the pulling of the spent balls from the dead carcass. A firm date has not been established for the musket balls other than to suffice they are historic and are likely temporal with the other historic items. This first guns to be traded into the Ohio valley region were during the fur trade that began in the late sixteenth century. According to (Shumway 1985:11) various forms of flintlocks were quite common among Indian groups that occupied frontier regions in Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia and perhaps New York at the time of the French and Indian War.

Squarish section of brass with drill holes-possibly associated with a flintlock

Kaolin pipe fragments

Kaolin Pipe Fragments: Seven fragments of a Kaolin pipe have been recovered. Five of the fragments were pipe stem components while two fragments were of the bowl. The bowl of the pipe exhibits a heel a/k/a spur. No maker marks are visible on the pipe that could potentially aid in the dating of such a piece although likely manufactured in Europe. Pipes of this nature Kent (1984) are commonly found on sites dating to the 17th and 18 th centuries in eastern Pennsylvania and have been reported by Zakucia (1960) from Kuskuskies (36LR11) in Lawrence County, PA. As stated above Dr. Stanley Lantz has suggested a possible late 17th century date for the pipe.

Historic pipe with T.D. makers mark

English T.D. Pipe: Four fragments including a large portion of the bowl and various portions of the stem were recovered from a clay pipe. On the back of the bowl (stem side) were the initials T.D. At the base of the bowl was a spur. The bowl diameter measures around 1 inch in size. One measurement taken of the bore of the pipe stem was 2.4 mm. Only a small portion of the stem has been recovered and this segment measures 71.6mm. T.D. makers marks are attributed to Thomas Dormer (1748-70) or Thomas Dormer & Son (1754-1756) of London (Oswald 1975: 67-68, 135). Mr. Dormer was the only individual with T.D. initials that exported his pipes to America and the West Indies (see Oswald (1975, Apendix C, page 135). T.D. pipes however are somwhat problematic. According to Omwake (1959), in his study of pipes from the Oscar Leibhart site in the susquehanna valley, the T.D. pipe was not used in his study as it was apparently copied into the twentieth century.

Image of woman likely from a pendant or ring

Buttons: Two copper buttons were recovered. These were found in direct association with three gunflints and the hairpipe fragments. These buttons are flat and round with an eye molded to the center of the back. There appears to be a greenish metal alloy that has eroded from the surface of the button which is reddish in color. Buttons of this type fall into the Type 7 category detailed by the North Carolina Department of Archives and History from their chart entitled "Analysis of the Buttons From the Ruins at Brunswick Town and Fort Fisher, North Carolina 1726-1865". The buttons fit into the first half of the time period between 1726 and 1776 and correspond to time frame established by the other historic artifacts found at Indian Camp Run.

Button types found on site

Buckle fragments

Brass bead

Brass bead: One brass bead was recovered from Indian Camp Run. The example pictured above is nearly identicle to those pictured by (Wray et al. 1987: 49, 51, 59, 195) from the Adams and Culbertson sites and from the Tram and Cameron sites (Wray et al. 1991: 72, 246) all located in Livingston County, NY. These sites fall into the eastern and western Seneca site sequence between A.D. 1560-1600 (see Wray et al. 1991:4).

Time Periods-Upper Ohio Valley. Late Woodland (circa A.D. 1100 in calendar years to early contact with European settlers); Late Prehistoric Period circa A.D. 1150 to 1580/1590 in calendar years; Protohistoric Period A.D. 1580/1590 to circa A.D. 1635 (from Johnson and Myers 2004:90).

Many of the following terms, Late Woodland, Late Prehistoric, and Protohistoric are used by researchers to denote certain time periods for various locations throughout the Ohio River valley. Certain groups found in western Pennsylvania are closely related to groups living further downstream in the Ohio River valley necessitating the use of the differing chronologies when discussing these groups. Cultural diffusion spread into the upper Ohio drainage from the larger groups located down river. One downriver influence was the adoption of shell tempering into ceramic paste. Shell tempered pottery first appears in western Pennsylvania at around A.D. 1100 and typically denotes the so called Late Prehistoric period in the region. Shell tempering was likely borrowed from Fort Ancient groups.

In a chronology devised for New York, northern Ohio and northwestern Pennsylvania (see Johnson and Myers 2004) the Late Woodland begins around A.D. 1100 in calendar years and continues until the appearance of European trade goods.

The Middle Ohio River valley chronology is earlier, with Late Woodland beginning at around A.D. 550 and continuing to around A.D. 1150 in calendar years. The period of A.D. 1150-1580/1590 is the Late Prehistoric period. Following A.D. 1580/1590 the protohistoric period begins and lasts until around A.D. 1635 (Johnson and Myers 2004: 90).

The Late Woodland period is generally characterized by the use of small triangular projectiles used as arrowpoints and a wide variety of clay ceramic forms were is use. The settlement pattern consisted of small camps associated with large stockaded villages often surrounded by many acres of fields for the growing of corn and other cultigens. Located far away from the major villages were a number of related satellite sites including small stockades, open air basecamps, and rockshelters, which in many instances were located on or near trail systems that linked distant locations.

The Indian Camp Run site represents a major river valley campsite that was used by many groups over time. The site was positioned at a narrow and sometimes shallow point along the river at or near a likely trail crossing. In Historic times the site was situated near a river crossing known as Holeman's Ferry. In 1804 Eli Holeman established the ferry which at the time served to connect with the state road leading from Milesburg to Waterford (Childs, 1989: 38-39). Whether or not the river was crossed directly at the Indian Camp run site is open to speculation. The State road passes approximately 3/4 of a mile below the site at a steep location on the hill on the southern side of the bridge. Crossing at Indian Camp Run affords the traveller a fairly low and flat crossing from terrace to terrace without climbing any hills.

As it was throughout the ages, the site was used as an important basecamp during the Late Woodland period. Evidence points to a number of prehistoric houses being constructed on site. These were associated with a number of features including hearths, trash, and storage pits.

To date primary evidence points to two Late Woodland groups occupying Indian Camp Run although a third Late Woodland group is currently the focus of research. The two groups fall within a series of Phases representing various time periods, some coeval. The last prehistoric group to occupy the Indian Camp Run site and represented by Chautauqua Cordmarked pottery falls into Johnson's (1994a, 1999a) Glaciated Allegheny Plateau (GAP) tradition. This tradition is comprised of three phases including from earliest to latest, Mahoning phase (ca. A.D. 1100-1300); French Creek phase (ca. A.D. 1275/1300 to 1400); and the McFate Phase (circa. A.D. 1400 to 1575). Chautauqua Cordmarked pottery found at Indian Camp Run can likely be attributed to the so called French Creek phase.

Although well represented in upland rockshelters and many stockades found throughout the region no McFate phase ceramics have been recovered from the Indian Camp Run site. Ironically McFate Incised ceramics are not typically found on sites located on the valley floors of the major waterways such as the Allegheny River.

The most prolific group to occupy the site corresponds to Lantz's (1982) Mead Island culture. The Mead Island phase lasted from approximately A.D. 970-1300 which is somewhat coeval with the Mahoning phase described above. While there are clearly Iroquoian influences on Mead Island pottery, especially with regard to decoration on some vessels, no evidence of upriver Allegheny Valley Iroquois ceramics have been found at Indian Camp Run.

The Chautauqua Cordmarked Component

Chautauqua Cordmarked is a fairly distinctive shell tempered ceramic ware which has been found in some abundance at Indian Camp Run.

Chautauqua Cordmarked rims

According to Johnson (from Johnson and Myers 2004) toward the end of the Mahoning phase, approximately A.D. 1250-1275 in calendar years, igneous rock as a tempering agent in Mahoning ware was gradually supplanted by pulverized mussel shell. This new shell tempered ware is essentially the Chautauqua Cordmarked type. The Chautauqua ware found at Indian Camp Run likely falls into Johnson's (from Johnson and Myers 2004) French Creek phase. One C14 date associated with Chautauqua Cordmarked pottery was obtained from Indian Camp Run (36FO65). Carbon was gathered from Feature 22 which contained a nearly entire shell tempered Chautauqua Cordmarked vessel. A review of the date is presented in this section (see also Radiometric Dating). Dates associated with the particular assay are as follows: The conventional (un-calibrated ) radiocarbon age was dated at 500+/-50 years B.P. (Before Present); the 2 sigma calibrated results were A.D. 1325 to 1345 (Cal BP 625 to 605) and A.D. 1395 to 1460 (Cal BP 555 to 490; the 1 Sigma calibrated result was A.D. 1410 to 1440 (Cal BP 540 to 510); and the intercept of radiocarbon age with a calibration curve was A.D. 1425 (Cal BP 525). Within those ranges the feature and ceramics can be attributed to the French Creek phase.

Chautauqua Cordmarked is one of the most prevalent ceramic types found on the Allegheny Plateau. According to Johnson (1999), the distribution of Chautauqua Cordmarked ceramics is centered on the glaciated portion of the Allegheny Plateau in northwestern Pennsylvania and adjacent southwestern New York. The ceramic type is commonly found throughout the Allegheny River, Clarion River and Tionesta Creek basins and has been identified by the author from numerous rock shelters in the Allegheny National Forest, from the Dutch Hill Rockshelter (36JE132)(Myers 2001),several upland open air campsites, and stockades, such as the McKinley Earthwork (36EL17) (Smith and Herbstritt 1976: 29).

Chautauqua Cordmarked ceramics are associated with moderate sized villages in the French Creek Valley including Wilson-Shutes (36CW5) and from three at the McFate site (36CW1) and a number of smaller hamlets, farmsteads, or specialized extraction camps in the Shenango River drainage and Pymatuning Marsh area (see Johnson from Johnson and Myers 2004). Shell tempered Chautauqua ceramics also appear on proto-Iroquoian sites in the upper Allegheny River Valley, along the Lake Erie Plain from Conneaut Creek in Ashtabula County, Ohio, to Cattaraugus Creek in Erie County, New York. (see Brose et al 1978; Dragoo 1966, 1976, 1977). Johnson (from Johnson and Myers 2004) has also noted that Chautauqua ware has been located as far north as the Portageville site in the Genesee Valley of western New York (Barber 1965, Johnson 1975, MacNeish 1952) and from the Whittlesey tradition Lyman (33LA2) site on the lower Grand River in Lake County, Ohio (Murphy 1971).

At least three features were excavated at Indian Camp Run that contained only Chautauqua ware. One appeared as a small circular stain known as Feature 11. When excavated it was found to be a rock lined feature which had originally been covered with a rock lid. The rock used as the lid had fallen in on top of a good sized sample of Chautauqua Cordmarked pottery. This feature was likely used as a storage container. Another feature was a large hearth known as Feature 22 from which the carbon 14 date described above was run. As stated this feature contained large quantities of shell tempered ceramics found around and in a hearth which was likely located inside some type of structure. Another feature associated with Chautauqua ware, possibly of the French Creek phase, was feature 48. In the photograph below you can see portions of feature 48 as it was being exposed. During the 2004 excavation this hearth feature was investigated and found to contain large quantities of shell tempered pottery similar to Chautauqua Cordmarked. Further excavation indicated that the hearth was surrounded by a number of post molds that formed the pattern of an oval shaped structure.

Feature 48 associated with Chautauqua Cordmarked ceramics

Feature 48-hearth with line of posts indicating possible house structure

Feature 48-excavated post mold features

Feature 48-hearth being cross sectioned

Measurements and statistics associated with the structure are as follows: The actual structure was oriented north northeasteast some 50 degrees and was located on the primary (T2) some 4 to 5 meters above the summer pool of the Allegheny River channel. The structure would have been small measuring 3 meters 40 cm (11.3 feet ) in length and 1meter 90 cm (6.3 feet) in width. A hearth was found to have been located in the far north end of the structure closest to the river. The hearth which was circular in shape measured some 1m in diameter and was found to contain quantities of carbonized nut hulls, possibly acorn. The structure appears to have been mostly open at the north end, perhaps in order to funnel smoke from the hearth upward and out of the structure. There appears to be enough room in the southern end to sleep two people comfortably if that was a function of the structure. It is suspected that the structure would have looked similar to the one depicted by Matlack (1986: 1) which was excavated during his investigation of the Bell site in Clearfield County, PA.

The black and white photo below shows the post holes after excavation. The site, located in a wooded setting, is often difficult to photograph due to intense summer sun and shadows created by the trees. The photo is however adequate enough to see the posts and the hearth associated with the prehistoric structure.

Feature 48 with structure showing posts excavated

Row of posts near Feature 48 looking southwest

The Mead Island Component (Circa A.D. 970-1300)

In terms of the amount of material culture recovered, Mead Island was the most important group to occupy the site. The Mead Island tradition was originally recognized and defined by Dr. Stanley Lantz and was initially known from six major sites recorded in Warren County including the type station on Mead Island.

Lantz (1989) has suggested that the heart of the Mead Island cultural sphere once included large portions of the central Allegheny River valley from Warren southward to below Tionesta and perhaps as far as Kittanning. The full extent of their territorial range is however still unknown.

Temporally the Mead Island folk date to the Late Woodland/Late Prehistoric period dating between circa. A.D. 970 and A.D. 1300 or A.D. 1025 to A.D. 1300 in calendar years (See: Lantz 2004: 1, 3). Seven of the nine dates run from the Penelec site fall within a calendar range of A.D. 1025 through A.D. 1300. Recently Lantz (2004) has suggested changes be made to the existing radiocarbon dates associated with Mead Island to reflece the above mentioned range (A.D. 970-1300). According to Lantz (2004) there have been recent challenges to the accuracy of the Gakushuin Laboratory dates (Blakeslee 1994).

Mead Island ceramics are fairly distinctive and occur in a number of type varieties. According to Lantz (1989) these ceramics share a number of affinities with Ft. Ancient Baum and Whittlesey Foci ceramics as well as with Monongahela and Iroquois type varieties. It is common for Mead Island ceramics to exhibit a thickened rim strip, add on collars, various types of lugs and castellations, and decoration applied with the edge of a cord wrapped paddle. Punctates and incising are also common. There is also a series of undecorated wares including collared pots. Grit tempered pottery is the most common however shell tempered pottery is commonly found. At Indian Camp run a small sample of both grit and shell mixed pottery is present. The examples of pottery shown in the photos presented below are most likely attributed to the Mead Island tradition.

The ceramics pictured in the photo below are the basal remains of a large grit tempered clay vessel attributed to the Mead Island complex of circa A.D. 970-1300. No rims were found with this particular base which is round. Both round and conical bases have been found in the largely Mead Island assemblage.

Base of ceramic (Mead Island) vessel under excavation

The following series of photos represent a small sample of the ceramic rims recovered from the site including examples of Mead Island pottery along with type varieties attributed to other traditions.

Incised, punctate, narrow collar vessel

Paddle edge impressed rim

Incised collar, punctate, incised vessel

Paddle edge impressed herringbone like motif

Incied vessel with criss-cross pattern

Ceramics with incised herringbone motif

Cordmarked shell tempered vessel. Note: Final "Z" twist cordage impressions

Grit tempered cordmarked vessels

Late Woodland cordmarked vessel

Cordmarked grit tempered vessels with collars

Incised rim vessel

Ceramics with horizontal lugs

Pottery with castellations

Pottery with vertical and semi-circular lugs

Paddle edge impressed ceramics

Paddle edge impressed rim

Ceramics with various forms of punctation on sublip of rim

Tool impressed ceramics

Cordmarked vessel with punctates on top lip region. Note: vessel is final "Z" twist cordage

Vessel with coil placed in sublip region and decorated by paddle edge impressions

Note: Design on this vessel similar to some Ft. Ancient vessels

Vessel similar to certain Clemson Island/Owasco like typologies

Plain vessel with flat, squarish lip, and everted rim

Vessel with coil for top lip section and double row of puncates on sublip. Incising has been etched below

Bowl like vessels with paddle edge stamping on exterior sublip

Vessel with cord impressed sublip

Vessel with narrow collar/rim strip with tool impressed incising

Neck sherds of incised vessel with punctates along base of neck

Incised neck sherds

Various punctates, zone incising and dentate impressed sherds

Narrow diameter neck sherd with incising and punctates

Globular basal section of ceramic vessel

Vessel with conical basal section

According to Lantz (1989) Mead Island settlement pattern is characterized by circular stockaded villages located in the river bottoms inside of which were constructed round houses averaging approximately 8m in diameter replete with rock covered storage pits. The round houses typically exhibited a centrally located hearth around which other activities occurred. Rectangular subterranean sweat lodges are another type of structure that occurs within the stockade.

Mead Island folk were not just confined to the river and stream valleys. According to Johnson (1979: 84) there distinctive ceramics can be found in at least a small number of rock shelter type sites found in the uplands. In Venango County there ceramics have been identified from the Boyer's Run rock shelter (36VE6).

Mead Island projectile types include both Levanna and Madison like. The projectiles below exhibit very high quality manufacture typical of Mead Island knappers.

Late Woodland projectiles

Late Woodland projectiles

A comparison of the various Late Woodland projectiles found at the site was initiated. A total of 47 triangular projectiles were examined in order to make a general statement pertaining to the attributes of the Indian Camp run sample. Only whole projectiles (those not broken in any manner) were examined in this study. Although it may not be prudent to attempt to classify the triangles based on broad regional taxonomies, a number of the triangular projectiles in the sample did exhibit 'downriver' influences. With that said the largest type of triangles found in the sample (No = 22) have been classified as Madison like. There were also a number of Levanna (No = 11) like forms, some of which were serrated. A small number of projectiles (No =4) could be said to resemble classic Hamilton Incurvate triangles. Two specimens were identified as Eared Triangles and six others were placed into a small triangle category. Some of the finest examples of Levanna projectiles found at the site were broken and were not deemed suitable for research purposes. Some examples of Scarem like and Fort Ancient like projectiles were also present in the site sample but those forms were also broken and were not included in this report. The photo below contains some of the broken projectiles found to be similar to Scarem, Ft. Ancient, and Levanna among others

Late Woodland projectiles

A total of 22 projectiles were identified as Madison like. The average length was found to be 29.60 mm with a range of 20.55 to 36.55 mm. The average width at the base was found to be 17.69 mm with a range of 13.38 mm to 27.29 mm. The average thickness was 4.27 mm with a range of 2.70 mm to 6.24 mm.

11 projectiles similar to Levanna were examined. The average length was found to be 24.29 mm with a range of 19.80 mm to 29.55 mm. The average width at the base was found to be 21.86 mm with a range of 18.79 mm to 24.99 mm. The average thickness was 4.27 mm with a range of 3.59 mm to 5.15 mm.

6 projectiles were placed into a "small triangle" category. The average length was found to be 17.40 mm with a range of 14.45 mm to 21.21 mm. The average width at the base was found to be 14.19 mm with a range of 11.78 mm to 18.51 mm. The average thickness was 3.56 mm with a range of 2.17 mm to 4.71 mm.

4 projectiles were identified as Hamilton Incurvate projectiles. The average length was found to be 22.53 mm with a range of 19.12 mm to 25.10 mm. The average width at the base was found to be 17.59 mm with a range of 15.04 mm to 20 mm. The average thickness was 3.31 mm with a range of 2.87 mm to 3.71 mm.

2 projectiles identified as eared triangles were examined. The average length was found to be 27.44 mm with a range of 25 mm to 29.88 mm. The average width at the base was found to be 20.84 mm with a range of 19.84 mm to 21.83 mm. The average thickness was 4.20 mm with a range of 4.15 mm to 4.25 mm

According to (Justice 1987:227) dates on the Madison projectile, which is said to be a standard pointy type representing a myriad of Late Woodland and Mississippian cultural phase, range from around A.D. 800 into the Historic period. The Levanna form dates from as early as A.D. 700-900 and was used until around A.D. 1350 (Ritchie 1961: 31) when it was replaced by the Madison.

The other points identified in the sample are similar in form to the Monongahela Scarem projectile, Yadkin Eared and Fort Ancient. These forms are possibly copies made by Mead Island knappers who had become familiar with the styles during their journeys and influences from downriver. It is also likely that the mental templates used to create these projectiles had become lodged in their collective unconscious from the not too distant past when they actually lived further downriver in the Ohio drainage. The Hamilton Incurvate types date from around A.D. 500 to A.D. 1000 (Kneberg 1956:24). The "eared" triangle forms are similar in morphology to the Yadkin Eared triangle (we are not implying a North Carolina origin for the points) however the dates are most likely much later in time than accepted dates for Yadkin and likely coeval with the Mead Island occupation of the site circa A.D. 970-1350. The Fort Ancient like projectiles found in the sample are similar to those described as the principal point type of the Fuert Phase of the Fort Ancient tradition in Ohio (Griffin 1943: 70-91). According to (Justice 1987:227) Fort Ancient began around A.D. 1100 to 1200 (McKenzie 1975:76) after which the Fort Ancient point type would predominate by A.D. 1450 (Johnson 1982). The long slender Scarem like projectiles are said to a minority point type of the Monongahela culture (Fogelman 1988:202).

The makers of the Chautauqua Cordmarked pottery typically manufactured Madison like projectiles which are usually small and poorly made when compared to Mead Island points

Middle Woodland

The Middle Woodland period ranges from circa. 100 B.C. to 1000 A.D. (After Fryman 1982: Table 1). This period is characterized by numerous burial mounds and associated grave offerings many of which are synonymous with the Hopewell Interaction Sphere. This period also marked by the invention of the bow and arrow

Middle Woodland Raccoon Notched and Chesser Notched

Some of the common Middle Woodland projectile types found in the region include Snyders, Gibsons, and expanding base points such as Steubens, Chessers, Jack's Reef/Raccoon Notched. Toward the end of the period triangles such as Levanna and Waterford became common. Many projectiles were manufactured from high quality flints.

Middle Woodland pottery found in portions of northwestern Pennsylvania is generally termed Mahoning ware (Mayer-Oakes 1955). Mahoning Ware, manufactured by Intrusive Mound peoples, is said to be similar to the Jack's Reef Corded Collar type (Johnson and Myers 2004). Examples of Mahoning Ware have been found at both Indian Camp Run No. 1 (36Fo65) and Indian Camp Run No. 2 (36Fo66). Although somewhat rare, ocassional examples of rocker stamped pottery (Wray 1952) simialar to Central Illinois Valley Hopewell ceramics have been reported in the Allegheny river valley (Lantz 1982:50). There are numerous Middle Woodland mounds found in the Allegheny River valley. Areas such as Buckaloons and the upper Allegheny River valley near the Pennsylvania/New York border appear to have been large regional centers. There were at least seven mounds (probably more like nine) known to have existed at Irvine (Carpenter 1971:267) and many important mounds such as Sugar Run in the upper Allegheny region. And, while these groups were extensively utilizing floodplain locals for their villages and ceremonial centers they were extensively utilizing rockshelters in the surrounding hills and adjacent watercourses including such areas as the Allegheny National Forest (Lantz 1982).

There appears to have been more than one Middle Woodland group occupying the region (Johnson et al. 1979:76; Lantz 1982:46) one possibly evolving from an Early woodland base and the other group a possible intrusion of Hopewell people from Ohio. The first localized group built stone mounds, manufactured limestone tempered ceramic vessels and placed very little high church grave offerings in their burials (Johnson et al. 1979: 76). The second group manufactured earthen mounds, grit tempered pottery with fabric impressions and utilized an abundance of exotic Hopewellian material (Johnson et al. 1979: 76). All of the Middle Woodland sites exhibiting Hopewellian material are associated with mounds including Cold Spring, Sugar Run and Buckaloons (Lantz 1982:51). This second group was also responsible for constructing many of the local mounds that have been assigned to Ritchie's (1965) Squawkie Hill phase which was based on a single date of A.D. 160 +/- 100 years. Ritchie (1994:216-217) included the following mounds into Squawkie Hill: In western New York, the Squawkie Hill and Geneseo mounds (Ritchie 1938a; 1944: 202-207) and the Wheatland, Killbuck and Vandalia mounds (Carpenter 1950:307; 1950a) in western Pennsylvania, the Sugar Run mounds (Bliss 1942), Irvine, Cornplanter and Corydon mounds (Thomas 1894: 499-502; Carpenter 1956), the Nelson mound (Carpenter and Schoff 1951) and the Danner mound (Clark, Lantz and Robinson 1960).

Dates associated with some of the early Middle Woodland sites from the region include the following: a date of A.D. 35 was obtained from the Byler Mound (33TR5) (Zakucia 1974) which according to (Johnson et al. 1979: 75) is the only acceptable carbon 14 date available for mounds in that portion of the Glaciated Allegheny Plateau. Mound 3 at Buckaloons was dated by (Lantz 1982:49) to A.D. 400. The Middle Woodland occupation of the Reider site was dated between A.D. 420 to A.D. 590 (Lantz 1982: 47). Recent dates obtained by (McConaughy and Johnson 2003:109) for the Sugar Run Mound include 1700 B.P. +/-70 or A.D. 250 uncorrected and calibrated to A.D. 380.

While the Hopewell influence of the upper Ohio valley was extensive (Mayer-Oakes 1955: 216; Ritchie 1965: 228), at some time around A.D. 500 the occupations were either terminated or culturally altered (Dragoo 1963: 293). Lantz (1989) has suggested at around A.D. 500 the local Middle Woodland and Intrusive Hopewell cultures appear to have merged resulting in the Allegheny River Phase of A.D. 500-950 of which the distinctive Raccoon Notched point assemblage is diagnostic. Raccoon notched projectiles are found in association with triangular points such as Levanna. Some of the later occupations of the Irvine Mounds includes Mound 3 which according to (Lantz 1989) contained Middle Woodland material that is later than Hopewell and more closely related to Raccoon Notched assemblage including triangular points. Mound 5 contained triangular points (Lantz 1989:50). According to (Justice 1987:220) both Jack's Reef and Raccoon Notched projectiles attained popularity in the Late Point Peninsula culture Kipp Island Phase around A.D. 500 before being replaced by Levanna triangles in the Hunter's Home phase (Ritchie 1969a: 254, 233, Plate 81). Jack's Reef points are said to be diagnostic of the Intrusive Mound Culture in Ohio (Mills 1922; Ritchie 1937). The Raccoon Notched projectile is very similar to Jack's Reef with the only difference being Raccoon Notched projectiles are side notched (Justice 1987:219).

To date very little information was gathered at Indian Camp Run No. 1 (36Fo65)that could be said to concern the Middle Woodland period. The early dates associated with Mead Island technically place that group into the late late Middle Woodland period but they will be addressed in the section detailing Late Woodland. A Middle Woodland Raccoon Notched projectile found in association with possible Mahoning ceramics was recovered from Indian Camp Run No. 2 (36FO66) located a few meters to the east of 36FO65. This projectile was found to have been manufactured from high grade Upper Mercer chert and was found above and within and earlier Early Woodland component replete with interior cordmarked pottery and a fireclay tube which was likely a pipe blank (see this website: Testing at Indian Camp Run No. 2 for details). The projectile was also found in association with some exotic lithics (Pennsylvania jasper) found in the Susquehanna drainage and not commonly found in the Allegheny River valley.

One projectile was recovered from Indian Camp Run No. 1 (36Fo65) that could be said to be Middle Woodland in age. The projectile appears to a Chesser Notched form. This point type appeared during the terminal Middle Woodland period at around 300 A.D. and attained popularity during the Late Woodland period (Prufer and Shane 1970:84). The projectile was said to fit between Middle Woodland Synders and Late Woodland Jacks Reef (Justice 1987: 214). Radiocarbon dates associted with this type from sites such as McGraw, Raven Rocks, and other sites in Ohio range as late as A.D. 500 to A.D. 700 (Shane 1975b; Prufer 1981:78). No Middle Woodland ceramics are known from the Indian Camp run sample.

Early Woodland point types

Early Woodland

The Early Woodland period in western Pennsylvania spans the years 1100-100 B.C. (After Fryman 1982: Table 1). This period is characterized by the appearance of the earliest clay ceramic containers, finely crafted stemmed and notched projectiles, burial mounds in some regions, and the increased dependency on cultivated foods. The period is typically referred to as Adena throughout the Ohio river valley as many Early Woodland sites exhibit examples of material culture related to the Adena culture including Indian Camp Run.

The major concentration of the Adena culture was located further south down the Ohio River. According to (Webb and Snow 1945:132) two major centers of Adena occupation were recognized one on the Scioto River in southern Ohio and another on the Kanawha River near Charleston, West Virginia. Lesser centers were said to have been located in Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio and West Virginia. Some of the best known mounds include the Grave Creek mound (Norona 1957), Beech Bottom (Bache and Satterthwaite 1930), Natrium (Solecki 1953), Half-Moon (Fetzer and Mayer-Oakes 1951) and Cresap (Dragoo 1963), Murad (McMichael and Mairs 1969), Willow Island (Hemmings 1978), and a host of other lesser known mounds.

While there are a number of recorded mounds in northwestern Pennsylvania these are usually attributed to the later Middle Woodland period. There are only a handful of Early Woodland mounds in the upper Allegheny valley. Mounds of Early Woodland age include, the Glacial Kame Mound (36WA17), Z2 (36WA140), Mound Site (36WA206), possibly the Nelse Run Mound (36MC29). The Willow Bay site (36WA305) found and recorded by the author while employed with the Forest Service was located while water levels dropped at the Allegheny Reservior. An Adena assemblage manufactured from Flint Ridge Ohio lithics was located in a tightly circumscribed area. Without further research it would be hard to say for certain whether this was a burial or other site type. According to (Dragoo 1971: 203) the number of earthen mounds of supposed Adena origin decreases as we approach Pittsburgh. No earthen mounds of definite Adena origin are known for the Allegheny Valley except in the immediate area of Pittsburgh with with the McKees Rocks mound representing the most eastern Adena structure of sizable proportion (Dragoo 1971).

At Indian Camp Run various items associated with the Early Woodland period include not only Adena, but items from other culture/traditions including Kramer, Meadowood and the Transitional/Early Woodland Forest Notched like projectiles. While not found at Indian Camp Run No. 1 (36FO65) Half Moon ceramics have been found at neighboring Indian Camp run No. 2 (36FO66). The mixed Early Woodland assemblage found at Indian Camp run No. 1 and No. 2 would lead one to believe that several Early Woodland groups were occupying the Allegheny River valley. The following is description of the Early Woodland components identified from the Indian Camp Run sample.

One classic Adena Stemmed "Beavertail" projectile and another yet unclassified stemmed (possibly Robbins like) Adena projectile were recovered from Indian Camp Run No. 1. Adena points are diagnostic of the Early Woodland period Adena Culture dating to around 800 to 300 B.C. (Hemmings 1978: 5, 38). Dragoo (1963: 294) has proposed that the date range for Adena in the Ohio valley was circa. 700 to 70 B.C. Adena Stemmed forms were found between Cresap types and later Robbins forms at the Cresap Mound (Dragoo 1963: 110-114). The main area of the Adena Culture is in the central Ohio River valley and major tributaries (Webb and Baby 1957; Dragoo 1976b: 1). In the region of Forest County, PA (Carpenter 1942) described an unclassified Early Woodland aspect related to the Adena-Middlesex complexes. Ritchie 1965 coined Middlesex as an Adena infusion of cultural traits into the Northeast (see Ritchie 1937, 1938, 1944).

Other Adena remains have been found at a number of sites throughout the region. According to (Dragoo and Lantz 1967) the bottom of a Half Moon cordmarked vessel and several Adena points of exotic flint were recovered from the Onoville Bridge (30CA5) site in Cattaraugus County, NY. Adena points were also recorded at the Onoville Store (30CA34) site and at Cold Spring (Lantz, 1971) in southwestern New York. Cresap type projectiles were recovered by John Zavinski of Warren, PA from a possible burial mound near Garland, PA (Lantz 1982: 45). According to (Johnson et al. 1979:72) a large number of Adena Stemmed points were identified in Crawford and Erie Counties, PA. particularly from collections around Pymatuning Marsh and the French Creek floodplain. Adena projectiles have been reported by (George and Bassinger 1975:16) from the Wadding Rockshelter located along the Mahoning Creek in Armstrong County, PA., and an Adena Robbins like projectile was recovered by (Herbstritt and Love 1975: 32) from the Split Rockshelter in the Clarion River drainage in Elk County, PA. Adena like projectiles were also recovered from the Boarts Site in Lawrence County, PA (Adovasio et al. 1974). Burkett (1999) has reported Adena like projectiles from the Fishbasket sites located along the Redbank Creek in Armstrong and Clarion Counties, PA. In Clearfield County, PA Matlack (1990) has reported a number of Adena projectiles from the West Branch of the Susquehanna River.

Another projectile was recovered that fits the classic description of Kramer Stemmed. The projectile type was originally contrived by (Munson 1966a; 1971: 6-7, 49, Fig.4) as Early Woodland in age and often associated with thick grit tempered pottery known as Marion Thick in the mid west. The Marion phase was a latter phase of the Red Ocher complex (Munson 1966a). Red Ocher material culture has been identified in the Allegheny River valley. Lantz (1966: 7-10) has described finding a cache of three turkey tail blades in a burial pit at Cornplanter Grant (36WA82). According to Dragoo (1963: 238) Turkey Tail points are associated with the Red Ocher culture and are thought to date to Early Woodland times. Dates associated with the Marion Phase typically average around 500 B.C. (Munson 1966b:117; 1982:3). The distribution of the Kramer type is generally confined to the lower Great Lakes Region of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin and into Missouri (Justice 1987), now Pennsylvania as well.

Four projectiles similar to Mayer-Oakes (1955) Forest Notched point were recovered. The Forest Notched projectile was first identified by Mayer-Oakes (1955: 58-61) while examining examples from the Siggins (36FO1) (type site) site located a few miles upriver from Indian Camp Run in Forest County, PA. The projectile type is thought to be genetically related to the Susquehanna Broad type (Johnson et al 1978:43; George 1998: 22) and has origins in the preceding Transitional Archaic period and was still manufactured into the Early Woodland period. Dates associated with Forest Notched projectiles include the following: Feature 3 excavated by Stanley Lantz from the Ohioview site (36BV9) produced a radiocarbon date of 2690 +/- 70 B.P. With a 2 sigma calibrated range of B.C. 980-780 and an intercept of the radiocarbon age with calibrated curve of 825 B.C. Another feature contained a likely Forest Notched point associated with Half Moon ware and a date 2740 +/- 120 B.P. A feature associated with two Ashtabula projectiles was dated to 1080 B.C. +/- 90 and 930 B.C. +/-90 that according to (George 1998:32) demonstrates the possibility that Forest Notched could be descended from the Susquehanna Broadspear. Justice (1987: 169) believes the Ashtabula, Converse and Forest Notched are all morphological correlates of the Susquehanna Broadspear.

Forest Notched projectiles

A number of Forest Notched projectiles have been recovered from rockshelters located within the Allegheny National Forest (Lantz 1982: 43). Forest Notched projectiles have been reported by Burkett from the Fishbasket villages in Armstrong and Clarion Counties. Forest Notched projectiles have been found in association with Turkey Tail points in the Red Ocher burial at Cornplanter Grant (Dragoo and Lantz 1967a). Johnson et al. (1979:70) report that Forest Notched projectiles were commonly found in the French Creek drainage.

Three Meadowood projectiles have been recovered to date at Indian Camp Run. Meadowood types as described by Ritchie (1961) are diagnostic of the Early Woodland Meadowood Phase which has been dated from 1300 B.C. to 500 B.C. (Ritchie and Funk 1973:116; Granger 1981:63). In the upper Susquehanna drainage they have been dated to as early as 1230 B.C. (Funk and Rippeteau 1977). Ritchie (1965: 180) has also obtained dates of 988 B.C. from Oberlander No. 2 and 841 B.C. from Hunter. At Morrow Cemetery they have been dated to 563 and 630 B.C. (Ritchie and Funk 1973).

Meadowood projectile in situ

Meadowood projectiles have been found throughout the lower Great Lakes and into the Northeast. They were a small percentage of the projectiles identified in (Johnson, Richardson and Bonhert's 1979) study of Northwestern Pennsylvania (21/1346= 01.6%). They have been recovered at the Wadding rockshelter (36AR21) in the Mahoning Creek drainage in Armstrong County (George and Bassinger 1975); at the Split Rockshelter (36EL4) (Herbstritt and Love 1975) and Middle School (36EL94) site (Myers n.d.) in the Clarion River drainage in Elk County. Lantz (1982) has noted Meadowood points in the upper Allegheny at Quaker Bridge (30CA6), Bone Run (30CA7), and Cold Spring (30CA10). They have been recovered from likely burials along the Conewango Creek near Akeley (Lantz, 1982) and at Buckaloons (Lantz, 1975) in Warren County. They have also been recovered from excavations at the Fishbasket sites on the Redbank Creek in Armstrong and Clarion Counties (Burkett, 1999). Matlack (1990) has noted Meadowood projectiles from a number of sites along the West Branch of the Susquehanna drainage.

Many sites associated with the aforementioned projectile types also exhibit some form of thick grit tempered ceramic. In the upper Ohio River valley Half Moon Cordmarked is the most common Early Woodland ceramic and has been found by the author at a number of sites in the Allegheny River, Clarion River and Redbank Creek drainages. No Half Moon cordmarked ceramics have been positively identified from Indian Camp Run (36Fo65) which is somewhat perplexing due to the preservation quality and large amount of ceramics recovered at the site. Interior cordmarked ceramics (Half Moon Cordmarked) however have been recovered a few meters away at the Indian Camp Run No. 2 (36FO66) site. These ceramics were found in association with a fireclay pipe blank (See: This website: Testing and Indian Camp Run No. 2 for details of the Early Woodland finds).

Archaic at Indian Camp Run

The Archaic period is characterized by the introduction of corner, side, and bifurcated projectile and knife forms. The Archaic age is typified as an era of hunting and gathering that occurred prior to the invention of the clay ceramic container.

While the earlier Paleoindian projectile/knife (PP/K) forms were typically large size lanceolate forms, with fluting or thinning of the haft region, the later Archaic projectiles exhibited forms of notching at the haft region which were used to affix the point to a shaft or handle. Why groups shifted from using lanceolate points to notched forms is unclear. This change in technology however was likely a response to changes in climate and subsequently changes in the faunal assemblage. As the Pleistocene ended a near modern faunal assemblage was in place including species such as deer and elk. Gone were the large species described as mega fauna including mammoths and mastodons.

The Archaic period has been subdivided as follows (after Fryman 1982: Table 2): Early Archaic (8500-6000B.C.), Middle Archaic (6000-4000 B.C.) and Late Archaic/Transitional (4000-1100 B.C.). Different researchers follow slightly different versions of this chronology but the author prefers Fryman’s positioning of the cultural periods for western Pennsylvania.

Late Archaic/Terminal Archaic (4000 to 1100 B.C.)

The Late Archaic and Terminal Archaic period were the last of the Archaic periods following the Early and Middle Archaic periods and preceding the Early Woodland period.

In the Terminal Archaic period groups began to experiment with early stone containers which would eventually lead to the development and use of clay containers. In western Pennsylvania apparent long range trade networks were in place, this observation based on a variety of "exotic" lithic materials,denoting the Terminal Archaic assemblage at the site.

Late Archaic/Terminal projectile forms identified from Indian Camp Run include the following: Lamoka, Brewerton Corner and Side Notched, Steubenville, Genesee and Susquehanna Broadspear.

Transitional a/k/a Terminal Archaic points/tools

One of the larger cultural components identified at Indian Camp Run dates to the Terminal Archaic period and includes Susquehanna Broadspear projectiles and soapstone ceramic fragments. Susquehanna Broadpoints are said to date from circa. 1700 to 700 B.C. (see Justice 1987: 169). This time frame includes portions of the Terminal Archaic and Early Woodland periods. Susquehanna Broad projectiles are diagnostic of Ritchie’s (1961) Frost Island phase and have been radiocarbon dated from 1670 B.C. +/- 110 to 1520 B.C. +/- 1520 in Massachusetts (Dincauze 1968: 72-77) and (Kinsey 1972: 354) obtained a date of 1650 B.C. from the Zimmerman site in the Delaware Valley. At Zawatski terrace located on the Allegheny River in western New York a date of 1180 B.C. was obtained by (Calkin and Miller, 1977: 311). The Forest Notched projectile, considered to be a correlate of the Ashtabula (Mayer-Oakes 1955:62), Converse (Prufer and Sofsky 1965:33-34 and Susquehanna Broad (Justice 1987: 169) is considered Early Woodland in age in the upper Ohio Valley and will be addressed below as an Early Woodland projectile.

While the Susquehanna Broadspear represents the only broadspear type found at Indian Camp Run other forms have been identified throughout western Pennsylvania including Ashtabula, Perkiomen, Koens Crispin/Snook Kill, and Lehigh Broad.

Lantz(1982) has noted that Late Archaic/Terminal Archaic groups were extensively occupying rockshelters within the Allegheny National Forest region of western Pennsylvania including sites in McKean and Warren Counties. One rockshelter in Forest County was said to produce Terminal Archaic material. While employed by the Forest Service the author located a Perkiomen projectile from the surface of a rockshelter in Warren County, PA and during a Rainbow Family gathering held on Queen Creek in Warren County fragments of a steatite bowl were uncovered (pers comm. John C. McLaughlin 1991). Both sites are located in the East Hickory Creek drainage a tributary of the Allegheny River.

Small assortment of steatite (soapstone) fragments

Broad spear points (Johnson et al. 1979: 66) have been reported from the flood plain of the upper Beaver drainage (Mayer-Oakes 1953, 1955; Prufer and Sofsky 1965; Adovasio et al. 1974) and in the middle and upper Allegheny by (Mayer-Oakes 1955, Dragoo and Lantz 1967a, 1969; Lantz 1967a, 1971; Herbstritt and Love 1975 and George and Bassinger 1975). A Lehigh Broad spearpoint (Myers n.d.) was recovered during excavations at the Dutch Hill Rockshelter (36JE132) located along the Clarion River in Jefferson County, PA. Burkett (1999) has reported various broaspear types from the Fishbasket sites located along the Redbank Creek in Armstrong and Clarion Counties, PA. Elsewhere, in Clearfield County (Matlack 1990), has reported Susquehanna Broadpoints, Perkiomen, Lehigh, Fishtail points and steatite as having been found at a number of sites in the Susquehanna drainage. Mayer-Oakes (1955: 62) pictured a number of Ashtabula projectiles from the Lavant site in Chautaqua County, New York.

The steatite fragments found at Indian Camp Run traveled a long way into the Allegheny River valley where the material does not occur naturally. In Pennsylvania massive metamorphic steatite (soapstone) is found in the eastern portion of the state in the Great Valley and Piedmont Sections of the Ridge and Valley and Piedmont Provinces respectively (Gordon 1959).

It is worth noting that examples of South Mountain rhyolite have been recovered from Indian Camp run including a large knife like cutting tool. This material was identified by Jack Holland of the Buffalo Museum of Science during the author's visit to the museum. At the Chambers Mound (36LR11) located in Lawrence County, Pennsylvania a dated Terminal Archaic component (1100 B.C. +/- 150) was found below the mound. More than half of the 15 artifacts recovered were manufactured from rhyolite (George (1971: 13). Interestingly all of the Susquehanna Broadspears found at Indian Camp Run were manufactured from Flint Ridge and Upper Mercer lithics. Apparently the Transitional Archaic was an era of increased trade and contact between groups. Soapstone and rhyolite was being brought into the Ohio Valley from the Susquehanna drainage in the east, while at the same time, high grade lithic material was apparently coming from the west to be made available to the groups occupying Indian Camp Run.

A number of Steubenville like projectiles have been recovered from the site. The Steubenville Stemmed and Lanceolate projectiles are included in the so-called Panhandle Archaic coined by Mayer-Oakes (1955b:36) and found at sites such as 46BR31 (East Steubenville), 46HK1 (New Cumberland Heights) and 46BR29 (Half Moon). Steubenville Stemmed and Lanceolate were found to be associated with the McKees Rocks Mound (36AL6) but are thought to have been brought in from a nearby site to be used as the mound fill (Mayer-Oakes 1955). A recently compiled table of dates for lanceolate point assemblages from the region (Lepper 2005:379) includes the following dates for various Steubenville types: 4220 +/-500 B.P. from the East Steubenville site (Crane and Griffin 1958; Dragoo 1959); 4120 +/-200 B.P. from the Globe Hill Shell Heap (Murphy 1977); 3970 +/- 85 years B.P. from Meadowcroft Rockshelter (Adovasio et al. 1988; Boldurian 1985:144); and from the Byler Mound 3115 +/-80 years B.P. (Zakucia 1956, 1974). Fox Creek like projectiles reported by Herbstritt and Love 1975: 34) may in fact be Steubenville typologies.

Steubenville like projectiles

It is worth noting that the projectiles identified as Steubenville Stemmed on occasion have been found very deeply buried at Indian Camp Run suggesting a much earlier appearance in the Ohio drainage than is currently thought. The Indian Camp Run examples are in no way related to any ceramic tradition.

Two Genesee like projectiles have been recovered from Indian Camp Run. Genesee points of the Frontenac Phase (Ritchie 1965) (see also Batten Kill Phase Robert Funk 1976) of the Terminal Archaic period and have been dated from 2980 B.C. +/- 260 (Arnold and Libby 1951: 114) to 1723 B.C. +/- 250 (Ritchie 1961:24, 1969a:108) in the Northeast. According to (Lantz 1982:41) Genesee points have been recovered from many sites above Warren, PA including Bone Run (30CA13), the Trailer Site (30CA23), and Quaker Bridge (30CA6). Large stemmed points were also recorded from the Siggins site (36FO1) in Forest County, PA although these may be ascribed to another cultural component. Genesee like projectiles have also been reported (Adovasio 1974: 43) from the Boarts site in Lawrence County, PA.

Genesee like projectiles

A small number of Brewerton Side and Corner Notched projectiles have been recovered at Indian Camp Run. Brewerton Corner Notched and Side Notched projectiles are characteristic of the Late Archaic Laurentian tradition Brewerton phase in New York and surrounding regions (Justice 1987:115) and typify the Late Archaic period in the upper Ohio valley from around circa. 3500 to 1700 B.C.

Some researchers (see Cowin 1991) denote the period from 8000 B.P. to 5000 B.P. as Middle Archaic in the upper Ohio Valley which would include early Brewerton projectiles.

Brewerton like projectiles

In Armstrong County at the Brown Towing Company site (36AR188) located along the banks of the Allegheny River near Kittanning, George and Davis (1986) have radiometrically dated a Brewerton component to 3330 B.C. +/- 170 years. Both Brewerton Side and Corner Notched types were recovered from similar strata at the Sheep Rockshelter in Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania (Bebrich 1968: 310, 326). According to Ritchie (1961) the Brewerton type is distributed throughout all of New York state. Dragoo (1959) noted the type was a dominate type found throughout the upper Ohio valley on sites attributed to the Laurentian. In Johnson, Richardson, and Bonhert’s (1979) regional study of northwestern Pennsylvania Brewerton types were easily the most common projectile type identified. Of the 1346 projectiles examined 355 or 26.37% were considered Brewerton. In the Clarion River valley, at the Split Rockshelter (36EL4) excavated by Herbstritt and Love (1975), Brewerton side notched projectiles were the most common projectile recovered accounting for (24/67) 35.82% of all projectile types. All of the Brewerton types combined accounted for (37/67) or 55.22% of all excavated projectiles. Dutch Hill (36JE132) rockshelter located along the main stem of the Clarion River in northern Jefferson County, PA has also produced both Brewerton Corner and Side Notched projectiles (Myers n.d.). Brewerton projectiles were recovered by Burkett (2000) from both Fishbasket and Fishbasket North sites in Armstrong and Clarion Counties, PA. Brewerton Side Notched projectiles were recovered by (George and Bassinger 1975) from the Wadding Rockshelter in Armstrong County, PA and both Brewerton Side Notched and Corner Notched point were found at the Boarts site (Adovasio et al. 1974) in Lawrence County, PA.

Middle Archaic (6000 to 4000 B.C.)

Proposed Middle Archaic projectiles identified from the Indian Camp Run sample include the following: Stanly/Neville like, Big Sandy II/Otter Creek like and possibly MacCorkle. According to (Carr 1998: 77) in the Upper Ohio drainage, Middle Archaic sites are characterized by Stanly Stemmed, Big Sandy, Otter Creek, and Brewerton Side Notched types with heavy basal and notched grinding.

The Stanly/Neville like projectiles found at Indian Camp Run both exhibit strait bases. Justice (1987: 99) considers Stanly and Neville to be regional variants and are considered to be morphological correlates. These types have been dated to around 6000 B.C. (Broyles 1969:35) to around 5000 B.C. (Coe 1964: 35-36). Dincauze (1976: 26-29) obtained dates for the Neville type ranging from circa. 5800-5000 B.C. at the Neville site in New Hampshire. Similar to the Stanly/Neville typology both the Otter Creek and Big Sandy II types may be regional morphological correlates. Justice (1987: 68-69) equates the Otter Creek with the Big Sandy II and others. Dates for the Otter Creek/Big Sandy II include the following: In New York at the Sylvan Lake Rockshelter dates as early as 4610 B.C. have been obtained for Otter Creek (Funk 1976); a date of 4340 B.C. was obtained at the Shafer site in the Schoharie Valley (Wellman and Hartgen 1975). There is also evidence from the Modoc Rockshelter in Illinois that the type or a related type may have Early Archaic origins with dates as early as 8000 B.C. (Fowler 1959a:19).

According to Lantz (1982: 39) Middle Archaic Big Sandy, Otter Creek and a sundry of other varieties are numerous in the upper Allegheny Region of western New York and northwestern Pennsylvania (from Dragoo and Lantz 1969; Lantz 1971). Johnson et al 1979:62 has suggested that Big Sandy-Otter Creek like projectiles are numerous in the upper Beaver drainage and the Lake Erie Plain (see Mayer-Oakes 1953; Prufer and Sofsky 1965; Brose et al. 1978) but thin out near the Allegheny River. Otter Creek like projectiles were reported from the Boarts site (Adovasio et al 1974: 47) in Lawrence County, PA; from the Wadding Rockshelter (George and Bassinger 1975) located along the Mahoning Creek in Armstrong County, PA and from at the Split Rockshelter (Herbstritt and Love 1975) located in the Clarion River drainage of Elk County, PA.

Early Archaic (8500-6000 B.C.)

Various Early Archaic components have been recognized from western Pennsylvania and surrounding region including a small number from Indian Camp Run.

To date, Kirk, St. Charles, possible Charleston Corner Notched, and a possible MacCorkle bifurcate have been identified. It must be noted that recent research conducted by Carr (1998) places MacCorkle, St. Albans, and LeCroy bifurcates into the Early Middle Archaic period.

Kirk points have been dated to a period of 7500-6900 B.C. in the Tennessee River valley (Chapman 1976:9; 1977:166). At St. Albans the large variety of Kirk Coner Notched were found in the lower deposits and produced dates of 6900 B.C. =/-320 and 6850 B.C. =/- 320 (Broyles 1971:65). St. Charles projectiles are said to date from around 8000 to 6000 B.C. (Luchterhand 1970:12). They too were found at Ice House Bottoms in the lower Kirk levels which were dated to around 7500 B.C. (J.Chapman 1977: 51). Charleston Corner Notched projectiles were dated to around 7900 B.C. from a hearth at the St. Albans site (Broyles 1966: 18; 1971: 56). This type predates Kirk at both Ice House Bottom and St. Albans (Justice 1987: 79). Adovasio et al. (1998: 18) report finding eleven Early Archaic components, including among others, Kirk, St. Charles and Charleston like projectiles, during their study of the Cross Creek drainage in western Pennsylvania. A number of Early Archaic projectiles (Adovasio et al. 1974: 46-47) including a small Kirk Corner Notched variety(possibly Palmer)and St. Charles types have been reported from the Boarts site located on the Mahoning River in Lawrence County, PA.

One heavily re-sharpened bifurcate was recovered from Indian Camp Run. The projectile appears to be similar to the McCorkle Stemmed variety (Broyles 1966:23; 1971:71) pictured in the St. Albans site reports. These projectile types are said to be diagnostic of the Early Archaic period MacCorkle Phase (J. Chapman 1976:6) and date to between ca. 7000-6500 B.C (Broyles (1971:71). As stated above recent research by Carr (1998) suggests a possible Early Middle Archaic placement for the MacCorkle type. At St. Albans MacCorkle type projectiles were found below the St. Albans type and above Kirk Corner-Notched projectiles.

Early and Middle Archaic projectiles

According to Lantz(1982:37) some of the more common Early Archaic projectiles found in the Allegheny Valley include Dalton, Kirk, LeCroy and various other bifurcate types (see: Carr 1998 for alternative temporal designation). Kirk like projectiles have been found at the Boarts site (Adovasio et al 1974: 40) and at the Penelec (36WA152) site located near Warren, PA. Several Kirks were recorded by Mayer-Oakes from the Siggins site (36FO1) located near Tionesta in Forest County, PA.

LeCroy and similar bifurcates have been recovered from Warren County near Irvine and twelve bifurcated points are recorded from Siggins (36FO1) and Schwab Run sites (Lantz 1982:38). Bifurcates have also been found at the State Road Ripple site on the Clarion River in Clarion County, PA. Bifurcates have been found in rockshelters along Mix Run (36WA168) by Paul Yeagle of Warren, PA (Lantz 1982:38). Kirk, LeCroy, and MacCorkle like projectiles have been recovered by (Burkett 1999:28-30) from the Fishbasket (36AR134) site located along the Redbank Creek in Armstrong County, PA. Johnson, Richardson and Bonhert (1979) have also noted MacCorkle projectiles from the Pymatuning and French Creek areas of western Pennsylvania.

Test units under excavation early spring 2004 getting closer in depth to the first Paleo finds

Paleo-Indian (16,000-8500 BC)

Paleo-Indians are the earliest inhabitant to the North American continent. The period can be subdivided into a pre-Clovis (pre fluted point) period and a later Paleo-Indian period in which a number of fluted point types including Clovis were manufactured. The pre-Clovis period is still cloaked in controversy as few sites exist. This period begins as early as 16,000 B.C. and continues to around 9,000 B.C. while the later Paleo-Indian period begins around 9,000 B.C. and extends to around 8,500 B.C.

In recent years there has been some debate as to whether these individuals or their ancestors crossed the Bering Straight into North America from Asia or entered the continent by a number of other routes. Recent research regarding both modern and ancient DNA records supports the hypothesis that Asia was the homeland of the first Americans, not Europe, lending no support to the recently proposed "Solutrean hypothesis," (from Goebel et al. 2008:1497).

Sites of the pre-Clovis occupation are considered extremely rare with only a handful of accepted sites are found in the entire Western Hemisphere. These sites and site complexes include the Bluefish Cave Complex in the Yukon Territory, the Nenana Valley site complex in Alaska, Monte Verde in Chile, Cactus Hill in Virginia, and Meadowcroft Rock Shelter in Pennsylvania.

Perhaps the most thoroughly investigated of the sites is the Meadowcroft Rock Shelter located near Avella in Washington County, PA. Thirty-nine of the radiometric assays run from the Meadowcroft sample postdate 12,800 B.P (ca. 10,800 B.C.) (Adovasio 1993). And, if the earliest dates associated with cultural material are averaged, then humans were present in the Ohio drainage by ca. 15,950 B.P. (Adovasio 1993: 207). It is even possible (Adovasio and Carlisle 1986:7) that early man was visiting the rock shelter as early as 17,650 B.C., although the date has a large range of error, some 2,400 years. While there has been a great deal of controversy over the years, and the debates continue, the early dates at Meadowcroft cannot be ignored.

According to Adovasio (1993:209) “diagnostic tools from Meadowcroft rockshelter evidence a small, polyhedral core- and blade based industry of decidedly Eurasiatic, Upper Paleolithic flavor.” Also found at Meadowcroft was a small biface known as the Miller Lanceolate. The Miller Lanceolate is a possible Pre-Clovis point form. According to Adovasio (Adovasio and Carr 2002:8) this projectile was located on the uppermost living floor of Statum IIa of the rockshelter. The point was bracketed between 14c dates of 11,300 B.P. +/- 700 B.P. and 12,800 +/-870 B.P. This is the oldest point currently known in the state of Pennsylvania. According to Carr (2000:137) a tool kit consisting of micro-blades and bifaces would be expected as a transistion would take place from Old World blade technologies and New World biface technologies.

Later Paleoindians produced the distinctive lanceolate fluted point which occurs in a number of type varieties. Interestingly fluted points were not crafted in Asia including the region west of the Bering Straight where Paleoindians were said to originate. This point type appears to be a New World innovation. These points, including those found in western Pennsylvania, were often manufactured from high quality lithic materials likely gathered, perhaps traded, from distant regions. Paleoindians are often thought of as nomadic big game hunters that followed migrating game species such as caribou over great distances and rarely lived in one particular location for any length of time. They likely supplemented their diets with any and every available food source including small game, waterfowl, fish, and plants and berries.

Various Paleo tools including fluted point and knife forms

Various distal section, fluted medial sections, small lanceolate knife

The Paleoindian period is marked by changes in climate resulting in the abatement of continental glaciers from western Pennsylvania. As the region began to dry out and temperatures rise the environmental conditions also improved. Both the topography and the environment would begin to more closely resemble that of the present day. As conditions improved the peri-glacial zone which included a park and tundra environment that was later replaced with conifers, and a few deciduous species as the Late Pleistocene came to a close. According to Carbone (1974) in all areas of the unglaciated Eastern United States there is unquestionable palynological evidence for significant shifts in the vegetation which must have been responses to the shifting climatic patterns. Carbone (1974) has also noted that within a time span of approximately 2000 years a completely modern faunal assemblage was in place by ca. 9,340 +/-1000 years B.P.

The majority of the Paleoindian finds in the East and in the Great Lakes region follow a somewhat later chronology than the pre-Clovis sites. A suggested Paleo sequence has been proposed by Deller (1989), Deller and Ellis (1986) and Stork (1988) regarding the various fluted point traditions found there. This author tends to prefer a Great Lakes regional chronology for Indian Camp Run as numerous components excavated there exhibit a Great Lakes regional flavor. The chronology typically begins with Gainey (ca. 9000-8700 B.C.) now Shoop-Debert/Gainey which has also been termed Eastern Clovis) This is followed by the Parkhill Complex (ca.8600 B.C.) of which the Cumberland-Barnes type is diagnostic. The Parkhill Complex is synonymous with the Middle Paleo period as defined by Gardner and Verry (1979) and Anderson (1990) who defined the period based on the presence of fishtailed/waisted bases including Cumberland, Suwanee, and Simpson types to the South. Recently (Spiess, Wilson and Bradley 1998: 235) have defined a new phase for the New England-Maritimes region, the Michaud-Neponset phase, which is said to be closely related to the Parkhill phase of the eastern Great Lakes region and exhibits strong ties with the Mid-Atlantic region as well. The Paleochronology continues with Crowfield (ca. 8600-8400) and the later Holcombe Beach (ca. 8400 B.C.), Hi-Lo points (ca.8000 B.C.). An even later non-fluted Late Paleo period is somewhat problematic with disagreements occurring over whether to call diagnostic types of this time period Paleo or Archaic (Peterson 2002:127). The non-fluted point Late Paleoindian period began around 10000 to 8000 B.P. and possibly extended to ca. 7000 to 6000 B.P., a temporal assessment that was based on cross-dating with better known non fluted point types found in the Great Plains (Peterson 2002:123). Types such as the lanceolate parallel flaked Plano types and perhaps Stringtown Stemmed may possibly fit into this time period.

Research continues on the Paleo-Indian assemblage found at Indian Camp Run. While biface technology is a characteristic of the assemblage there were a number of tools manufactured on flake blades.

Fluted point moments after discovery

One whole fluted point was recovered from Indian Camp Run. A photo of the point along with the metrical statistics was sent to Dr. Christopher Ellis of the University of Western Ontario in London who stated that if "the projectile had been found in Ontario he would not hesitate to call it a Barnes" (Chris Ellis per com. 2005). Barnes projectile points are diagnostic of the Parkhill Complex in the Great Lakes region and are thought to date to around 10,800 to 10,500 B.P. (Ellis and Deller 2000: 253). No carbon dates have yet to be run for the type, the age has been established based on a relative chronology established based on fluctuations of glacial Lake Algonquin over time. Barnes projectiles are found sporadically throughout the Great Lakes region and were originally typed by Roosa (1965) at the type station in central Michigan (Wright and Roosa 1966). The Indian Camp run site is regionally close to the other Parkhill Complex sites found throughout Michigan and southern Ontario. Key sites associated with the Parkhill Complex include Parkhill, Fisher, and Thedford II in Ontario, and Barnes and Leavitt in Michigan.

Proposed Paleo age piercers and utilized flake

While the number of excavated sites producing Paleoindian artifacts found buried in situ is rare, there are a number of recorded fluted points that have been found in plowed fields and eroding from river banks in the Allegheny River valley. A sundry of point types have been recognized. Lantz (1984) has observed the presence of Clovis, Debert, Hi-Lo, Holcombe, Cumberland, Folsom, Agate Basin, and Hell Gap in his study of Paleoindian sites in western Pennsylvania. In Forest County a small number of fluted projectiles have been reported. Recently (Fogelman and Lantz 2006) have pictured two fluted points from Forest County including one found at Tionesta. They also note two sites with a Paleo presence including (36FO3) Squire Farm-County Home and (36FO9) Wheeler Farm, both located a few miles upriver from Indian Camp Run. In Venango County (Fogelman and Lantz 2006) have noted sites with a Paleo presence include (36VE57) Potter Village, (36VE124) Polk Farm, (36VE163) Spring Hill, (36VE229) Pinehill rockshelter and (36VE240) Rod Gold.

Steeply bevelled fluted Paleo knife being excavated

A number of Late Paleo and perhaps even Archaic projectiles of Paleo form have been observed. Lantz (1984:218) has noted to following Plano types: Angostura (from Johnson per co. 1984); Miller Lanceolate (now considered pre Clovis by some), McConnell Lanceolate, Stringtown Stemmed, Sawmille Stemmed (Adovasio et al 1982:259); Scottsbluff, Dalton, considered rare, and Golondrina. At Indian Camp Run a Late Paleo component may be present (see photo above) and represented by a possible Plano like knife and two Stringtown Stemmed knives/points. Both the Plano projectile and the Stringtown Stemmed points were located deep within the site stratigraphy.

Possible Late Paleo tools-Plano and Stringtown Stemmed

Possible Late Paleo tools from the Stringtown Site from (Prufer and Baby 1963)

Radiometric Dating

Three carbon samples have been submitted to Beta Analytic of Miami Florida for radiometric dating. All of the samples were found in undisturbed contexts deep within features identified as hearths.

As much carbon as possible was extracted from tightly circumscribed areas within these features in order to obtain the best radiometric results. All three samples were carefully extracted in the field and placed in to aluminum foil for temporary safe keeping. The samples were dried and cleaned with tweezers to remove small roots and soil and rock particles. In the laboratory at the Beta Analytic facilities in Miami the samples were pre-treated using a series of washes in order to remove all organic material that could potentially contaminate the sample. They were first crushed in deionized water. They were then washed in hot hydrochloric acid to eliminate carbonates and alkali washes to remove secondary organic acids. A final acid rinse was preformed to neutralize the solution prior to drying. The samples were designated as Beta-148394, Beta-168785, and Beta-239068, appointments, that will follow each sample through time. Due to the small size of Beta-168785 extended counting was preformed to ensure the accuracy of the date.

The first sample submitted (Beta-148394) for testing was gathered from a fire pit known as Feature 22 which was associated with a large quantity of shell tempered pottery identified as Chautauqua Cordmarked.

Carbon 14 dates associated with Chautauqua Cordmarked vessel in Feature 22

Excavation of Feature 22 Late Woodland hearth associated with shell tempered Chautauqua Cordmarked ceramics dated to circa. A.D. 1425

The material submitted for dating was charcoal (charred material) presumed to be the wood remains burned as fuel in the hearth feature. Dates of this particular assay are as follows: The conventional (un-calibrated ) radiocarbon age was dated at 500+/-50 years B.P. (Before Present); the 2 sigma calibrated results were A.D. 1325 to 1345 (Cal BP 625 to 605) and A.D. 1395 to 1460 (Cal BP 555 to 490; the 1 Sigma calibrated result was A.D. 1410 to 1440 (Cal BP 540 to 510); and the intercept of radiocarbon age with a calibration curve was A.D. 1425 (Cal BP 525). This is the accepted date for the feature used by this author.

This particular feature was found to be directly associated with a number of large shell tempered pottery sherds with a ceramic paste closely resembling Chautauqua Ware. All of the dates detailed above including the calibrated date of A.D. 1425 fit perfectly into the time period in which shell tempered pottery especially Chautauqua Ware was produced. Chautauqua ware is perhaps the most common Late Prehistoric ( ca. A.D.1200-1580) pottery found throughout the upper Ohio River drainage. It is a dominant type found in rock shelters located throughout the upland interior of the Clarion River, Tionesta Creek and upper Allegheny River drainage. Shell tempering makes its initial appearance in upper Ohio drainage at some time around A.D. 1150 (Johnson, et al 1979: 84) when it began to be adopted by those potters who had previously manufactured grit temper ceramic vessels. Shell tempered pottery would continue to be produced up until the time of the abandonment of the Allegheny Plateau at around A.D. 1620. Shell tempered pottery was thought to have diffused into local ceramic tradition via the Ft. Ancient and Monongahela cultures located further down stream along the Ohio River valley. The date of A.D. 1425 is considered by the author to be reliable and supported by the direct association with the shell tempered pot.

The second carbon sample was found in Feature 32 described as a hearth and found in direct association with a Mead Island Collared vessel. The material submitted for testing from this feature once again was charred carbon remains found deep within the feature. Preparations employed to gather the feature 22 sample were again employed for feature 32. This particular sample was assigned the laboratory number Beta-168785.

Carbon 14 date associated with Mead Island Collared vessel

Cordmarked low collared vessel found in Feature 32 14C dated to circa. A.D. 1020

Dates for this particular assay are as follows: The conventional (un-calibrated ) radiocarbon age was dated at 990+/-70 years B.P. (Before Present); the 2 sigma calibrated results were A.D. 900 to 1200 (Cal BP 1050 to 750); the 1 Sigma calibrated results were A.D. 990 to 1060 (Cal BP 960 to 890) and (Cal. A.D. 1080 to 1150, Cal B.P. 860 to 800); and the intercept of radiocarbon age with a calibration curve was A.D. 1020 (Cal BP 930). This is the accepted date for the feature used by this author. This date fits tightly into Lantz's (2004)uncalibrated radio carbon assays gathered from Mead Island culture sites including; the Penelec Site (36WA152) which has assays ranging from A.D. 840 +/- 45 to A.D. 1300 +/- 60; Rieder (36WA103) A.D. 1020 +/-70 to A.D. 1200 +/- 70 and the type site Mead Island A.D. 970 +/-75 to A.D. 1110 +/-60 (Lantz 2004). Mead Island groups occupied the middle Allegheny River valley between Warren southward to Kittaning between A.D. 850-1300 (Lantz 2004)before vanishing as a recognizable entity.

A third sample was obtained with help from a grant from the Pennsylvania Archaeological Council. A large amount of carbon found within Feature 48 was submitted to Beta Analytic for testing. This sample was assigned specimen #239068. This feature was a hearth found located inside either a small structure, possibly the remains of a subterranean turtle pit, contained large quantities of shell tempered (Chautauqua Cordmarked) pottery and carbonized nut hulls that have been identified as hickory nuts.

The conventional radiocarbon age dated to 550 +/-60 BP. The 2 Sigma calibrated results (95% probability) dated to: Cal AD 1290 to 1450 (Cal BP 660 to 500). The intercept of radiocarbon age with calibration curve dated to: Cal. AD 1410 (Cal BP 540). The 1 Sigma calibrated results (68% probability) dated to: Cal AD 1390 to 1430 (Cal BP 560 to 520).

This date corresponds nicely to the relative age of the diagnostic shell tempered Chautauaqua Cordmarked like ceramics found in the feature.

More radiocarbon assays will be run as funding becomes available.



A number of soil profiles have been mapped from various locations around the site during the past several years. The stratigraphy is generally the same with the exception that the thickness of the soil horizons varies from place to place around the terrace. Typically the deeper soil deposits are found closer to the riverside edge of the terrace while the shallower deposits are found closer to the base of the hillslope to the south of the site.

The soil layers found covering the terrace consists of a highly compacted shallow alluvium. These alluvial soils have been termed inceptisols by Dr. Frank Vento of Clarion University (personal communication August 2005). Inceptisols are described by the the U.S. Department of Agriculture as a soil order characterized by having one or more horizons in which mineral materials other than carbonates or amorphous silica have been altered or removed but not accumulated to a significant degree (American Geological Institute, Bates and Jackson editors 1984 edition).

Dr. Frank Vento of Clarion University taking notes on site stratigraphy

Some ten thousand years of soil building (possibly some erosion)and minor deposition is represented in approximately 1 meter of soil. These soils while shallow enough to reach without a herculean amount of excavation have limitations in that the soil horizons are not small enough to pinpoint any small event in time which would ideally be separated by individual stratigraphic units such as silts and sands or remnants of human activity such as midden. The A horizon soils are typically dark brown silty, slightly sandy, soils containing organic matter, that extend approximately 30 cm in depth (10 cm levels 1-3) and represent approximately 2500-3000 years of time depth. Early Woodland Meadowood like projectiles have been found near the interface of the A horizon and the subsoil. Immediately below the A horizon, the subsoil has been described as a C horizon consisting of silty sandy soils. According to (Waters 1992: 47) the C horizon is a subsurface mineral horizon, excluding hard bedrock, that is essentially unaltered or slightly altered parent material (sedimentary structures and textures are partly or totally preserved). This horizon may be unconsolidated or weakly consolidated and lack properties of O, A, E, of B horizons. The C horizon begins at about 30 cm BGS and extend downward to around 90 cm BGS at the deepest areas of the terrace. Just below these soils are the remnants of an old creek bed, most likely Indian Camp Run. Near the bottom of the C horizon the soil deposits exhibit a slight color change, a slight increase in chroma occurs. These soils are also generally stickier and more tightly formed than the soils found above. This horizon has been described as the AC horizon and these are the oldest soils found on the site where many of the proposed Paleo tools have been recovered. While this old AC horizon cannot pinpoint time in small cm increments this ?reddish? layer serves notice that the Paleo depths are approaching. The AC horizon ranged in depth from 10 cm level 5 to level 9 and is shallower and/or deeper depending on the location of the test area on the terrace.

The profile described below was mapped along the north south axis of Unit North 111 East 105 on August 12, 2005.

Typical profile Indian Camp Run No. 1

The uppermost strata was described as the A horizon and designated F3. This soil is described as a black (10YR2/1) slightly sandy silty loam. No differentiation was made between the uppermost organic layers (Oi, Oe and Oa) it was simply included into and as a part of the A horizon for the sake of this report. The A horizon likely consists of a plow zone or AP which seemed to affect the majority of the A horizon as the boundary between the A horizon and subsoil is irregular in places with zones of both strata being interposed. The A horizon typically extends some 30 cm below the ground surface. The layer below this is the C horizon and is described as a 10YR5/6 to 6/6 yellow brown soil with a silty slightly sandy composition which extends from ca 30 cm BGS to ca. 60 cm BGS. This layer has been designated the F4 horizon. Below this is the F5 horizon (AC horizon) which is an extension of the F4 and is the old compact soil from which the Paleo implements have been recovered. A slight chroma increase is visible in this layer and is the reasoning behind the separate designation. This soil is more compact and sticky in nature than the soils directly above. This soil appears to be a 7.5 YR4/6 strong brown silty, slightly sandy, slightly clayey composition that extends from around 46 cm BGS to around 76 cm BGS in this particular profile. These are the last of the cultural bearing soils. The F5 soils have been witnessed to extend as deep as the 9th 10 cm level in certain areas of the site. Below these soils occur a thick layer of creek gravel (designated F6) which has been interpreted as the old stream channel of Indian Camp Run. These gravels and sands do not contain any water sorted cobbles and were not likely deposited by the fast flowing Allegheny River. They continue down from approximately 60 cm to 1m 6 cm below ground surface. Excavation was continued below this level in certain areas to determine if in fact the creek gravels were culturally sterile. Just below the gravels a layer of sand was encountered (designated F7). This continued from around 1m 6 cm to around 1 meter 20 cm. Below this was another layer of creek gravel (designated F8). The depth of this layer is unknown.

Feature 27 prior to excavation

Feature 28 prior to excavation

Feature 29 prior to excavation

Feature 16 with surrounding posts, features

Post mold cross section on the edge of Feature 16

Feature 55 under excavation. Note fire cracked rock being exposed

Feature 56 under excavation

Feature 69-small hearth exposed near interface of A and C horizon soils

Feature 69 under excavation

Row of post molds

Post molds being cross sectioned

Shell tempered rim in situ

Paddle edge collard rim in situ

Various drill forms

Various knife forms

Some examples of scrapers

Grinding stone

Grinding stone

Nutting stone

Pipe forms


Stone tools types

Notched stones, net sinkers?

Bear Teeth


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