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Irish in the Civil War
Captain Clooney's Charge - The Irish Brigade attack the heavily entrenched Confederates
There is perhaps no other ethnic group so closely identified with the Civil War years and the immediate aftermath of the war as Irish Americans.Of those Irish who came over much later than the founding generations, fully' 150,000 of them joined the Union army. Unfortunately, statistics for the Confederacy are sketchy at best; still, one has but to listen to the Southern accent, and listen to the sorts of tunes Southern soldiers loved to sing, to realize that a great deal of the South was settled by Irish immigrants. But because the white population of the Confederate states was more native-born than immigrant during the Civil War years, there did not seem as much of a drive in the Southern army to recognize heritage in the names and uniforms of regiments as there was in the Union forces.
In the Federal army there was the fabled Meagher's Irish brigade, led by the flamboyant Thomas Meagher; they went into battle with an emerald green flag with a large golden harp in its center, celebrating their heritage even in the midst of death.
In the North, centers of Irish settlement were Boston and New York, both of which had sizeable Irish neighborhoods. There were major immigration periods in the 1830s, 1840s, and 1850s; the numbers steadily increased until, according to the 1860 census, well over one and a half million Americans claimed to have been born in Ireland. The majority of these lived in the North. There were periods of severe economic difficulties both before and after the war when the immigrant Irish were singled out for the distrust and hatred of their fellow Americans; "No Irish Need Apply" was a frequently seen placard sign above the doors of factories, shops, warehouses, and farms.
116th Irish Brigade
The Irish were chiefly distrusted because they were Catholic, and there was much opposition in the United States to the Church of Rome. The frustration this prejudice caused led indirectly to the boil-over of tempers in July 1863, when the first official draft was held; a mob of mostly immigrant laborers gathered at the site of the draft lottery, and as names were called and those not wealthy enough to purchase a substitute were required to join up, the mob's temper flared. The situation escalated into full-scale rioting; for three days, cities like New York and Boston were caught up in a rampage of looting, burning, and destruction. Many of the rioters were frustrated Irish laborers who could not get jobs, and their targets were draft officials, as well as free blacks living in the North, who seemed able to get jobs that the Irish were denied. it took the return of armed troops from the fighting at Gettysburg to bring the cities back to peace and quiet.
Such events did little to help the image of the Irish in America, until many years after the war. Despite their wartime heroics, many Irish veterans came home to find the same ugly bias they faced before going off to fight for the Union. Many of them chose to go into the post war army. Still others followed Thomas Meagher into Canada, where they joined up in an attempt to free Canada from British domination. Many simply chose to remain in the Eastern cities, hoping matters would improve as time went by. Eventually things did get better for the Irish, but it was many long years before ugly anti-Irish prejudice faded
Col. Michael Corcoran's 69th New York State Militia The Battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861
On December 2nd, 1862, after many months of hard fighting, the New York regiments turned in their ragged regimental flags. These were to be replaced by a new stand of Tiffany's colors that were donated by group of grateful native born New Yorkers. The presentation ceremony was to take place on December 13th, 1862, but on that day the brigade was instead ordered by General Ambrose Burnside into the battle of Fredericksburg, and the tragic assault on Marye's Heights. From these heights and from behind the protection of a sunken road, the rebels would pack their men four ranks deep, and pour a withering fire into the faces of their attackers. This was the first real battle for the One-sixteenth, and the deadliest and most futile action in which the Irish Brigade would take part.
The Irish Brigade, Marye's Heights, Fredericksburg, VA, Dec. 13th, 1862
The New York regiments went into battle that day without their green flags. In their stead, General Meagher and his staff gave a sprig of boxwood to every man to wear in his hat to identify them as members of the Irish Brigade. The 28th Massachusetts, the only regiment carrying a green flag that day, was placed in the center of the brigade as it made the assault. The rebels knew the Irish were coming, for they could see the Twenty-eighth's "green flag with the golden harp of old Ireland."
The results of the attack were devastating; the Irish Brigade that had gone into battle 1200 men strong, came out with only 263 standing between its five regiments. One company of the Eighty-eighth was reduced to only eight men and another could only muster one man. The men of the brigade felt that their incredible sacrifices were for naught, as one wounded officer bitterly recalled that "nothing of any good was obtained."
Irish Brigade photo
Their courage did not go unnoticed, however, and even the London Times, an unlikely advocate of the Irish, reported that "Never at Fontenoy, Albuera, or at Waterloo, was more undaunted courage displayed by the sons of Erin."
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